The Plus 15 or +15 Skyway network in Calgary, Canada, is one of the world's most extensive pedestrian skywalk systems, with a total length of 18 kilometres and 62 bridges. The system is so named because the skywalks are 15 feet above street level; the system was conceived and designed by architect Harold Hanen, who worked for the Calgary Planning Department from 1966 to 1969. This development earned him the 1970 Vincent Massey Award for Merit in Urban Planning. Opening in 1970, the +15 network has expanded to include 59 enclosed bridges connecting dozens of downtown Calgary buildings; the central core of the system is a series of enclosed shopping centres, the city's flagship department stores. New developments were required to connect to the walkway system; when not physically able to connect to nearby buildings, developers contribute to the "Plus 15 Fund", managed by the city, used to finance other missing connections. The system has been identified with a decline in street life in the Downtown Commercial Core.
Street life is instead concentrated in neighbourhoods where there are no bridges. In 1998, the city began to re-evaluate the system. Part of the goal of these studies was reinvigorating decreased daytime street life on some downtown streets; the possibility of limiting expansion to encourage more pedestrian street traffic was raised. The system's bridges are integral to the buildings. City planning by-laws now confer tax credits to owners. Businesses and the general public make extensive use of the system's enhanced flow of human traffic; the Plus 15 is one of the central plot elements in the 2000 film Waydowntown, directed by Gary Burns. List of attractions and landmarks in Calgary Skyway Edmonton Pedway Underground City, Montreal PATH City of Calgary PDF Map +15 Map with iPhone app +15 Ninja - Directions, Meetups & Directory
First Canadian Place
First Canadian Place is a skyscraper in the Financial District of Toronto, Ontario, at the northwest corner of King and Bay streets, serves as the global operational headquarters of the Bank of Montreal. At 298 m, it is Canada's tallest skyscraper and the 15th tallest building in North America to structural top and 9th highest to the roof top, the 105th tallest in the world, it is the third tallest free-standing structure in Canada, after the CN Tower and the Inco Superstack chimney in Sudbury, Ontario. The building is owned by Brookfield Office Properties, putting it in co-ownership with the neighbouring Exchange Tower and Bay Adelaide Centre as well as various other office spaces across Downtown Toronto. First Canadian Place is named for the Bank of Montreal. Designed by Bregman + Hamann Architects with Edward Durell Stone as design consultant, First Canadian Place was constructed in 1975 and named First Bank Building; the tower and associated buildings occupy a block once home to two major newspapers, the Toronto Star’s Toronto Star Building and The Globe and Mail's William H. Wright Building.
The site was the last of corners of King and Bay to be redeveloped in the 1960s and 1970s, a major bidding war began over the property. The little known firm of Olympia and York obtained nearly the whole city block, though the election of reformist mayor David Crombie led to new rules banning skyscrapers and it took three years of lobbying before permission for First Canadian Place was granted; when completed, the building was nearly identical in appearance to Stone's Aon Center in Chicago, Illinois. First Canadian Place was the 6th tallest building in the world to structural top and the tallest building overall outside of Chicago and New York when built in 1975, it was the tallest building in the Commonwealth of Nations until the completion of the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 1998. The Bank of Montreal "M-bar" logo at the top of the building was the highest sign in the world from 1975 until overtaken by the sign atop CITIC Plaza in 1997; the roof is still the location of a number of antennas used for television broadcasting.
The structure contains 29 elevators, is one of only a few buildings in the world that uses the double-decked variety, is connected to the underground PATH system. The building was pictured on the front and rear cover of the 1981 album This Is the Ice Age by Canadian New Wave band Martha and the Muffins and their 7" single "Women Around the World at Work"; the album featured two photos which were taken from the same place but at different times by Muffins guitarist Mark Gane using a time lapse camera and features the building at midday and dusk. The 7" cover again features the same photo but has 9 small images taken at various times of the day and night; the same white Carrara marble used on Aon Center was employed as an exterior cladding and interior finish for First Canadian Place, with 45,000 marble panels weighing around 200 to 300 lb each. Foreshadowing what would take place with First Canadian Place in 2007, one of the marble slabs of Aon Center, when it was named the Standard Oil Building, detached in 1974, falling and penetrating the roof of a neighbouring building, resulting in an eventual recladding of the entire Aon Center in white granite between 1992 and 1994.
This problem would surface at First Canadian Place as well, during an intense storm on the evening of 15 May 2007, a 1 by 1.2 m, 140 kg white marble panel fell from the 60th storey of the tower's southern face onto the 3rd floor mezzanine roof below, causing authorities to close surrounding streets as a precaution. In late 2009, owner Brookfield Properties announced it would follow the example of Aon Center and, over three years, replace the tower's 45,000 marble panels with new ones in glass, those on the main expanses with a white ceramic frit and the corners in a bronze tint. Brookfield and the co-owners launched a multi-faceted rejuvenation program, including "upgrades to the building's mechanical and lighting systems that will redefine the standard for enhanced performance and greening". FCP's common areas including upper and lower level entrance and elevator lobbies, the retail concourse and Market Place were to undergo renovation, with new natural stone flooring, fritted glass accents, brushed metal handrails and water features.
The rejuvenation program design architects were Moed de Armas & Shannon Architects and Bregman + Hamann Architects were the architects of record. The entire project, completed in 2012, cost; this extensive capital improvement project was intended to provide a new exterior for FCP and eliminate the maintenance costs associated with marble upkeep. Bank of Montreal Osler, Hoskin & Harcourt DLA Piper The following Toronto-area broadcasters have their transmitters atop First Canadian Place: CIND-FM 88.1 CKLN-FM 88.1 CIRV-FM 88.9 CIUT-FM 89.5 CJBC-FM 90.3 CKIS-FM 92.5 CFXJ-FM 93.5 CJKX-FM-2 95.9 + CFMZ-FM 96.3 CFZM-1-FM 96.7 * CKFG-FM 98.7 CBLA-FM 99.1 CJSA-FM 101.3 CFNY-FM 102.1 # CKAV-FM 106.5 CILQ-FM 10
Mewata Armoury is a Canadian Forces reserve armoury in Calgary, Canada. The building was built between 1915 and 1918 for an original cost of CA$282,051; the building was designed by Thomas W. Fuller and the project was supervised locally by Calgary architect Leo Dowler; the structure was built by A. G. Creelman Co. of Vancouver, British Columbia. The building is located at 801 11th Street S. W. and is still home to local Militia Units, chiefly The King's Own Calgary Regiment and The Calgary Highlanders, but 15 Field Ambulance Detachment Calgary, the 41 Canadian Brigade Group Influence Activities Company and various cadet organizations. The building has a cut stone foundation with a structure of red sandstone; the drill hall is significant for the large uninterrupted span of its steel trusses. A second story on the west side was added some time after original construction; the building was designed in a Tudor/Gothic Revival style. A classic example of armoury design, Mewata has features deliberately bringing to mind a medieval fortress or castle, including four square corner towers, four smaller six sided towers, buttresses with turrets and a crenellated roofline.
The original design featured a large central drill hall with 117 rooms arranged around its perimeter. The basement included 30 yard shooting ranges; the facility included officers' and sergeants' billiard rooms. Barracks have been altered in recent years to serve as offices and storage space. A catwalk around the drill hall has been enclosed on the north and south sides, as well as part of the east side, leaving a short "balcony" overlooking the parade square; the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada plaque at the Mewata Armouries states The seale and bold design of the Mewata Armoury exemplify the wave of national pride that greeted Canada’s strong performance in the South African War. In western Canada this military enthusiasm led to a dramatic increase in militia enrolment and resulted in the construction of new drill halls and armouries on an unprecedented scale. Mewata Armoury, one of the largest and most equipped of its type, was built in 1917-1918. For many years it has been home to the King’s Own Calgary Regiment and the Calgary Highlanders, both of which were established in 1910.
Mewata is a Cree word meaning "O Be Joyful". Construction began September 24, 1915 and according to some sources was held up by lack of bricks. Two brick factories, one in Redcliff and one in Montgomery were built for the specific purpose of providing the bricks to complete the project; the building was completed in 1917. During the Second World War, several wooden huts were built to accommodate the large number of Calgary soldiers mobilized for the Canadian Active Service Force. In 1939, a large recreation hall was built adjacent to the armouries but the hall burnt down in 1941; the armoury for a time was home to a Permanent Force squadron of Lord Strathcona's Horse, but is most associated with the Militia units in Calgary. Over the years, several units have been based at Mewata including South Alberta Light Horse, 19th Alberta Dragoons, King's Own Calgary Regiment, the Calgary Highlanders, 746 Communications Squadron. During the First World War, Mewata was used as an induction and training centre and a demobilization depot for returning soldiers.
In addition to military uses, other groups and organizations have always used the armoury including a military ball for the Prince of Wales in 1919, the scene of a verbal confrontation between William Aberhart and Major Douglas founder of Social Credit. The Calgary City Police and Calgary Fire Department have used it for training purposes. In 1975, prior to the Grey Cup parade, twenty marching bands were marshalled in the drill hall; the building was declared a Provincial Historic Resource on 11 November 1979, a Federal Heritage Building in 1984, a National Historic Site on 11 May 1991, only the fourth building in Calgary to receive a national designation. The armoury is home to: The King's Own Calgary Regiment; the monument takes the form of a Universal Carrier, of the type used by the regiment in the Second World War, painted in the markings of the 1st Battalion. A plaque dedicates the memorial to all soldiers of the regiment and its predecessors who have "Served Canada in War and Peace." Regimental Markings included a gold maple leaf on Royal Blue, indicating the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division, a green square indicating the 5th Brigade, upon, placed the Unit Sign "62" in white.
Lieutenant Brian S. King, CD, Curator of the Regimental Museum, received permission from 41 Canadian Brigade Group to place a vehicle in front of Mewata Armoury, after discussions in the Museum in 1997; this form of homage is common in military bases across Canada. Lieutenant King sought out collectors in order to obtain an appropriate vehicle, negotiations with the Canadian War Museum yielded this restored carrier, from the collection of Jack Guthrie, a notable Calgary vehicle collector; the concrete pad for the carrier was donated by BURNCO and the plaque purchased by the Regimental Funds Found
The Glenbow Museum is an art and history museum in the city of Calgary, Canada. It was established by philanthropist Eric Lafferty Harvie; the Glenbow-Alberta Institute was formed in 1966, when Eric Harvie donated his vast historical collection to the people of Alberta. It was funded by $5 million each from Harvie and the Alberta government. Located in downtown Calgary across from the Calgary Tower, the Institute maintains the Glenbow, open to the public, which houses not only its museum collections, but a extensive art collection and archives. In 2007, a permanent exhibit entitled Mavericks opened on the third floor; as of 2013, the president and CEO is Donna Livingstone Vice President of Programs and Exhibitions and a member of the Board of Directors. Former presidents and CEOs include Jeff Spalding; the Glenbow archives are one of Canada's largest non-governmental repositories and a major research centre for historians, students and the media. They comprise an large collection of archival records of individuals, families and businesses from Western Canada and includes 3,500 metres of textual records, over a million photographs, 350 hours of film footage, 1,500 sound recordings.
The archives range from the 1870s to the 1990s, documenting the social and economic history of Western Canada Calgary and southern Alberta. Areas of specialty include First Nations, Métis genealogy, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and agriculture, the petroleum industry, labour and business. Unique collections in the archives include catalogs, records of land sales by the Canadian Pacific Railway, school yearbooks, extensive genealogical resources, an excellent collection of resources for the study of Métis genealogy; the Glenbow's art collection comprises 33,000 works dating from the 19th century to the present historical and contemporary work from or pertaining to the northwest of North America. The collection contains a selection of landscape painting, a Canadian prints collection including works from Walter J. Phillips and modernist printmaker Sybil Andrews, First Nations and Inuit Art, American illustration, wildlife Art. Works from other parts of the world provide a broader international frame of reference.
Selected works The Glenbow's library contains 100,000 books, newspapers and pamphlets with relevance to Western Canada, from the time buffalo roamed the plains, to the coming of the railroad and settlement of the West, to political and social events in Alberta today. The collection includes rare illustrated equestrian literature from the 15th century, school books from one-room school houses, numerous volumes and other material related to the museum's collections of military history, ethnology and art; the museum's collection includes artifacts from Western Canada, various other cultures around the world. In addition, the museum houses a collection of minerals; the museum's Community History collection includes a number of artifacts, exploring the lives of southern Albertans from 1880 to 1970. The collection includes important holdings of Albertan pottery, Western Canadian folk studies, northern explorations, pressed glass, textiles; the museum sorts its Community History collection in the following manner and Ceremonial Life, Daily Life, Ethnic Cultures and Play, Work and Industry.
The collection contains over 100,000 objects originating from many corners of the world, providing insight into the life in Western Canada from the late 19th century to the present day. Included in the Community History collection are artifacts from the Doukhobor and Hutterite communities of Western Canada, the Calgary Stampede; the museum holds several items from the search parties for Franklin's lost expedition. Several items from this collection are featured in the Mavericks: An Incorrigible History of Alberta exhibition; the permanent exhibit tells the history of Alberta through the stories of 48 individuals, or "mavericks". The Military and Mounted Police collection includes an extensive collection of artifacts relating to Canadian military history, with an emphasis on southern Alberta. In addition, the museum's collection includes a number of European and Japanese armour and firearms and other weapons from around the world; the Military and Mounted Police collection has been sorted into the following categories and Armour, Canada at War, Famous People and Battles and Mounted Police.
The Arms and Armour portion of the collection features a number of European and Japanese arms and armour. In particular, the museum's collection of Japanese armour and arms is the largest collection of its kind in Canada; the collection sorted under Canada at War focuses on the role of Canada, Alberta, during the North-West Rebellion, World War I, World War II, the Korean War. The Mounted Police section includes a number of artifacts relating to the development of the North-West Mounted Police, its successor, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police; the Glenbow's military collection is the most diverse in Western Canada, with 26,000 items. This includes 2,100 firearms, ranging from the 16th century to present day, in the Firearms section of the Military and Mounted Police collection. Most of the artifacts from the museum's Famous People and Battles section were artifacts acquired from the Royal United Services Institute. In June 2008, the Glenbow Museum and the University of Alberta acquired a number of artifacts from Sam Steele, an officer of the
The Burns Building is a historic six-story building located in downtown Calgary, Alberta. It sits at 237-8th Ave. S. E. on the end of Stephen Avenue overlooking Olympic Plaza and City Hall. The building was commissioned by meat baron Pat Burns as the corporate headquarters and flagship market for his empire, Burns Foods. Burns bought the property around 1909 but excavation did not begin until the fall of 1911. Construction commenced in April 1912. 1913 was a big year for building in Calgary. The Palliser Hotel, Lancaster Block, Canada Life Building and the Hudson's Bay store were built; the Herald Building was under construction. In 1923 Pat Burns exchanged the building for the Glengarry Ranch; the ground level provided retail space for Burns' retail meat market. The 130-foot long market hall featured twelve 25-foot high Doric marble columns. Burns leased out the remaining 35,000 square feet of office space to a wide variety of tenants. Historian Hugh Dempsey wrote, "the list of businesses which occupied the Patrick Burns Building…reads like a corporate Who's Who."
Calgary Power, Alberta Investment and Insurance Brokers, Rocky Mountain Cement and a variety of dentists, lawyers, insurance agents and accountants were among the first tenants. The building was built in the style of Edwardian Classical; the exterior features Lions' heads and other ornamental mouldings sculptured in the surface of the terracotta. Inside white and green Italian marble was used to finish the main corridors; the building included modern conveniences like steam ventilation. In addition to electricity, each office was equipped with natural gas lighting. Between 1981 and 1984 the building underwent extensive renovations designed by architects A. J. Diamond and Partners with Carruthers and McCullum. Around 1980 the demolition of the Burns building became a possibility when it was proposed that the property it sat on was needed for the construction of the Calgary Centre for the Performing Arts. In a June 1980 report the situation was outlined. "Our urban planning consultants have recommended that two heritage buildings in this block be preserved, namely the Calgary Public Building and the Burns Building.
At the time of the recommendation it was thought possible to fit the necessary concert halls and theatres in and around the two old buildings. A more detailed study by the architects for the performing arts group and their theatre consultants has indicated that while this can be done, a better result can be achieved if the land under the Burns Building were to be available for performing arts purposes." The demolition proposal was defeated by one City Council vote. The Burns Building, like the Public Building was saved and incorporated into the design of Performing Arts Centre. In 1987 it was designated a Provincial Heritage Resource. Pat Burns Burns Manor
International Style (architecture)
The International Style is a major architectural style, developed in the 1920s and 1930s and was related to modernism and modern architecture. It was first defined by Museum of Modern Art curators Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson in 1932, based on works of architecture from the 1920s, it is defined by the Getty Research Institute as "the style of architecture that emerged in Holland and Germany after World War I and spread throughout the world, becoming the dominant architectural style until the 1970s. The style is characterized by an emphasis on volume over mass, the use of lightweight, mass-produced, industrial materials, rejection of all ornament and color, repetitive modular forms, the use of flat surfaces alternating with areas of glass." Around 1900 a number of architects around the world began developing new architectural solutions to integrate traditional precedents with new social demands and technological possibilities. The work of Victor Horta and Henry van de Velde in Brussels, Antoni Gaudí in Barcelona, Otto Wagner in Vienna and Charles Rennie Mackintosh in Glasgow, among many others, can be seen as a common struggle between old and new.
These architects were not considered part of the International Style because they practiced in an "individualistic manner" and seen as the last representatives of Romanticism. The International Style can be traced to buildings designed by a small group of modernists, of which the major figures includes Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Jacobus Oud, Le Corbusier, Richard Neutra and Philip Johnson; the founder of the Bauhaus school, Walter Gropius, along with prominent Bauhaus instructor, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, became known for steel frame structures employing glass curtain walls. One of the world's earliest modern buildings where this can be seen is a shoe factory designed by Gropius in 1911 in Alfeld-an-der-Leine, called the Fagus Works building; the first building built on Bauhaus design principles was the concrete and steel Haus am Horn, built in 1923 in Weimar, designed by Georg Muche. The Gropius designed Bauhaus school building in Dessau, built 1925–26 and the Harvard Graduate Center known as the Gropius Complex, exhibit clean lines and a "concern for uncluttered interior spaces".
Marcel Breuer, a recognized leader in Béton Brut architecture and notable alumni of the Bauhaus, who pioneered the use of plywood and tubular steel in furniture design, who after leaving the Bauhaus would teach alongside Gropius at Harvard, is as well an important contributor to Modernism and the International Style. Prior to use of the term'International Style', some American architects—such as Louis Sullivan, Frank Lloyd Wright, Irving Gill—exemplified qualities of simplification and clarity. Frank Lloyd Wright's Wasmuth Portfolio had been exhibited in Europe and influenced the work of European modernists, his travels there influenced his own work, although he refused to be categorized with them, his buildings of the 1920s and 1930s showed a change in the style of the architect, but in a different direction than the International Style. In Europe the modern movement in architecture had been called Functionalism or Neue Sachlichkeit, L'Esprit Nouveau, or Modernism and was much concerned with the coming together of a new architectural form and social reform, creating a more open and transparent society.
The "International Style", as defined by Hitchcock and Johnson, had developed in 1920s Western Europe, shaped by the activities of the Dutch De Stijl movement, Le Corbusier, the Deutscher Werkbund and the Bauhaus. Le Corbusier had embraced Taylorist and Fordist strategies adopted from American industrial models in order to reorganize society, he contributed to a new journal called L'Esprit Nouveau that advocated the use of modern industrial techniques and strategies to create a higher standard of living on all socio-economic levels. In 1927, one of the first and most defining manifestations of the International Style was the Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, overseen by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, it was enormously popular, with thousands of daily visitors. The exhibition Modern Architecture: International Exhibition ran from February 9–March 23, 1932, at the Museum of Modern Art, in the Heckscher Building at Fifth Avenue and 56th Street in New York. Beyond a foyer and office, the exhibition was divided into six rooms: the "Modern Architects" section began in the entrance room, featuring a model of William Lescaze's Chrystie-Forsyth Street Housing Development in New York.
From there visitors moved to the centrally placed Room A, featuring a model of a mid-rise housing development for Evanston, Illinois, by Chicago architect brothers Monroe Bengt Bowman and Irving Bowman, as well as a model and photos of Walter Gropius's Bauhaus building in Dessau. In the largest exhibition space, Room C, were works by Le Corbusier, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, J. J. P. Oud and Frank Lloyd Wright. Room B was a section titled "Housing", presenting "the need for a new domestic environment" as it had been identified by historian and critic Lewis Mumford. In Room D were works by Richard Neutra. In Room E was a section titled "The extent of modern architecture", added at the last minute, which included the works of thirty seven modern architects from fifteen countries who were said to be influenced by the works of Europeans of the 1920s. Among these works was shown Alvar Aalto's Turun Sanomat newspaper offices building in Turku, Finland. After a six-week run in New York City, the exhibition toured the USA – the first such "travel
Calaway Park is Western Canada's largest outdoor family amusement park. The park is located in Springbank, Alberta, 4 kilometres west of the city limits of Calgary on the Trans-Canada Highway; the park features a variety of rides including a large log flume, the rides "Chaos" and "Storm", the park's two biggest attractions: "The Vortex", its corkscrew roller coaster, the "Dream Machine", a 56-passenger swing ride. There are many other rides. Calaway Park has 33 rides, 22 food stalls, 27 games, covers 90 acres; the park has been in continuous seasonal operation since 1983. The park was created by John McAfee, a former Red Deer lawyer, 15 other investors from British Columbia and Ontario. Around 1980, the group paid $500,000 to Hanna-Barbera Productions for the licensing rights to the characters and locations in The Flintstones. While the original TV show ended in 1967, various Saturday morning series continued the basic plot lines, including The New Fred and Barney Show and The Flintstone Comedy Show.
In addition to the Flintstones theme, a Victorian motif was planned for the park. It was presumed by park founders that parents' entrance fees, along with food and gift purchases, would pay operating costs. Planned as Flintstone Fun Park, the project was to cost $8 million; the park cost $25 million, including $3 million for the primary corkscrew roller coaster. On 16 October 1980, Municipal District of Rocky View No. 44 councillors voted 6 to 1 approve the Flintstone Fun Park, the opposing vote coming from the Springbank councillor. The approval came after council sat as the Development Appeal Board over a six-week period, included a field-trip to "similar" parks in the United States. During hearings, residents submitted that it would ruin their rural lifestyle, while the Calgary Regional Planning Commission suggested it would not comply with established planning documents; the approval came with the requirements that there be a distance between it and two nearby schools, that the park and parking lot be in the north end of the property, that development beyond the initial 60 acres would require further development application and approval, that the park comply with a noise provision.
The park was to have all layout plans, landscaping materials, operation practices, entrance and exit signs meet with M. D. approval. Bill Copithorne, councillor for the Springbank area, suggested to the media that conditions weren't specific enough for residents; the Alberta Appeal Court ordered a second hearing by the council, again sitting as the Development Appeal Board. The hearing took place in June 1981; the developers argued that they felt 90 per cent of area residents wouldn't object once they visited the park and realized they'd be "proud" of it. If approved, the developers suggested that they would welcome a committee "mostly of opponents" to have a say in planning the park. Locals objected to a proposed fake mountain. McAfee denied knowledge of a statement of company objectives, which included the creation of an on-site hotel. Both sides argued; the Flintstone Fun Park developers felt 200,000 people would visit in the first year, somewhere between 400,000 and 500,000 annually after a decade or two.
By this point, the expectation was that there would be a four-lane overpass above Springbank Road, to lessen the traffic disruption. McAfee said. Approval was given with conditions. A cement truck depot was seeking to move into Springbank at the same time, it too was opposed, it was blocked on the grounds that the regional plan limited industry in rural areas. Nine land owners filed a motion in the Alberta Appeal Court in mid-July, seeking permission to challenge the ruling on the grounds that council acted contrary to both a local by-law and the Calgary regional plan, didn't adequately explain its decision, overstepped its powers by attaching conditions. Without the ability to ask the Alberta Planning Board themselves, the Springbank Action Group asked in February 1981 that the Calgary Regional Planning Commission or Rocky View school board refer the matter to the APB, using recent legislation that allowed it to settle the situation. Once either organisation had brought the matter to the APB, the SAG would take over from them and represent the opposition.
SAG would concede if the APB voted against them, but would be able to appeal the ruling in the courts should the APB rule against the park. With its major challenges out of the way, Flintstone Fun Park changed its name to Calaway Park, was under development by January 1983. Bill Copithorne, the sole dissenting vote in the Municipal District's initial approval, was now the Rocky View reeve. Talking at an 11 January 1983, town hall meeting organized by the new citizen's group Partners in Progress, Copithorne warned that further development would be inevitable along the Trans-Canada Highway corridor, he called for a new general plan to ensure that further additions would be "high-class". A proposed commercial strip would include a RV campground; the director of the Calgary Regional Planning Commission disagreed with Copithorne's statement of "inevitability". Rocky View's planning director noted that a commercial zone might not happen, commercial development in Springbank might happen away from the highway as