Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)
The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle of 1748, sometimes called the Treaty of Aachen, ended the War of the Austrian Succession following a congress assembled on 24 April 1748 at the Free Imperial City of Aachen, called Aix-la-Chapelle in French and also in English, in the west of the Holy Roman Empire. The resulting treaty was signed on 18 October 1748 by Great Britain and the Dutch Republic. Two implementation treaties were signed at Nice on 4 December 1748 and 21 January 1749 by Austria, Sardinia and Genoa. Great Britain and France dictated the proposed terms of the treaty, agreed at the Congress of Breda, other nations accepted them: Austria recognised Frederick II of Prussia's conquest of Silesia and renounced parts of its Italian territories to Spain. France had some of its colonies returned. France regained Cape Breton Island in Canada, lost during the war, it returned the captured city of Madras in India to Great Britain and gave up the Barrier towns to the Dutch. Maria Theresa ceded the Duchy of Parma and Guastalla in present-day Italy to Philip of Bourbon, son of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese.
The Duchy of Modena and the Republic of Genoa, conquered by Austria, were restored. The Asiento slavery contract, guaranteed to Great Britain in 1713 through the Treaty of Utrecht, was renewed. Spain raised objections to the Asiento clauses, the Treaty of Madrid, signed on 5 October 1750, surrendered Great Britain's claims without war in return for a sum of £100,000. For the most part, the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle and the War of Austrian Succession concluded status quo ante bellum. In the commercial struggle between Britain and France in the West Indies and India, nothing was settled. In France, there was a general resentment at what was seen as a foolish throwing away of advantages, it came to be popular in Paris to use the phrases Bête comme la paix and La guerre pour le roi de Prusse. By the same token, British colonists in New England and merchants back in Great Britain resented the return of Louisbourg to the French after they had captured the stronghold in a 46-day siege. In fact, Britain had exchanged Louisbourg.
Madras, captured by French Admiral La Bourdonnais in 1746, was returned to Britain likewise. Lord Macaulay said the treaty, "had been in Europe no more than an armistice; the celebration was deliberately held near the royal residence of St James's Palace so as to present the king in a better light, as a British king and the prime mover in a peace, successful for Britain.. George and Britain gained from the treaty in one respect: that one clause of it had compelled the French to recognise the Hanoverian succession to the British throne and expel the Jacobites from France. In Austria, reactions to the peace were mixed; the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 had been issued by Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI to alter the law of succession of the Habsburg family, allowing his daughter Maria Theresa to inherit the Habsburg lands. Ostensibly, the source of the long, bitter War of Austrian Succession, this sanction was upheld by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle; the monarchy, led by Maria Theresa's foreign affairs chancellor Wenzel Anton, Prince of Kaunitz-Rietberg, had survived a disastrous crisis that could have brought its destruction, the Habsburg pre-eminence was confirmed in Germany.
The Austrians had saved the duchy of Milan, conceding only minor concessions in Italy. Maria Theresa was happy that France had given back the Austrian Netherlands that it had conquered. Overall, she referred to the war as a miracle. However, she was upset by the loss of the rich province of Silesia at the hand of Prussia. Britain's support for this repossession at Aix-la-Chapelle spurred Kaunitz to establish an unprecedented alliance with Austria's traditional enemy, following the establishment of the treaty. In the West Indies, the treaty did little to address possession of the islands. European powers had long pursued control of the Americas, viewing them as well-needed resources and proof of power. Spain, the Netherlands and Britain all had unresolved tensions following settlements like the Treaty of Breda, the Treaty of Westminster and the Treaty of Nijmegen. By 1713, the islands of Saint Lucia and Tobago were the subjects of Anglo-Franco conflict. However, the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle declared neutrality in Tobago, Saint Vincent and Dominica, allowing all European powers unfettered economic access and forbidding garrisons.
In addition, France gained Saint Lucia as a colony. In contrast to French and British unhappiness with the treaty, Italy gained stability for the first time in the 18th century; the new territorial settlement and the accession of the peaceful Ferdinand VI of Spain allowed the Aix settlement to last until the out
Battle of Melle
The Battle of Melle was a small meeting engagement fought on 9 July 1745, during the War of the Austrian Succession, between forces of the Pragmatic Allies and the French following the battle of Fontenoy that would have serious consequences for the Pragmatic Army of the allies and Flanders. The allies, under Lieutenant General Moltke, were attempting to send more troops to defend the city of Ghent, one of their major supply depots; the French, commanded by Lieutenant General Du Chayla, had sent their force to establish a crossing and a post south of the river Scheldt around the town of Melle to begin isolating Ghent. The allied force was driven off with significant losses. After the French victory at the battle of Fontenoy and the capture of the city of Tournai, Marshal Saxe began to exploit the weakness of the allies and maneuvered so as to threaten Brussels and Brabant and Flanders forcing the Duke of Cumberland, over-all commander of the allies, to choose which places to defend. Of the allies' two major magazines and Brussels, Ghent was of more value as the supplies there had been reserved while those in Brussels had been used.
However, Cumberland decided to defend Brabant and Brussels with the field army while sending some troops to increase the garrison of Ghent and issuing orders to transport the supplies out of Ghent. Saxe sent Du Chayla on a reconnaissance in force to Melle, a small town between Ghent and the town of Aalst, his command consisted of two infantry brigades and Crillon, each consisting of four battalions. There were about twenty small battalion guns and twenty pontoons in a camp being established on and around the road that ran between the town of Aalst and Ghent. Parts of the Normandie brigade, some two battalions, were dispersed in various posts along the Scheldt and the road to Ghent as was the some of Crillon. Du Chayla sent the Grassins, towards Aalst to reconnoitre. Moltke had orders from Cumberland to throw as many troops as possible from Aalst into Ghent to reinforce the garrison. Moltke's force was made up of a brigade commanded by Brigadier Thomas Bligh of three British infantry regiments: the Royal Scots, or 1st Foot.
On 9 July the light troops of the Grassins advanced east towards Aalst and occupied the Château de Massemen, a strong walled complex some eight miles west of Aalst near Melle. Moltke sent the Royals to drive them off and a vigorous fire-fight broke out, but without artillery the Royals were unable to dislodge de Grassin and his men; the 1st Foot rejoined the rest of the force and it was decided by Moltke, without informing Bligh, to leave the Grassins in the rear and advance as instructed down the raised causeway road to Ghent. Despite some notice of the allied advance from messengers sent by de Grassin, Du Chayla's force was dispersed in various posts along the route and in the process of making camp; the twenty artillery pieces were in park along the road facing north, baggage wagons and pontoon wagons in rows behind them. A stone bridge on the road crossing the Gontrode Brook, a stream that flowed into the Scheldt, was unguarded and a walled priory flanking the road only occupied. One battalion of the Normandie brigade was posted in the town of Melle another well to the west of Melle.
The battalions of Crillon brigade were dispersed around the area, some taking post or billeting in the various chateaus and farm houses with one battalion astride the road west of the bridge. Both sides were surprised by the contact, the French by the sudden arrival of the allies in force while the French were in the process of establishing their camp and the allies by the size and positions of the French force. Moltke, with the Royal Scots, led the advanced guard column of about 1,700 troops consisting of some 650 infantry of the Royal Scots and about 1,050 cavalry, they crossed the bridge and dispersed the Crillon battalion commencing the action at about 7 p.m.. They rushed up the road and overran the artillery park capturing the guns. However, as the guns were unlimbered in park, not for action, the Royals were unable to use them against the French; the Duc de Laval and his battalion of the Crillon brigade came up behind the pontoons and wagons engaging the Royal Scots soon to be followed by two more battalions led by Le Marquis de Crillon.
The nature of the terrain was unfavorable to cavalry and the allied cavalry was unable to aid the Royals. During the ensuing musketry duel, Moltke decided to take the Hussars and Rich's Dragoons and some Hanoverian cavalry and make a dash for Ghent. A small detachment of Du Berry's cavalry held them up as some of the Normandie brigade arrived forcing Moltke off the causeway onto other tracks. A French battalion cut the road behind them. Now Moltke broke off with the entire force and headed for Ghent running a gauntlet of fire from the various French posts along the roads and ways and abandoning the rest of the column, losing about one half of this force, including nearly 400 of the Royal Scots. During this time, Bligh came up the road with his regiment, the 20th Foot, with some of the Dutch cavalry following. Next came Handasyde's 16th with the rest of the cavalry. With Moltke gone, Bligh assumed command of some 1,000 cavalry; the ground aroun
Battle of Rocoux
The Battle of Rocoux was a French victory over an allied Austrian, British and Dutch army in Rocourt, outside Liège during War of the Austrian Succession. The result was a major French victory but not the crushing blow French commander Maurice de Saxe had hoped to inflict; the French army was commanded by Marshall Saxe and the army of the Pragmatic Allies by Prince Charles of Lorraine of Austria and the British General Sir John Ligonier. Saxe had nearly completed his campaign to take Flanders and was threatening to invade the Netherlands; the allies took up a position next to Liège with the Dutch under Waldeck on the left from Liège to Rocoux, the British and Hanoverians in the center and the Austrians on the right to the River Jeker. The French main attack went against the Dutch portion on the left of the allied line between Liege and Rocoux. Outnumbering the Dutch, the French defeated them on the third assault; the Dutch were forced to withdraw behind the Hannoverian lines. In the face of a general French advance the allied line began to give way.
The Austrians on the allied right were not engaged and made no attempt to take the initiative and advance against the French left flank. Ligonier's cavalry and some British and Dutch infantry formed a rear guard that held off the French as the army withdrew; the French were victorious. The French captured Liège; this was the second great victory of three after Fontenoy and prior to Lauffeld. The French were victorious capturing Liège and breaking Austrian control over the Austrian Netherlands for the remainder of the war. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Flag". Encyclopædia Britannica. 10. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 454–463. Ripley, George. "Flag". The American Cyclopædia. 8. P. 250. "The Vinkhuijzen collection of military uniforms: France, 1750-1757". New York Public Library. 25 March 2011. Archived from the original on 8 March 2013. Smith, Whitney. Flags through the ages and across the world. England: McGraw-Hill. Pp. 114–119. ISBN 0-07-059093-1. Browning, Reed; the War of the Austrian Succession, St. Martin's Press, New York,: ISBN 0-312-12561-5 Chandler, David.
The Art of Warfare in the Age of Marlborough. Spellmount Limited,: ISBN 0-946771-42-1 Skrine, Francis Henry. Fontenoy and Great Britain's Share in the War of the Austrian Succession 1741-48. London, Edinburgh, 1906
War of the Austrian Succession
The War of the Austrian Succession involved most of the powers of Europe over the issue of Archduchess Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy. The war included peripheral events such as King George's War in British America, the War of Jenkins' Ear, the First Carnatic War in India, the Jacobite rising of 1745 in Scotland, the First and Second Silesian Wars; the cause of the war was Maria Theresa's alleged ineligibility to succeed to her father Charles VI's various crowns, because Salic law precluded royal inheritance by a woman. This was to be the key justification for France and Prussia, joined by Bavaria, to challenge Habsburg power. Maria Theresa was supported by Britain, the Dutch Republic and Saxony. Spain, at war with Britain over colonies and trade since 1739, entered the war on the Continent to re-establish its influence in northern Italy, further reversing Austrian dominance over the Italian peninsula, achieved at Spain's expense as a consequence of Spain's war of succession earlier in the 18th century.
The war ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, by which Maria Theresa was confirmed as Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary, but Prussia retained control of Silesia. The peace was soon to be shattered, when Austria's desire to recapture Silesia intertwined with the political upheaval in Europe, culminating in the Seven Years' War; the immediate cause of the War of the Austrian Succession was the death of Emperor Charles VI and the inheritance of the Habsburg Monarchy collectively referred to as'Austria'. The 1703 Mutual Pact of Succession between Emperor Leopold and his sons Joseph and Charles agreed that if the Habsburgs became extinct in the male line, their possessions would go first to female heirs of Joseph those of Charles. Since Salic law excluded women from the inheritance, this required approval by the various Habsburg territories and the Imperial Diet. Joseph died in 1711, leaving two daughters, Maria Josepha and Maria Amalia and Charles became the last male Habsburg heir in the direct line.
In April 1713, he issued the Pragmatic Sanction, permitting female inheritance but placing his own hypothetical daughters ahead of Joseph's. When Charles' daughter Maria Theresa was born in 1717, ensuring her succession dominated the rest of his reign. In 1719 Charles required his nieces Maria Joseph and Maria Amalia to renounce their rights in Maria Theresa's favour in order to marry Frederick Augustus of Saxony and Charles Albert of Bavaria respectively. Charles hoped these marriages would secure his daughter's position since neither Saxony or Bavaria could tolerate the other gaining control of the Habsburg inheritance but his actions undermined the logic of the settlement. A family issue became a European one due to tensions within the Holy Roman Empire, caused by dramatic increases in the size and power of Bavaria and Saxony, mirrored by the post 1683 expansion of Habsburg power into lands held by the Ottoman Empire. Further complexity arose from the fact that the theoretically elected position of Holy Roman Emperor had been held by the Habsburgs since 1437.
These were the centrifugal forces behind a war that reshaped the traditional European balance of power. Bavaria and Saxony refused to be bound by the decision of the Imperial Diet, while in 1738 France agreed to back the'just claims' of Charles of Bavaria, despite accepting the Pragmatic Sanction in 1735. Attempts to offset this involved Austria in the 1734-1735 War of the Polish Succession and the Russo-Turkish War of 1735–1739, it was weakened by the losses incurred. Compounded by the failure to prepare Maria Theresa for her new role, many European statesmen were sceptical Austria could survive the contest that would follow Charles' death, which occurred in October 1740; the war can be divided into three distinct conflicts. In the second, France aimed to weaken Austria in Germany, while Spain sought to recapture territories in Italy lost after the War of the Spanish Succession. In the end, French conquest of the Austrian Netherlands gave them clear dominance on land, while Britain's naval victories made it more dominant at sea.
For much of the eighteenth century, France approached its wars in the same way: It would either let its colonies defend themselves, or would offer only minimal help, anticipating that fights for the colonies would be lost anyway. This strategy was, to a degree, forced upon France: geography, coupled with the superiority of the British navy, made it difficult for the French navy to provide significant supplies and support to French colonies. Several long land borders made an effective domestic army imperative for any ruler of France. Given these military necessities, the French government, based its strategy overwhelmingly on the army in Europe: it would keep most of its army on the European continent, hoping that such a force would be victorious closer to home. At the end of the War of Austrian Succession, France gave back its European conquests, while recovering such lost overseas possessions as Louisbourg restoring the status quo ante as far as France was concerned; the British—by inclination as well as for pragmatic reasons—had tended to avoid large-scale commitments of troops on the Continent.
They sought to offset the disadvantage this created in Europe by allying themselves
Kingdom of Great Britain
The Kingdom of Great Britain called Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands; the unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government, based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". After the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover; the early years of the unified kingdom were marked by Jacobite risings which ended in defeat for the Stuart cause at Culloden in 1746.
In 1763, victory in the Seven Years' War led to the dominance of the British Empire, to become the foremost global power for over a century and grew to become the largest empire in history. The Kingdom of Great Britain was replaced by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801 with the Acts of Union 1800; the name Britain descends from the Latin name for the island of Great Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, the land of the Britons via the Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The term Great Britain was first used in 1474; the use of the word "Great" before "Britain" originates in the French language, which uses Bretagne for both Britain and Brittany. French therefore distinguishes between the two by calling Britain la Grande Bretagne, a distinction, transferred into English; the Treaty of Union and the subsequent Acts of Union state that England and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain", as such "Great Britain" was the official name of the state, as well as being used in titles such as "Parliament of Great Britain".
Both the Acts and the Treaty describe the country as "One Kingdom" and a "United Kingdom", which has led some much publications into the error of treating the "United Kingdom" as a name before it came into being in 1801. The websites of the Scottish Parliament, the BBC, others, including the Historical Association, refer to the state created on 1 May 1707 as the United Kingdom of Great Britain; the term United Kingdom was sometimes used during the 18th century to describe the state, but was not its name. The kingdoms of England and Scotland, both in existence from the 9th century, were separate states until 1707. However, they had come into a personal union in 1603, when James VI of Scotland became king of England under the name of James I; this Union of the Crowns under the House of Stuart meant that the whole of the island of Great Britain was now ruled by a single monarch, who by virtue of holding the English crown ruled over the Kingdom of Ireland. Each of the three kingdoms maintained laws.
Various smaller islands were in the king's domain, including the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. This disposition changed when the Acts of Union 1707 came into force, with a single unified Crown of Great Britain and a single unified parliament. Ireland remained formally separate, with its own parliament, until the Acts of Union 1800; the Union of 1707 provided for a Protestant-only succession to the throne in accordance with the English Act of Settlement of 1701. The Act of Settlement required that the heir to the English throne be a descendant of the Electress Sophia of Hanover and not be a Catholic. Legislative power was vested in the Parliament of Great Britain, which replaced both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. In practice it was a continuation of the English parliament, sitting at the same location in Westminster, expanded to include representation from Scotland; as with the former Parliament of England and the modern Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Parliament of Great Britain was formally constituted of three elements: the House of Commons, the House of Lords, the Crown.
The right of the English peerage to sit in the House of Lords remained unchanged, while the disproportionately large Scottish peerage was permitted to send only 16 representative peers, elected from amongst their number for the life of each parliament. The members of the former English House of Commons continued as members of the British House of Commons, but as a reflection of the relative tax bases of the two countries the number of Scottish representatives was reduced to 45. Newly created peers in the Peerage of Great Britain were given the automatic right to sit in the Lords. Despite the end of a separate parliament for Scotland, it retained its own laws and system of courts, As its own established Presbyterian Church, control over its own schools; the social structure was hierarchical, the same elite remain in control after 1707. Scotland continued to have its own excellent universities, with the strong intellectual community in Edinburgh, The Scottish Enlightenment had a major impact on British and European thinking.
As a result of Poynings' Law of 1495, the Parliament of Ireland was subordinate to the Parliament of England, after 1707 to the Parliament of Great Britain. The Westminster parliament's Declaratory Act 1719 (also called the Dependency of Ireland
South India is the area including the five Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana, as well as the three union territories of Lakshadweep and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area. Covering the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau, South India is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west and the Indian Ocean in the south; the geography of the region is diverse with two mountain ranges–the Western and Eastern Ghats, bordering the plateau heartland. Godavari, Kaveri and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Chennai, Hyderabad, Coimbatore, Visakhapatnam and Kochi are the largest urban areas; the majority of the people in South India speak one of the four major Dravidian languages: Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam. During its history, a number of dynastic kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and culture in those regions.
Major dynasties that were established in South India include the Cheras, Pandyas, Satavahanas, Chalukyas and Vijayanagara. Europeans entered India through Kerala and the region was colonised by Britain and other nations. After experiencing fluctuations in the decades after Indian independence, the economies of South Indian states have registered higher than national average growth over the past three decades. While South Indian states have improved in some socio-economic metrics, poverty continues to affect the region much like the rest of the country, although it has decreased over the years. HDI in the southern states is high and the economy has undergone growth at a faster rate than most northern states. Literacy rates in the southern states are higher than the national average with 80% of the population capable of reading and writing; the fertility rate in South India is the lowest of all regions in India. South India known as Peninsular India has been known by several other names; the term "Deccan" referring to the area covered by the Deccan Plateau that covers most of peninsular India excluding the coastal areas is an anglicised form of the word Prakrit dakkhin derived from the Sanskrit word dakshina meaning south.
Carnatic derived from "Karnād" or "Karunād" meaning high country has been associated with South India. Carbon dating on ash mounds associated with Neolithic cultures in South India date back to 8000 BCE. Artefacts such as ground stone axes, minor copper objects have been found in the region. Towards the beginning of 1000 BCE, iron technology spread through the region; the region was in the middle of a trade route that extended from Muziris to Arikamedu linking the Mediterranean and East Asia. Trade with Phoenicians, Greeks, Syrians and Chinese began from the Sangam period; the region was part of the ancient Silk Road connecting the Asian continent in the East and the West. Several dynasties such as the Cheras of Karuvur, the Pandyas of Madurai, the Cholas of Thanjavur, the Satavahanas of Amaravati, the Pallavas of Kanchi, the Kadambas of Banavasi, the Western Gangas of Kolar, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, the Chalukyas of Badami, the Hoysalas of Belur and the Kakatiyas of Orugallu ruled over the region from 6th century B.
C. to 14th century A. D; the Vijayanagara Empire, founded in 14th century A. D. was the last Indian dynasty. After repeated invasions from the Sultanate of Delhi and the fall of Vijayanagara empire in 1646, the region was ruled by Deccan Sultanates and Nayak governors of Vijayanagara empire who declared independence; the Europeans arrived in the 15th century and by the middle of the 18th century, the French and the British were involved in a protracted struggle for military control over the South India. After the defeat of Tipu Sultan in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War in 1799 and the end of the Vellore Mutiny in 1806, the British consolidated their power over much of present-day South India with the exception of French Pondichéry; the British Empire took control of the region from the British East India Company in 1857. During the British colonial rule, the region was divided into the Madras Presidency, Hyderabad State, Travancore, Vizianagaram and a number of other minor princely states; the region played a major role in the Indian independence movement.
After the independence of India in 1947, the region was organised into four states: Madras State, Mysore State, Hyderabad State and Travancore-Cochin. The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu; as a result of this Act, Madras State retained its name and Kanyakumari district was added to it from the state of Travancore-Cochin. The state was subsequently renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. Andhra Pradesh was created through the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of the Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala emerged from the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of the Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organised with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from the Bombay State, the
Battle of Kesselsdorf
The Battle of Kesselsdorf was fought on 15 December 1745, between the Kingdom of Prussia and the combined forces of the Archduchy of Austria and the Electorate of Saxony during the part of the War of the Austrian Succession known as the Second Silesian War. The Prussians were led by Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, while the Austrians and Saxons were led by Field Marshal Rutowsky; the Prussians were victorious over the Royal Saxon Army and the Imperial Army of the Holy Roman Emperor. Two Prussian columns, one led by Frederick, the second by the Leopold the'Old Dessauer' were converging on Dresden, the capital of Saxony, an Austrian ally. Interposed between Leopold and Dresden was Rutowsky with an army of Saxons. Marching towards Dresden and Rutowsky was prince Charles who hoped to be able to reinforce both. Leopold moved and deliberately forward entering Saxon territory on 29 November and advanced on Rutowsky at Leipzig, whereupon Rutowsky retired towards Dresden. By 12 December, Leopold joined with a corps under Lehwaldt.
Rutowsky was reinforced by some Austrians under Grünne and took up a position at Kesselsdorf, 5 miles west of Dresden, that covered Dresden while leaving him closer to the advancing Charles than Leopold was to Frederick. The Saxons deployed along a ridge that ran from Kesselsdorf to the river Elbe and, fronted by a stream and marshy ground; the 7,000 Austrians under Grünne formed on the right near the Elbe. The line was long and there was a considerable gap in its center between the Saxons and the Austrians. On the fifteenth, Leopold came up. There was much ice on the field; the Prussians were outnumbered 35,000 to 32,000. Additionally, the Saxons and Austrians had the advantage of the ground. Dessauer, a long experienced general now sixty eight years old, perceived that by taking the town of Kesselsdorf the enemies flank could be turned and concentrated his efforts against the Saxon portion of the army; the Saxons had the town defended with twenty-four heavy cannons, their engineers and carpenters enhancing its defensibility.
Leopold made dispositions for an attack by an elite force of infantry and grenadiers, however the ground was difficult and the first attack was repulsed with considerable loss, including the officer leading the attack, General Hertzberg. A second, reinforced attack was made and this too failed with the Prussians fleeing in disorder; the Prussians had suffered some 1,500 casualties from the attacking forces of 3,500. The Saxon grenadiers seeing the flight of the Prussians left their strong defensive position and made an impetuous pursuit of the Prussians which exposed them to a massed charge by the dragoons of the Prussian cavalry; the shock of the charge sent the Saxons tumbling back and through their former position in Kesselsdorf, driving them from the field. At this same time, Leopold's son, Prince Moritz led an infantry regiment which broke through the Saxon center; the regiment, although isolated, held its ground while other Prussian regiments attempted but failed to link up with it due to the stubbornness of the Saxon defence.
Leopold's success in taking Kesselsdorf bore fruit and the Saxon flank was turned causing the Saxon line to collapse and their army to flee at nightfall. The Prussians' losses amounted to over sixteen hundred killed and more than three thousand wounded, while the Saxon losses were less than four thousand killed and wounded with seven thousand Saxons taken prisoner as well as forty eight cannon and seven standards. During the battle, the Austrians on the right never fired a shot, while Charles, who had reached Dresden and could hear the cannon, failed to march to the aid of his ally; the Saxons fled in a wild panic into Dresden. There, despite the presence of Charles and his army of 18,000 and the Austrians willingness to renew battle, they continued to flee. Leopold linked up his forces with those of Frederick, so delighted by the victory that he embraced Leopold personally; the Saxons abandoned Dresden, which Fredrick and Leopold occupied on the eighteenth after demanding its unconditional surrender.
The Austrians subsequently began to negotiate the peace of Dresden ultimately ending the Second Silesian War and leaving Prussia's ally, France, to conduct the rest of the war of the Austrian Succession alone. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Flag". Encyclopædia Britannica. 10. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 454–463. Cust, Edward. Annals of the wars of the eighteenth century. I. London. Posthumous works of Frederic II. King of Prussia. 1. Translated by Holcroft, Thomas. London. 1789. P. 278. Smith, Whitney. Flags through the ages and across the world. England: McGraw-Hill. Pp. 114–119. ISBN 0-07-059093-1. Tuttle, Herbert. History of Prussia. III. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Chandler, David; the Art of Warfare in the Age of Marlborough. Spellmount. ISBN 0-946771-42-1. Media related to Battle of Kesselsdorf at Wikimedia Commons