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Archibald Jacob

Archibald Hamilton Jacob was a politician in the colony of New South Wales. He served nearly thirty years in the lower and upper houses of the colonial government, as both elected and appointed representative, government minister and chairman of committees. Jacob was born in the Bengal Presidency of British India, he was the second surviving son of his wife Anne. Vickers Jacob reached the rank of captain in the Bengal Army of the East India Company became a merchant and landowner in the British colony of New South Wales. At the time of Archibald's birth, Captain Jacob had returned to India and was a jute planter and indigo merchant in Bengal. Archibald Jacob was orphaned in India at the age of seven by the untimely death of both his parents, his father died in Bengal in 1836 and was buried in Calcutta, his mother Anne died that same year in Hobart Town, Van Diemen's Land, while on her way back to Sydney with her younger children. Archibald and his younger brother Robert had been left behind in Calcutta, where they were boarders for a time at La Martiniere, a newly established Protestant private school, before sailing to England to be brought up and educated by his mother's relatives in Nottinghamshire and Cheshire.

In 1851 Archibald and Robert made their way to Australia to take up family land holdings established there by Vickers Jacob in the 1820s, during the early settlement of the Hunter Valley north of Sydney. In 1853, at Raymond Terrace in that neighborhood, he married Mary Snodgrass, daughter of prominent local landowner and politician Colonel Kenneth Snodgrass. Jacob was elected as the member for Lower Hunter in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly, represented that district from 7 March 1872 until 9 November 1880, he succeeded Ezekiel Baker as Secretary for Mines in the Robertson Ministry in November 1877, retiring with his colleagues the following month, following the election that year. He represented the Electoral district of Gloucester from 27 November 1880 until 23 November 1882. Jacob was nominated to the New South Wales Legislative Council on 9 October 1883, was Chairman of Committees of that body, he was a member of the Council until his death. Archibald Jacob died in Ashfield, Sydney on 28 May 1900.

He was survived by his wife Mary and five sons

1st Battalion, 320th Field Artillery Regiment

The 1st Battalion, 320th Field Artillery Regiment is the field artillery battalion assigned to the 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 101st Airborne Division. The battalion has been assigned to the 82nd Airborne Division, 11th Airborne Division and 101st Airborne Division; the battalion has participated in World War I, World War II, Operation Power Pack, Operation Urgent Fury, Operation Desert Storm, Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Inherent Resolve. The 1-320 FAR's beginnings can be traced back to America's entry into the First World War; as part of the nation's mobilization, 1-320th was constituted and activated in August 1917 as Battery A, 320th Field Artillery. As part of the original 82nd Division, A/320th FA played a key role at Lorraine, St. Mihiel, the Meuse Argonne region in France. Following the Armistice, the 320th FA demobilized, only to be reconstituted in June 1921 as part of the United States Organized Reserves. In August 1942, when the 82nd Infantry Division was converted to an airborne division, the 320th FA was reorganized and redesignated as the 320th Glider Field Artillery Battalion.

As part of the 82nd Airborne Division, the 320th GFAB fought in a number of hot spots. First, the 320th GFAB was part of the campaign in Sicily, acting in reserve; the unit first saw action at the Volturno River on the Italian mainland. The crucial Normandy invasion was the next stop for the 320th GFAB. Under difficult conditions, the unit helped make the invasion a success; as a result of the 320th's actions during Operation Overlord, the unit was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation. The 320th GFAB next fought in Operation Market Garden and the Battle of the Bulge when the Germans attempted their last-ditch offensive; the 320th GFAB fought and played a role in the final push through the Rhineland to defeat Germany. Upon the war's end the unit completed its duties in Europe as part of the post-war occupation in Berlin. After the war, the 320th GFAB went through a number of transitions, it was inactivated on 15 December 1948 and relieved from assignment to the 82nd Airborne Division on 14 December 1950.

On 1 August 1951 it was reorganized and redesignated as the 320th Airborne Field Artillery Battalion, activated at Fort Benning, Georgia. During the 1950s, the 320th FA served as the field artillery battalion of the separate 508th Airborne Regimental Combat Team; when the Army eliminated infantry regiments and battalions from division and organized under the Pentomic structure, the 320th Field Artillery was reorganized as a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regiment System. A/320th FA was assigned to the 11th Airborne Division in Germany. A/320th FA was inactivated on 1 July 1958 in Germany when the 11th Airborne was inactivated and replaced by the 24th Infantry Division. A/320th FA were redesignated on 15 November 1962 as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 1st Battalion, 320th Artillery, assigned to the 82d Airborne Division. 26 April 1965, President Johnson ordered paratroopers from the 82d Airborne Division. The 1-320 FAR was alerted on 28 April 1965 and ordered to move to the Dominican Republic by 1 May 1965 as part of Task Force Power Pack II, which contained two airborne infantry battalions of the 325th Airborne Infantry Regiment and other supporting elements totaling 2,276 men.

The remainder of the 325th AIR and 1-320 FAR were sent as part of Power Pack III a few days later. On 26 May 1965, US Forces began withdrawal from the Dominican Republic as Central and South American troops assumed peacekeeping duties. On the evening of 24 October 1983, the 2nd Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division, including the 1-320th FAR and other support units were formally alerted as the 82d Airborne Division's "Division Ready Brigade" to begin its 18-hour rapid deployment sequence to execute combat operations in support of Operation Urgent Fury on the Caribbean island of Grenada; the DRF 1 package was activated and paratroopers of 2d Brigade were "wheels up" from Pope Air Force Base within 17 hours of notice. Parts of the 1-320 FAR were sent to an intermediate staging base in Barbados to await the staging of the rest of the division to concentrate the projection of forces from a shorter distance. Once Rangers from 1st & 2nd Battalions had secured Point Salinas Airport during an airborne assault of the airport, the 82d Airborne elements cancelled their airborne assault and air-landed at Point Salinas.

Elements of Batteries B and C arrived on the island during the evening of 25 October 1983 without their guns and provided rear area security in the vicinity of the runway. Early on the morning of 26 October 1983, Battery B's guns began arriving, followed by most of C Battery's guns. Battery B began firing direct support missions that morning from the south side of Point Salinas airfield, bombarding the "Cuban Barracks" early that morning and firing the prep fire for the Ranger assault on the campus at Grand Anse and the rescue of the students held there. Once Battery C's guns arrived, the guns joined B Battery. Once the majority of C battery arrived, it was repositioned to the north side of the runway near the airport terminal. Battery B was moved to join Battery C the next day. From there, Batteries B & C fired the 30-minute prep fires for the assault by the Rangers on Calvigny Barracks; the Batteries were both lived north to the vicinity of the Golflands golf co

York Factory Express

The York Factory Express called "the Express" and the Columbia Express and the Communication, was a 19th-century fur brigade operated by the Hudson's Bay Company. 4,200 kilometres in length, it was the main overland connection between HBC headquarters at York Factory and the principal station of Columbia Department, Fort Vancouver. It was named "express" because it was not used only to transport furs and supplies but to move departmental reports and letters; the express brigade was known as the York Factory Express on its eastbound journey in the spring, as the Columbia Express or Autumn Express on its westbound journey in the fall. The same route was used in both cases. To expedite messages the express messengers would speed ahead of the main bodies carrying supplies and furs; the bulk of supplies and trade goods for the Columbia District were brought from Britain to Fort Vancouver every year by ship around South America, not overland via the York Factory Express route. Management at Fort Vancouver tried to maintain one year's extra supplies on hand in case a shipment might be lost at sea or attempting to cross the bar at the mouth of the Columbia River.

The furs acquired by trading and trapping during the previous year were sent back on the supply ships and sold in London in an annual fur sale. The York Factory Express evolved from an earlier route used by the North West Company. During the War of 1812 the NWC and their American competitors, the Pacific Fur Company, struggled commercially over the Columbia River basin. Established at the mouth of the Columbia was the principal station of the PFC, Fort Astoria, named after its principal financial patron, John Jacob Astor; the PFC was peaceably liquidated in 1813, with its stations and some of its employees joining the NWC. Renaming Fort Astoria to Fort George, the NWC developed an overland supply route from there to its headquarters at Fort William on Lake Superior. In the ensuing years, the NWC continued to expand its operations in the Pacific Northwest. Skirmishes with its major competitor, the Hudson's Bay Company, had flared into the Pemmican War; the end of the conflict in 1821 saw the NWC mandated by the British Government to merge into the HBC.

George Simpson, the Governor of Hudson's Bay Company, visited the Columbia District in 1824-25, journeying from York Factory. With the help of John Rowand, the Chief Factor at Fort Edmonton, George Simpson investigated a quicker route than used, following the Saskatchewan River and crossing the mountains at Athabasca Pass; this route was well known by many Northwesters, but after the merger they refused to share knowledge of it with the HBC. It wasn't until John Rowand beat George Simpson to Fort Assiniboine by nearly a month and Simpson threatened to shut down Fort Edmonton that Rowand let Simpson know about this route; this route was thereafter followed by the York Factory Express brigades. James Sinclair was appointed in 1841 by Duncan Finlayson to guide over twenty settler families from the Red River Colony to the Pacific Northwest. Upon arriving at Fort Vancouver, fourteen of them were relocated to Fort Nisqually, while the remaining seven families were sent to Fort Cowlitz. Despite this, arrangements with the Pugets Sound Agricultural Company, an HBC subsidiary, proved to be unsatisfactory for the settlers, who all moved to the Willamette Valley.

By 1825 there were two brigades, each setting out from opposite ends of the route, Fort Vancouver on the lower Columbia River and the other from York Factory on Hudson Bay. The annual ship from Britain arrived at York Factory the first week in August, with the express canoe leaving for Canada by the second week in August. York Factory would be in a turmoil unpacking and repacking trade goods and special orders to send out to Hudson Bay posts along the express route. Mail and furs from Red River, the Mackenzie and Columbia River Brigades needed to be loaded on the ship returning to Britain by the second or third week of September; each brigade consisted of about forty to seventy five men and two to five specially made boats and traveled at breakneck speed. Indians along the way were paid in trade goods to help them portage around falls and navigable rapids. An 1839 report cites the travel time as three months and ten days—almost 26 miles per day on average; these boats carried newly retiring personnel east.

They carried status reports, lists of furs collected through trading and trapping, orders for future supplies etc. from Chief Factor Dr. John McLoughlin, superintendent of Columbia Department operations, the other fort managers along the route; this continued until 1846. Lands south of the 49th parallel north were in this partition of the Pacific Northwest awarded to the United States; this placed several other important HBC stations within American territory. Columbia District headquarters was shifted to Fort Victoria on Vancouver Island. An inland boat, the York boat, was used to carry furs, trade goods along inland waterways in Rupert's Land east of the Rocky Mountains; the express brigades used these boats, although they did not carry bulk cargo. The boats were named after their destination: York Factory, headquarters of the HBC, may have been modeled after Orkney Islands fishing boats; the York boat was preferable to the canoes used by North West Company Voyageurs as a cargo carriers, because of its larger size, greater capacity, improved stability in rough water.

The boat's heavy wood construction gave it an advantage in travelling through rocks or ice. That advanta

Masjid Sultan

Masjid Sultan, or Sultan Mosque, is a mosque located at Muscat Street and North Bridge Road within the Kampong Glam precinct of the district of Rochor in Singapore. It was named after Sultan Hussain Shah. In 1975, it was designated a national monument; when Singapore was ceded to the British in 1819, Temenggong Abdul Rahman, the Temenggong of Johor, Sultan Hussain Shah of Johor, under whose jurisdiction Singapore fell, acquired small fortunes in exchange for their power. Sir Stamford Raffles granted the Temenggong and the Sultan an annual stipend and the use of Kampong Glam for their residence; the area around Kampong Glam was allocated for Malays and other Muslims. Hussain brought his family and a complete entourage from the Riau islands. Many of the Sultan's and Temenggong's followers came to Kampong Glam from the Riau Islands and Sumatra. Sultan Hussain decided to build a mosque befitting his status, he constructed a mosque next to his palace from 1824 to 1826 with funds solicited from the East India Company.

With a two-tiered pyramidal roof, it was of a typical design. The original building was replaced with a new mosque; the management of the mosque was headed by Alauddin Shah, the Sultan's grandson, until 1879, when he passed the torch in to five community leaders. In 1914, the lease was extended by the government for a further 999 years and a new board of trustees was appointed, with two representatives from each faction of the Muslim community. By the early 1900s, Singapore had become a centre for Islamic commerce and art. Sultan Mosque soon became too small for this burgeoning community. In 1924, the year of the mosque's centenary, the trustees approved a plan to erect a new mosque; the old mosque had by also fallen into a state of disrepair. Architect Denis Santry of Swan & Maclaren adopted a Saracenic style, incorporating minarets and balustrades; the mosque was completed after four years in 1928. The mosque was completed by two-third and was formally opened in 27 December 1929; the mosque was completed in 1932.

The Sultan Mosque has stayed unchanged since it was built, with only repairs carried out to the main hall in 1968 and an annex added in 1993. It was gazetted as a national monument on 8 March 1975; the mosque is managed by its own Board of Trustees and Management Board. The mosque is accessible from Bugis MRT station. Islam in Singapore List of mosques in Singapore Masjid Sultan Official Website Masjid Sultan Facebook Page Masjid Sultan Instagram Page GoogleMaps StreetView of Masjid Sultan. GoogleMaps PhotoSphere of Masjid Sultan prayer hall. National Heritage Board, Singapore's 100 Historic Places, Archipelago Press, ISBN 981-4068-23-3

Johanna Müller-Hermann

Johanna Müller-Hermann was an Austrian composer and pedagogue. She became a composer, she studied under Alexander von Zemlinsky and Josef Foerster, took over from Foerster as a theory and composition tutor at the New Vienna Conservatory in 1918. She was one of the foremost European female composers of orchestral and chamber music in her day. Despite her contemporary fame, not much has been written about her. According to Dr Carola Darwin, "The contribution of women to Vienna’s creative life at this period has been forgotten as the result of Nazi ideology, as well as the general destruction of the Second World War... Johanna Müller-Hermann’s works deserve a much wider hearing, not only because of their intrinsic quality, but because they were an integral part of the Vienna’s extraordinary creative flowering." Müller-Hermann wrote an oratorio, Lied der Erinnerung: In Memoriam, to a text by Walt Whitman, a symphonic fantasy on the Ibsen play Brand. Her Lied der Erinnerung: In Memoriam is a work of grand scale.

It employs a large orchestra, a chorus, solo voices. This piece follows the tradition of Arnold Schoenberg's Gurre-Lieder. Müller-Hermann may have been directly acquainted with Schoenberg, as suggested by a letter she wrote to him in 1911. Sieben Lieder, op. 1 Fünf Lieder, op. 2 Vier Lieder, op. 4 Zwei Frauenchöre mit Orchester, op. 10 Vier Lieder, op. 14, after J. P. Jacobsen for 1 voice with piano accompaniment. 1. Landschaft. 2. Sonnenuntergang. Den Lenz laß kommen. Polka. Drei Lieder, op. 19 Vier Lieder, op. 20 Deutscher Schwur für Männerchor und Orchester, op. 22 Herbstlieder, op. 28 Drei Lieder, op. 32. 1. Vorfrühling. Zwei Gesänge für eine Singstimme mit Orchester, op. 33. L. Trauminsel. 2. Liebeshymnus. Poet for both is Tona Hermann. Lied der Erinnerung, op. 30 Sonate d-Moll für Violine und Klavier, op. 5 Sonate für Violoncello und Klavier, op. 17 Baker's biographical dictionary of musicians. Müller-Hermann. In: Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1815–1950. Volume 6, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 1975, ISBN 3-7001-0128-7, S. 430.

Alfred Baumgartner: Propyläen Welt der Musik - Die Komponisten - Ein Lexikon in fünf Bänden. Propyläen Verlag, Berlin 1989, ISBN 3-549-07830-7, S.129, Volume 4. Elena Ostleitner: Müller-Hermann, Johanna, in: Brigitta Keintzel, Ilse Korotin: Wissenschafterinnen in und aus Österreich: Leben – Werk – Wirken. Vienna: Böhlau, 2002 ISBN 3-205-99467-1, S. 526f