The Pohang-class corvette is a class of general purpose corvettes operated by the Republic of Korea Navy. They have served in a coastal defense role during the late Cold post Cold War period. A total of 24 Pohang-class vessels were built, all constructed in South Korea. 18 vessels remain in service. At 21:21:57 of 26 March 2010, an explosion occurred for 1~2 seconds at the stern of ROKS Cheonan, causing a power stoppage and inflow of oil and seawater, the ship heeled 90 degrees to starboard quickly; when the crew went out to the deck, they found the stern submerged. At 22:40, the Navy and the Coast Guard rescued 58 sailors, including the captain, from the crew of 104; the ship sank around 01:00 on 27 March 2010. The bow floated 6.4 kilometres to the southeast from the explosion site submerged at 22:30 on 27 March 2010. On 20 May 2010, a South Korean-led investigation group announced that all evidence pointed to a North Korean torpedo being responsible for the sinking of Cheyohnan. Pohang patrol combat corvette.
Seoul the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. With surrounding Incheon metropolis and Gyeonggi province, Seoul forms the heart of the Seoul Capital Area. Seoul is ranked as the fourth largest metropolitan economy in the world and is larger than London and Paris. Strategically situated on the Han River, Seoul's history stretches back over two thousand years, when it was founded in 18 BCE by the people of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea; the city was designated the capital of Korea under the Joseon dynasty. Seoul is surrounded by a mountainous and hilly landscape, with Bukhan Mountain located on the northern edge of the city; as with its long history, the Seoul Capital Area contains five UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Changdeok Palace, Hwaseong Fortress, Jongmyo Shrine and the Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty. More Seoul has been a major site of modern architectural construction – major modern landmarks include the N Seoul Tower, the 63 Building, the Lotte World Tower, the Dongdaemun Design Plaza, Lotte World, Trade Tower, COEX, the IFC Seoul.
Seoul was named the 2010 World Design Capital. As the birthplace of K-pop and the Korean Wave, Seoul received over 10 million international visitors in 2014, making it the world's 9th most visited city and 4th largest earner in tourism. Today, Seoul is considered a leading and rising global city, resulting from the South Korean economic boom - referred to as the Miracle on the Han River - which transformed it into the world's 7th largest metropolitan economy with a GDP of US$635.4 billion in 2014 after Tokyo, New York City and Los Angeles. International visitors reach Seoul via AREX from the Incheon International Airport, notable for having been rated the best airport for nine consecutive years by the Airports Council International. In 2015, it was rated Asia's most livable city with the second highest quality of life globally by Arcadis, with the GDP per capita in Seoul being $39,786. Inhabitants of Seoul are faced with a high cost of living, for which the city was ranked 6th globally in 2017.
Seoul is an expensive real estate market, ranked 5th in the world for the price of apartments in the downtown center. With major technology hubs centered in Gangnam and Digital Media City, the Seoul Capital Area is home to the headquarters of 15 Fortune Global 500 companies, including Samsung, LG, Hyundai. Ranked sixth in the Global Power City Index and Global Financial Centres Index, the metropolis exerts a major influence in global affairs as one of the five leading hosts of global conferences. Seoul has hosted the 1986 Asian Games, 1988 Summer Olympics, 2002 FIFA World Cup, more the 2010 G-20 Seoul summit; the city has been known in the past by the names Wiryeseong, Hanseong, Keijō. During Japan's annexation of Korea, "Hanseong" was renamed "Keijō" by the Imperial authorities to prevent confusion with the hanja'漢', which refers to Han people or the Han dynasty and in Japanese is a term for "China", its current name originated from the Korean word meaning "capital city", believed to have descended from an ancient word, which referred to Gyeongju, the capital of Silla.
Ancient Gyeongju was known in documents by the Chinese-style name Geumseong, but it is unclear whether the native Korean-style name Seorabeol had the same meaning as Geumseong. Unlike most place names in Korea, "Seoul" has no corresponding hanja. On January 18, 2005, the Seoul government changed its official Chinese name from the historic Hancheng, still in common use, to Shou'er. Settlement of the Han River area, where present-day Seoul is located, began around 4000 BCE. Seoul is first recorded as the capital of Baekje in the northeastern Seoul area. There are several city walls remaining in the area. Pungnaptoseong, an earthen wall located southeast Seoul, is believed to have been at the main Wiryeseong site; as the Three Kingdoms competed for this strategic region, control passed from Baekje to Goguryeo in the 5th century, from Goguryeo to Silla in the 6th century. In the 11th century Goryeo, which succeeded Unified Silla, built a summer palace in Seoul, referred to as the "Southern Capital".
It was only from this period. When Joseon replaced Goryeo, the capital was moved to Seoul, where it remained until the fall of the dynasty; the Gyeongbok Palace, built in the 14th century, served as the royal residence until 1592. The other large palace, constructed in 1405, served as the main royal palace from 1611 to 1872. After Joseon changed her name to the Korean Empire in 1897, Hwangseong designated Seoul; the city was surrounded by a massive circular stone wall to provide its citizens security from wild animals and attacks. The city has grown beyond those walls and although the wall no longer stands, the gates remain near the downtown district of Seoul, including most notably Sungnyemun and Heunginjimun (commonly known as Dong
Baengnyeong Island is a 45.8-square-kilometre, 8.45-kilometre long and 12.56-kilometre wide island in Ongjin County, South Korea, located near the Northern Limit Line. The 1953 Korean Armistice Agreement which ended the Korean War specified that the five islands including Baengnyeong Island would remain under United Nations Command and South Korean control; this agreement was signed by the United Nations Command. Since it has served as a maritime demarcation between North and South Korea in the Yellow Sea, it has a population of 4,329. The meaning of its name is "white wing island", since the island resembles a flying ibis with its wings spread. Given its proximity to North Korea, it has served as a base for intelligence activity by South Korea.. Numerous North Korean defectors have boated here to escape economic and political conditions in their homeland. In the recent past there have been several naval skirmishes between the two countries in the area, Kim Jong-Un threatened on 11 March 2013 to wipe it out.
Natural monuments of South Korea #391–#393 are located on Baengnyeong Island. Baengnyeong Island is the westernmost point of South Korea. Travel time by boat to the island from Incheon is about four hours. Changsan Cape in Ryongyon, North Korea, can be seen from Baengnyeong on clear days; the area is rich in oceanic fauna and bird diversity. The Chinese egret, considered to be one of the fifty rarest birds in the world, can be found here; the area hosts a nature reserve for spotted seals, they can be observed on the rocks and beaches. Seals attract predators such as the great white shark into the area. Finless porpoisees in adjacent waters are curious and playful; the Incheon Coast Guard has been investigating illegal whaling targeting minke whales in the area. Owing to the geographical location, Christianity went through Baengnyeong Island ahead of other Korean regions. After the Gabo Reform, Kim Seong-jin was exiled to this island, the first church in Korea was established in 1896. There are ten churches on the island at the present time.
Two smaller islands nearby are the much smaller Socheong Island. During the Korean War, the USAF designated the airfield on Paengyong-do as K-53; the island was defended by the West Coast Island Defense Task Unit composed of men of the 2d Korean Marine Corps Regiment under the direction of US Marines. In April 1951 Paengyong-do was used as a staging base for a mission to recover wreckage of a downed Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 near the Chongchon River. On 17 April 1951 a USAF Sikorsky H-19 carried a US/South Korean team to the crash site and they photographed the wreck and removed the turbine blades, combustion chamber, exhaust pipe and horizontal stabilizer; the overloaded helicopter flew the team and samples back to Paengyong-do where they were transferred onto an SA-16 and flown south for evaluation. The USAF established a communications interception site on the island in mid-1951, used to intercept Chinese military communications. In December 1951 two Sikorsky H-5s of the USAF 3d Air Rescue Squadron were based on the island and would forward deploy daily to Chodo Airport to operate search and rescue missions before being permanently deployed to Chodo in January 1952.
The H-5s were replaced by the more capable Sikorsky H-19, two of which were based at Chodo and one on Paengyong-do. On 12 November 1952 several aircraft, believed to be Po-2s, bombed the base in a night attack causing minimal damage; the South Korean naval vessel ROKS Cheonan sank near the island on 26 March 2010. The 1,200 ton vessel broke in two pieces with nearly half the crew dying and a little more than half surviving. A multinational investigation concluded. Malcom and Martz, White Tigers: My Secret War in North Korea, Brassey's. 1996 Official site in English Official site 2nd official site "Baekryong, an Island Overlooking Jangsan Cape in North Korea"
1996 Gangneung submarine infiltration incident
The 1996 Gangneung submarine infiltration incident occurred on September 18, 1996, near the South Korean town of Gangneung. The incident was one of the more serious instances of North Korean espionage involving naval forces. In 1996 on September 15, a North Korean Sang-O-class submarine landed a three-person special operations reconnaissance team on the east coast of South Korea near Jeongdongjin, 20 kilometres south-east of Gangneung, Gangwon-do, their mission was to spy on the naval installations in the area and return. The submarine made a failed attempt to return the following day; the submarine, ran aground in the attempt, all efforts to try to make her free were in vain. The crew decided to destroy the sensitive equipment in the submarine and try to make it to the DMZ; the crew split up in several groups but one was soon spotted by a civilian who became suspicious and alerted the authorities, who mobilized. A 49-day-long manhunt ensued, from 18 September through 5 November, resulting in the capture or elimination of all the crew and members of the reconnaissance team, except one, believed to have made it back to North Korea.
Four civilians and 12 South Korean soldiers died. Of the 25 North Korean infiltrators, one was captured, 11 were killed by the other members for failure in responsibility of running aground of the submarine, 13 were killed in firefights with the South Korean army; some analysts suspected that the motivation behind the assassination of Choe Deok-geun, South Korean consul for the Russian Far East, was North Korean retaliation for the loss of their men. The infiltrators possessed among their arsenal, M16A1 rifles and mock South Korean-style military uniforms. Nestlé Crunch chocolate bars were recovered; some of the dead spies' corpses were displayed to the media. The submarine was towed to a naval base for investigation. One captured crewmember, the submarine's helmsman, Lee Kwang Soo, gave in after much interrogation and revealed much of the plans, he became an instructor in the South Korean navy. North Korea was at first reluctant to take responsibility, claiming that the submarine had suffered an engine failure and had drifted aground.
By 29 December, the North issued an official statement expressing "deep regret" over the submarine incident. In return, the South Korean government returned the cremated remains of the infiltrators to the North via Panmunjom on 30 December. September 18, 16:40 – 1 captured by local policemen September 18, 17:00 – 11 bodies of executed submarine crew members were found September 19, 10:00 – 3 killed by the South Korean army commandos September 19, 14:00 – 3 killed by the South Korean army special forces September 19, 16:00 – 1 killed by the South Korean army September 21, 20:00 – 1 killed by the South Korean army September 22, 06:00 – 1 killed by the South Korean army September 28, 06:30 – 1 killed by the South Korean army September 30, 16:00 – 1 killed by South Korean special forces November 5, 10:00 – 2 killed by South Korean special forces The Sang-O class submarine is on display at Tongil Park near Gangneung. 1998 Sokcho submarine incident Harry P. Dies, Jr.: North Korean Special Operations Forces: 1996 Kangnung submarine infiltration, Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin, Oct-Dec 2004.
Pictures and information regarding the display
The Yellow Sea is located between China and Korea. The name is given to the northern part of the East China Sea, a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean, it is located between the Korean Peninsula. Its name comes from the sand particles from Gobi Desert sand storms that turn the surface of the water golden yellow; the innermost bay of the Yellow Sea is called the Bohai Sea. Into it flow both the Yellow River and Hai He. Deposits of sand and silt from those rivers contribute to the sea colour; the northern extension of the Yellow Sea is called the Korea Bay. The Yellow Sea is one of four seas named after common colour terms — the others being the Black Sea, the Red Sea and the White Sea. Since 1 November 2018, the Yellow Sea has served as the location of "peace zones" between North and South Korea; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Yellow Sea as follows: The Yellow Sea is separated from the Sea of Japan by the boundary from the southern end of Haenam Peninsula in Jeollanamdo to Jeju Island and divided into the East China Sea by the boundary from the west end of Jeju Island to the Yangtze River estuary.
The Yellow Sea, excluding the Bohai, extends by about 960 km from north to south and about 700 km from east to west. Its depth is only 44 m on average, with a maximum of 152 m; the sea is a flooded section of continental shelf that formed after the last ice age as sea levels rose 120 m to their current levels. The depth increases from north to south; the sea bottom and shores are dominated by sand and silt brought by the rivers through the Bohai Sea and the Korea Bay. Those deposits, together with sand storms are responsible for the yellow water color and the sea name. Major islands of the sea include Anmado, Daebudo, Gageodo, Hauido, Hongdo, Jindo, Sido, Sindo, Wando and Yeonpyeongdo; the area has dry winters with strong northerly monsoons blowing from late November to March. Average January temperatures are − 3 °C in the south. Summers are warm with frequent typhoons between June and October. Air temperatures range between 10 and 28 °C; the average annual precipitation increases from about 500 mm in the north to 1,000 mm in the south.
Fog is frequent along the coasts in the upwelling cold-water areas. The sea has a warm cyclone current, it is a part of the Kuroshio Current, which diverges near the western part of Japan and flows northward into the Yellow Sea at the speed of below 0.8 km/h. Southward currents prevail near the sea coast in the winter monsoon period; the water temperature is close to freezing in the northern part in winter, so drift ice patches and continuous ice fields form and hinder navigation between November and March. The water temperature and salinity are homogeneous across the depth; the southern waters are warmer at 6–8 °C. In spring and summer, the upper layer is warmed up by the sun and diluted by the fresh water from rivers, while the deeper water remains cold and saline; this deep water stagnates and moves south. Commercial bottom-dwelling fishes are found around this mass of water at its southern part. Summer temperatures range between 22 and 28 °C; the average salinity is low, at 30‰ in the north to 33–34‰ in the south, dropping to 26‰ or lower near the river deltas.
In the southwest monsoon season the increased rainfall and runoff further reduce the salinity of the upper sea layer. Water transparency increases from about 10 meters in the north up to 45 meters in the south. Tides are semidiurnal, i.e. rise twice a day. Their amplitude varies between about 3 meters at the coast of China. Tides are higher at the Korean Peninsula ranging between 4 and 8 meters and reaching the maximum in spring; the tidal system rotates in a counterclockwise direction. The speed of the tidal current is less than 1.6 km/h in the middle of the sea, but may increase to more than 5.6 km/h near the coasts. The fastest tides reaching 20 km/h occur in the Myeongnyang Strait between the Jindo Island and the Korean Peninsula; the tide-related sea level variations result in a land pass 2.9 km long and 10–40 meters wide opening for an hour between Jindo and Modo islands. The event occurs about twice a year, in the middle of June, it had long been celebrated in a local festival called "Jindo Sea Parting Festival", but was unknown to the world until 1975, when the French ambassador Pierre Randi described the phenomenon in a French newspaper.
The sea is rich in seaweed, crustaceans, clams, in blue-green algae which bloom in summer and contribute to the water color. For example, the seaweed production in the area was as high as 1.5 million tonnes in 1979 for China alone. The abundance of all those species increases toward the south and indicates high sea productivity that accounts for the large fish production in the sea. Newer species of goby fish was discovered; the southern part of the Yellow Sea, including the entire west coast of Korea, contains a 10 km-wide belt of inte
Blockade of Wonsan
The Blockade of Wonsan, or the Siege of Wonsan, from February 16, 1951 to July 27, 1953, during the Korean War, was the longest naval blockade in modern history, lasting 861 days. UN naval forces from the United States kept the strategically important city of Wonsan from being used by the North Korean Navy; the blockade served to divert communist troops from the front line. North Korean resistance used artillery to oppose the American fleet, although this was ineffective, the city was damaged by UN naval aircraft and warships. Wonsan was a strategic point during the war, located on North Korea's southeastern coast with a large harbor, an airfield, a petroleum refinery, 75,000 people, as many as 80,000 troops, including several artillery batteries. After the Battle of Inchon, in which General Douglas MacArthur landed on the northwestern shores of the Korean peninsula, he ordered X Corps to make a landing at Wonsan where they would proceed west, link up with the Eighth Army and advance towards Pyongyang, the capital of North Korea.
North Korean naval forces had been well supplied by the Soviet Union and China with all sorts of sea mines and they were used as much as possible to defend Wonsan. Soviet military advisors were employed to create more effective mine fields. One of the first objectives of the operation was to begin plotting the locations of mines and destroy them; because of this, the use of minesweepers became a necessity and dozens would serve in the blockade. Operation Wonsan, or the Clearance of Wonsan, began on October 10 of 1950, ten days before the landing was scheduled to take place. Rear Admiral James H. Doyle commanded Task Force 90, a fleet of dozens of American warships which were used in the clearance. Two days on October 12, mines sank the sweepers USS Pledge and USS Pirate, killing twelve men and wounding dozens of others, all while under accurate fire from North Korean shore batteries; the United States Navy Pacific Fleet responded by starting the production of new minesweepers in the largest shipbuilding program since World War II.
Other vessels were damaged by mines and battery fire as well but the loss of the Pirate and Pledge proved to be the major engagement during the operation. Operation Tailboard was the codename for the United States Army landing at Wonsan, it was found to have been unnecessary. Preparations began over 800 miles away at Inchon where on October 15, thousands of marines and soldiers, 30,184 in total, embarked transports to participate in the landing; when they arrived off Wonsan on October 20, the clearance of the mine fields was still taking place so for five days X Corps and the 1st Marine Division were forced to remain on ship to wait for a clear path to the beaches. When it came time to land on October 25, the North Koreans had withdrawn and the British and South Koreans were securing the area; the landing was not needed and MacArthur was criticized for not using the X Corps in the pursuit of the retreating North Korean Army on the Inchon front. On October 19, the South Korean Army captured Pyongyang so instead of heading there the American army went north along the coast to occupy Hungnam and the Chosin Reservoir areas while the 3rd Infantry Division landed at Wonsan in November as reinforcements.
UN forces would not hold Wonsan for long: after the massive Chinese intervention in the war, Allied forces were ordered to evacuate Wonsan on December 9, 1950, taking 7,009 refugees, 3,384 military personnel, 1,146 vehicles and 10,013 tons of cargo in the process. General MacArthur's plan was to regroup in Japan before launching another offensive, while holding Pusan Perimeter; when the North Koreans and Chinese recaptured the city, defenses were rebuilt in a more formidable way, additional sea mines were deployed and new artillery batteries were erected. The blockade began on February 16, 1951 and would last 861 days until the armistice in July 1953. During nearly three years of blockading United States Navy ships and aircraft engaged shore batteries repeatedly. Several American vessels were damaged by land based artillery fire. UN Task Group 95.2 was assigned to the blockade and they first bombarded Wonsan on February 17, 1951, targeting everything used by the communists and causing heavy damage.
On February 19, the destroyer USS Ozbourn, under Commander Charles O. Akers, was fired on by shore batteries in the Wonsan area, she received two direct hits and several near misses and rescued a downed pilot from USS Valley Forge with a motor boat, while he was adrift in a mine field. The boat officer of the boat received a Bronze Star for the rescue. Ozbourn returned to San Diego in April 1951 for repairs and sailed back to North Korea. On February 24, the undefended island of Sindo-ri, in Wonsan Harbor, was captured by South Korean marines supported by two American destroyers and two frigates. Wonsan shore batteries dueled with UN warships on March 3, but there were no recorded hits; the battleship USS New Jersey participated in her first shore bombardment mission of the war on May 20, 1951. While patrolling off Wonsan, North Korean batteries opened fire and she was struck by one shell. Damaged, she sustained one man killed and two wounded, her only casualties during the war. Another shot was a near miss and passed over New Jersey from aft to port.
She responded by bombarding the enemy position until they were silenced. The type of warfare experienced at Wonsan would last throughout the war. Operation Fireball was the code name for a bombardment of the Wonsan area from May through September, it involved the cooperation of naval vessels and aircraft from the 5th Air Force which caused heavy damage to the North Koreans. On the night of May 21 and May 22, during the height
Borders are geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states, other subnational entities. Borders are established through agreements between political or social entities that control those areas; some borders—such as a state's internal administrative border, or inter-state borders within the Schengen Area—are open and unguarded. Other borders are or controlled, may be crossed only at designated border checkpoints and border zones may be controlled. Borders may foster the setting up of buffer zones. A difference has been established in academic scholarship between border and frontier, the latter denoting a state of mind rather than state boundaries. In the past, many borders were not defined lines. Special cases in modern times were the Saudi Arabian–Iraqi neutral zone from 1922 to 1981 and the Saudi–Kuwaiti neutral zone from 1922 until 1970. In modern times, marchlands have been replaced by defined and demarcated borders.
For the purposes of border control and seaports are classed as borders. Most countries have some form of border control to regulate or limit the movement of people and goods into and out of the country. Under international law, each country is permitted to legislate the conditions that have to be met in order to cross its borders, to prevent people from crossing its borders in violation of those laws; some borders require presentation of legal paperwork like passports and visas, or other identity documents, for persons to cross borders. To stay or work within a country's borders aliens may need special immigration documents or permits. Moving goods across a border requires the payment of excise tax collected by customs officials. Animals moving across borders may need to go into quarantine to prevent the spread of exotic infectious diseases. Most countries prohibit carrying endangered animals across their borders. Moving goods, animals, or people illegally across a border, without declaring them or seeking permission, or deliberately evading official inspection, constitutes smuggling.
Controls on car liability insurance validity and other formalities may take place. In places where smuggling and infiltration are a problem, many countries fortify borders with fences and barriers, institute formal border control procedures; these can extend inland, as in the United States where the U. S. Customs and Border Protection service has jurisdiction to operate up to 100 miles from any land or sea boundary. On the other hand, some borders are signposted; this is common in countries within the European Schengen Area and on rural sections of the Canada–United States border. Borders may be unmarked in remote or forested regions. Migration within territorial borders, outside of them, represented an old and established pattern of movement in African countries, in seeking work and food, to maintain ties with kin who had moved across the porous borders of their homelands; when the colonial frontiers were drawn, Western countries attempted to obtain a monopoly on the recruitment of labor in many African countries, which altered the practical and institutional context in which the old migration patterns had been followed, some might argue, are still followed today.
The frontiers were porous for the physical movement of migrants, people living in borderlands maintained transnational cultural and social networks. A border may have been: Agreed by the countries on both sides Imposed by the country on one side Imposed by third parties, e.g. an international conference Inherited from a former state, colonial power or aristocratic territory Inherited from a former internal border, such as within the former Soviet Union Never formally defined. In addition, a border may be a de facto military ceasefire line. Political borders are imposed on the world through human agency; that means that although a political border may follow a river or mountain range, such a feature does not automatically define the political border though it may be a major physical barrier to crossing. Political borders are classified by whether or not they follow conspicuous physical features on the earth. Natural borders are geographical features that present natural obstacles to communication and transport.
Existing political borders are a formalization of such historical, natural obstacles. Some geographical features that constitute natural borders are: Oceans: oceans create costly natural borders. Few countries span more than one continent. Only large and resource-rich states are able to sustain the costs of governance across oceans for longer periods of time. Rivers: some political borders have been formalized along natural borders formed by rivers; some examples are: the Niagara River, the Rio Grande, the Rhine, the Mekong. If a precise line is desired, it is drawn along the thalweg, the deepest line along the river. In the Hebrew Bible, Moses defined the middle of the river Arnon as the border between Moab and the Israelite tribes settling east of the Jordan; the United States Supreme Court ruled in 1910 that the boundary between the American states of Maryland and West Virginia is the south bank of the Potoma