French Indochina known as the Indochinese Union after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia. A grouping of the three Vietnamese regions of Tonkin and Cochinchina with Cambodia was formed in 1887. Laos was added in 1893 and the leased Chinese territory of Guangzhouwan in 1898; the capital was moved from Saigon to Hanoi in 1902 and again to Da Lat in 1939. In 1945 it was moved back to Hanoi. After the Fall of France during World War II, the colony was administered by the Vichy government and was under Japanese occupation until March 1945, when the Japanese overthrew the colonial regime. After the Japanese surrender, the Viet Minh, a communist organization led by Hồ Chí Minh, declared Vietnamese independence, but France subsequently took back control of French Indochina. An all-out independence war, known as the First Indochina War, broke out in late 1946 between French and Viet Minh forces. In order to create a political alternative to the Viet Minh, the State of Vietnam, led by former Emperor Bảo Đại, was proclaimed in 1949.
On 9 November 1953 the Kingdom of Cambodia proclaimed its independence. Following the Geneva Accord of 1954, the French evacuated Vietnam and French Indochina came to an end. French–Vietnamese relations started during the early 17th century with the arrival of the Jesuit missionary Alexandre de Rhodes. Around this time, Vietnam had only just begun its "Push to the South"—"Nam Tiến", the occupation of the Mekong Delta, a territory being part of the Khmer Empire and to a lesser extent, the kingdom of Champa which they had defeated in 1471. European involvement in Vietnam was confined to trade during the 18th century, as the remarkably successful work of the Jesuit missionaries continued. In 1787, Pierre Pigneau de Behaine, a French Catholic priest, petitioned the French government and organised French military volunteers to aid Nguyễn Ánh in retaking lands his family lost to the Tây Sơn. Pigneau died in Vietnam but his troops fought on until 1802 in the French assistance to Nguyễn Ánh; the French colonial empire was involved in Vietnam in the 19th century.
For its part, the Nguyễn dynasty saw Catholic missionaries as a political threat. In 1858, the brief period of unification under the Nguyễn dynasty ended with a successful attack on Da Nang by French Admiral Charles Rigault de Genouilly under the orders of Napoleon III. Diplomat Charles de Montigny's mission having failed, Genouilly's mission was to stop attempts to expel Catholic missionaries, his orders were to stop the persecution of missionaries and assure the unimpeded propagation of the faith. In September 1858, fourteen French gunships, 3,000 men and 300 Filipino troops provided by the Spanish attacked the port of Tourane, causing significant damage and occupying the city. After a few months, Rigault had to leave the city due to supply illnesses. Sailing south, de Genouilly captured the poorly defended city of Saigon on 18 February 1859. On 13 April 1862, the Vietnamese government was forced to cede the three provinces of Biên Hòa, Gia Định and Định Tường to France. De Genouilly was criticised for his actions and was replaced by Admiral Page in November 1859, with instructions to obtain a treaty protecting the Catholic faith in Vietnam, but refrain from territorial gains.
French policy four years saw a reversal, with the French continuing to accumulate territory. In 1862, France obtained concessions from Emperor Tự Đức, ceding three treaty ports in Annam and Tonkin, all of Cochinchina, the latter being formally declared a French territory in 1864. In 1867 the provinces of Châu Đốc, Hà Tiên and Vĩnh Long were added to French-controlled territory. In 1863, the Cambodian king Norodom had requested the establishment of a French protectorate over his country. In 1867, Siam renounced suzerainty over Cambodia and recognised the 1863 French protectorate on Cambodia, in exchange for the control of Battambang and Siem Reap provinces which became part of Thailand.. France obtained control over northern Vietnam following its victory over China in the Sino-French War. French Indochina was formed on 17 October 1887 from Annam, Tonkin and the Kingdom of Cambodia; the federation lasted until 21 July 1954. In the four protectorates, the French formally left the local rulers in power, who were the Emperors of Vietnam, Kings of Cambodia, Kings of Luang Prabang, but in fact gathered all powers in their hands, the local rulers acting only as figureheads.
French troops landed in Vietnam in 1858 and by the mid-1880s they had established a firm grip over the northern region. From 1885 to 1895, Phan Đình Phùng led a rebellion against France. Nationalist sentiments intensified in Vietnam during and after World War I, but all the uprisings and tentative efforts failed to obtain sufficient concessio
Revival Lê dynasty
The Later Lê Restoration is a distinction current in Vietnamese historiography. This period marked the ending of first Lê dynasty which had flourished for 100 years from 1427 to 1527 until the high-ranking mandarin Mạc Đăng Dung stole the throne of emperor Lê Cung Hoàng in 1527 and established the Mạc dynasty, ruling the whole territory of Đại Việt; the Lê royalists escaped to the Kingdom of Lan Xang. The Right Commander-General of the Five Armies and Marquess of An Thanh Nguyễn Kim started to summon the people who were still royal to the Lê emperor to form the new army and to organize a revolution against Mạc Đăng Dung. Nguyễn Kim led the six-year civil war. However, The new-born Mạc dynasty failed to resist the forces of Lê royalist so they decided to retreat to the north and established the new capital at Cao Bằng Province and agreed the alliance with Ming dynasty of China as the tributary nation to against the Later Lê dynasty; the Revival Lê dynasty claimed back 3/4 territory of kingdom of Đại Việt while Mạc was ruling the north so this period be known as the Northern and Southern dynasty.
After capturing the capital Đông Kinh, Nguyễn Kim took the son of former emperor Lê Chiêu Tông, as the emperor of Đại Việt but this title was restored as figureheads whereas Nguyễn Kim is the de facto who held the real power of whole kingdom. Revival Lê dynasty kept continuing the war with Mạc dynasty and Nguyễn Kim was poisoned by the surrendered general of Mạc dynasty and the power of royal court was succeed to his son-in- law Trịnh Kiểm, the founder of Trịnh lords; the first son of Nguyễn Kim was assassinated by Trịnh Kiểm. The second son, The Marquis of Hạ khê as well as the founder of Nguyễn lords moved to the south and become the Viceroy of Thuận Hoá province,then started to revolt the reign of Trịnh lords over Emperor's power. Therefore, this leaded the long division of Đại Việt in 232 years and Both two lords fought each other in the Trịnh–Nguyễn Civil War; this conflict just ended until the establishment of Tây Sơn dynasty led by 3 brothers whom are against the civil war and conquered the whole kingdom in 1789 and the last emperor of Lê dynasty Lê Chiêu Thống fled to exile in Qing dynasty, China.
The dynasty was collapsed in 1789. In 1533, the Nguyễn-Trịnh alliance captured the Dongkinh of Việt Nam and crowned Lê Trang Tông as the next Lê emperor. In official Vietnamese history, this date marks the end of the Mạc dynasty though the reality was quite different. Mạc Đăng Dung ruled in Hanoi till his death in 1541 and his descendants ruled in Hanoi until 1592; the country was divided into two portions though the Trịnh-Nguyen alliance took over more and more of the country from the Mạc. In 1592, with the conquest of Dongkinh, Vietnamese emperor Lê Thế Tông, was installed in the ancient capital; the Lê emperors sat as figurehead rulers in Hanoi until the Tây Sơn Revolt swept the Trịnh and the Le out of power. The following is the official list of Lê emperors from 1533 until 1789: Lê Trang Tông – A son of Prince Ý named Ninh. Crowned Emperor at the "Winter palace" in 1533. Recognized as the King by a Ming delegation in 1536. An attack on the Mac forces led by the Le general Nguyễn Kim resulted in the partition of Vietnam in 1545, with the Nguyễn family seizing control of the southern part of the country as far north as what is now Thanh Hóa Province.
The Nguyễn, who took the hereditary title chúa, continued to profess loyalty to the Lê dynasty. Lê Trung Tông – During his reign, the war with the Mạc continued. Lê Anh Tông – In 1572, the Royal army under Trịnh Tùng captured Hanoi, but a year the Trịnh army was thrown out of Hanoi. The Emperor took advantage of the chaos to flee to Nghệ An Province to escape the control of Trịnh Tùng. However, Trịnh Tùng appointed a new Emperor and had Lê Anh Tông assassinated. Lê Thế Tông – By the late sixteenth century the Trinh family had ousted the Mac family and had begun to rule the northern half of the country in the name of the Lê dynasty; when Hanoi was captured for the second time in 1592, the Court moved back to the old capital. The Emperor gave Trịnh Tùng the title Pacifying Prince in recognition of his great victory over the Mạc; the Trinh, like the Nguyễn, took the title chúa, spent most of the seventeenth century attempting to depose the Nguyễn. Lê Kính Tông – At the start of his reign, Nguyễn Hoàng, one of the Nguyễn Lords refused to accept imperial edicts from Le Kinh Tong.
After 19 years as a figurehead, Le Kinh Tong was involved in a conspiracy to kill Trịnh Tùng and take power. He was executed and a new Emperor appointed. Lê Thần Tông – At the start of his rule, Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên, leader of the Nguyễn Lords, refused to acknowledge the new Emperor. After seven years of increasing tension, the great war between the Trịnh and the Nguyễn started. Le Thần Tong saw the death of the rule by Trịnh Tráng. In 1643 he abdicated the throne in favor of his son. In order to repulse invading Trinh forces, the Nguyễn in 1631 completed the building of two great walls, six meters high and eighteen kilometers long, on their northern frontier; the Trinh, with 100,000 troops, 500 elephants, 500 large junks, were numerically far superior to their southern foe. The Nguyễn, were better equipped, having by this time acquired Portuguese weapons and gunpowder, and, as the defendi
The Lý dynasty, sometimes known as the Later Lý dynasty, was a Vietnamese dynasty that began in 1009 when emperor Lý Thái Tổ overthrew the Early Lê dynasty and ended in 1225, when the empress Lý Chiêu Hoàng was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of her husband, Trần Cảnh. During emperor Lý Thánh Tông's reign, the official name of Vietnam became Đại Việt. Domestically, while the Lý emperors were devout to Buddhism, the influence of Confucianism from China was on the rise, with the opening of the first University in Vietnam in 1070 for selection of civil servants who are not from noble families; the first imperial examination was run in 1075 and Lê Văn Thịnh became the first Trạng Nguyên of Vietnam. Politically, they created a system of administration based on the rule of law rather than on autocratic principles; the fact that they chose the Đại La Citadel as the capital showed that they held onto power due to economic strength and were liked by their subjects rather than by military means like prior dynasties.
Some of the noble scholar such as Lê Văn Thịnh, Bùi Quốc Khái, Doãn Tử Tư, Đoàn Văn Khâm, Lý Đạo Thành, Tô Hiến Thành made vast contributions culturally and politically, allowing the dynasty to flourish for 216 years. According to Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, in the seventh year of Thiên Thành era,emperor Lý Thái Tông generated the order to everyone to call himself as "triều đình", similar to Your Majesty; until the rule of emperor Lý Thánh Tông, it converted to the title of "Vạn Thặng". Emperor Lý Cao Tông required all mandarin to call him as "phật"-Buddha. In 1009, the Early Lê dynasty passed from flourish and downfall in 29 years with 3 Emperors Lê Đại Hành, Lê Trung Tông and Lê Ngọa Triều; the last emperor Lê Ngọa Triều died in 1009 after evil and brutal ruling in Đại Cồ Việt which made him and his dynasty becoming unpopular to civilians. According to some history records of Vietnam like Khâm định Việt sử Thông giám cương mục, Việt sử lược, Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư all proved that in October 1009, Lê Long Đĩnh died because of consequence of his licentious life.
The crown prince of Lê Long Đĩnh was still young and he could not take the power from his dad. Then,the conference by the members of royal court was held to discuss about the fate of nation. Lý Công Uẩn,the high position mandarin and aristocrat was chosen by Đào Cam Mộc and Vạn Hạnh buddhist monk to become the new emperor of Đại Cồ Việt; the founder of the Lý, Lý Thái Tổ 李公蘊 has been said to have had origins from Fujian province somewhere in his paternal bloodline, while little is known about his maternal side except for the fact that his mother was a woman named Phạm Thị. Few direct details about his parents are known, the ethnic Chinese background of Lý Công Uẩn, at least on his paternal side, was accepted by Vietnamese historian Trần Quốc Vượng; the Lý dynasty was started by Lý Công Uẩn, a former temple orphan who had risen to commander of the palace guard, succeeded Lê Long Đĩnh of the Early Lê dynasty in 1009, thereby founding the Lý dynasty. He took the reign name Lý Thái Tổ; the early Lý emperors established a prosperous state with a stable monarchy at the head of a centralized administration.
The name of the country was changed to Đại Việt in 1054 by Emperor Lý Thánh Tông. after a year of enthronement,in 1010 Lý Thái Tổ started to move the capital from Hoa Lư to Đại La and renamed it to Thang Long.he wrote the Edict on the Transfer of the Capital to announce his plan to move to the new place. This decision had mark major circumstance in Vietnam which opened the flourish era of the dynasty and followed by the other dynasties such as Trần, Lê, Mạc that still used Thang Long as their capital in the long time as well as nowaday republic government. In 1028, Lý Thái Tổ died at the age 55 with Posthumous name Thần Vũ hoàng đế,buried at Thọ royal tomb. In his funeral, Most of his mandarins expected crown prince Lý Phật Mã to take a throne however 3 of his brothers are Duke of Đông Chinh,Duke of Dực Thánh and Duke of Vũ Đức rejected this decision ambushed royal palace by their own armies to steal the throne. Crown prince Lý Phật Mã discovered the danger ordered to close all the gates of palace and arranged guards for protection.
However his eunuch Lý Nhân Nghĩa advised him to fight with betrayer. Thus, Lý Phật Mã decide to let Lý Nhân Nghĩa to lead the royal army to fight against his brothers. Lý Nhân Nghĩa succeeded in his campaign and caught Vũ Đức Vương,the 2 others escaped. After that, Lý Phật Mã take the temple name Lý Thái Tông. To grant his mercy to all those who tried to opposed him,he pardoned his two brothers Đông Chinh vương and Dực Thánh vương. From the reign of Lý Thái Tổ with the other emperors, Lý dynasty began to focus on solving some major and minor situation: +Strengthen internal rule:the economy was promoted to high progress,especially agriculture; the government introduced "Hình thư" as the first system of law and legislation of Vietnam after gain independence from China and opened the education system based on imperial examination of China + Strengthen territory reigning: The royal court tried to expanded their influence to the remote areas by managing the marriage policy such as giving princesses to marry with the other local lords for closer relationships with royal family.
To conciliate those who were not loyal mto government,the emperor will order princes to eliminate the revolts. +Protecting country from foreigners: Resolve and reconcile some minor issues with Song dynasty,fighting against
Jiaozhi, was the name for various provinces, commanderies and counties in northern Vietnam from the era of the Hùng kings to the middle of the Third Chinese domination of Vietnam and again during the Fourth Chinese domination. According to Michel Ferlus, the Sino-Vietnamese'Jiao' in Jiaozhi, together with the ethnonym and autonym of the Lao people, the ethnonym Gelao, a Kra population scattered from Guizhou to North Vietnam, would have emerged from the Austro-Asiatic *kra:w'human being'; the etymon *kra:w would have yielded the ethnonym Keo/ Kæw kɛːwA1, a name given to the Vietnamese by Tai speaking peoples slightly derogatory. In Pupeo, kew is used to name the Tay of North Vietnam; the name of the territory was used to refer to the Lac people and their ancient language. It seems to be a Yue or Viet endonym of uncertain meaning, although it has had various folk etymologies over the years. In his Tongdian, Du You wrote that "The Jiaozhi are the southern people: the big toe points to the outside of the foot, so if the man stands up straight, the two big toes point to each other, so people call them the "jiaozhi"."
The Ciyuan disputed this: The meaning of the word Jiaozhi cannot be understood but the ancient Greek method of "opposite pillar" and "connecting pillar" to label humans on earth—where "opposite pillar" stood for the South side and its logical opposite the North side, whilst "connecting pillar" stood for the East side with the West side connected to it—could provide a suggested origin. If Jiaozhi was intended to characterize "opposite pillar" because this was what people of the North called the people of the South the feet of the North side and feet of the South side must oppose each other, therefore rendering it impossible for the feet of a person to cross or intersect each other. Various Vietnamese scholars such as Nguyễn Văn Siêu and Đặng Xuân Bảng have since echoed this explanation. Jiaozhi, pronounced Kuchi in the Malay, became the Cochin-China of the Portuguese traders c. 1516, who so named it to distinguish it from the city and the Kingdom of Cochin in India, their first headquarters in the Malabar Coast.
It was subsequently called "Cochinchina". However by viewpoint of researcher Trần Như Vĩnh Lạc, 交趾 or 交阯 in the transcribing a pronunciation "Viet", as "/ˈɡw:ət/" in the ancient Annamese; the native state of Văn Lang is not well attested, but much sources name Giao Chỉ as one of the realm's districts. Its territory purportedly comprised present-day Hanoi and the land on the right bank of the Red River; the Van Lang fell to the Âu under prince Thục Phán around 258 BC. By researcher Lê Văn Lan, "文郎" was the Chinese script of the "urang" or "orang" in the Proto-Malayo-Polynesian. Thục Phán established his capital at Co Loa in Hanoi's Dong Anh district; the citadel was taken around 208 BC by the Qin general Zhao Tuo. By Lê Văn Lan. Zhao Tuo declared his independent kingdom of Nanyue in 204 and organized his Vietnamese territory as the two commanderies of Jiaozhi and Jiuzhen. Following a native coup that killed the Zhao king and his Chinese mother, the Han launched two invasions in 112 and 111 BC that razed the Nanyue capital at Panyu.
The Han received the submission from the Nanyue commanders in Jiaozhi and Jiuzhen, confirming them in their posts and ushering in the "First Northern Domination" of Vietnam. These commanderies were headed by grand administrators who were overseen by the inspectors of Jiaozhou or "Jiaozhi Province", the first of whom was Shi Dai. Under the Han, the capital of Jiaozhi was first Miling and Leilou. According to the Book of Han’s "Treatise on Geography", Jiaozhi contained 10 counties: Leilou, Goulou, Quyang, Jixu, Xiyu and Zhugou. Đào Duy Anh stated that Jiaozhi's territory contained all of Tonkin, excluding the regions upstream of the Black River and Ma River. Southwestern Guangxi was a part of Jiaozhi; the southwest area of present-day Ninh Bình was the border of Jiuzhen. The Han dynasty created another commandery named Rinan located south of Jiuzhen from the Ngang Pass to Quảng Nam Province. Ma Yuan's bronze column was erected by Ma Yuan after he had suppressed the uprising of the Trưng Sisters in the early 40s.
Ma Yuan followed his conquest with a brutal course of assimilation, destroying the natives' bronze drums in order to build the column at the edge of Chinese territory. Six Chinese characters were carved upon it: "If this bronze column collapses, Jiaozhi will be destroyed"; the location of the column is unknown, with various explanations given for its disappearance. One popular story is that locals developed a superstitious habit of placing rocks to support the column as they passed and that, over time, this pile grew so large that it covered the columns. Another is. Rationalist Chinese and Vietnamese scholars opined that it had simply fallen into the sea in the course of an earthquake or change of shoreline. During the rule of Emperor Ling of the Eastern Han, Lý Tiến was the first native of Jiaozhi to be the inspector of Jiaozhou. Lý Tiến petitioned
South Vietnam the Republic of Vietnam, was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam was a member of the Western Bloc during part of the Cold War. It received international recognition in 1949 as the "State of Vietnam", a constitutional monarchy; this became the "Republic of Vietnam" in 1955. Its capital was Saigon. South Vietnam was bordered by North Vietnam to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, Thailand across the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest, the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia across the South China Sea to the east and southeast; the Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed on 26 October 1955, with Ngô Đình Diệm as its first president, after having served as premier under Emperor Bao Dai, exiled. Its sovereignty was recognized by the United States and 87 other nations, it had membership in several special committees of the United Nations, but its application for full membership was rejected in 1957 because of a Soviet veto.
South Vietnam's origins can be traced to the French colony of Cochinchina, which consisted of the southern third of Vietnam, Cochinchina, a subdivision of French Indochina, the southern half of Central Vietnam or Annam, a French protectorate. After the Second World War, the anti-Japanese Viet Minh guerrilla forces, led by Ho Chi Minh, proclaimed the establishment of a Democratic Republic of Vietnam in Hanoi in September 1945, issuing a Declaration of Independence modeled on the U. S. one from 1776. In 1949, anti-communist Vietnamese politicians formed a rival government in Saigon led by former emperor Bảo Đại. Bảo Đại was deposed by Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm in 1955, who proclaimed himself president after a referendum. Diệm was killed in a military coup led by general Dương Văn Minh in 1963, a series of short-lived military governments followed. General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu led the country after a U. S.-encouraged civilian presidential election from 1967 until 1975. The beginnings of the Vietnam War occurred in 1959 with an uprising by the newly organized National Liberation Front for South Vietnam and supported by the northern Democratic Republic of Vietnam, with other assistance rendered by the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact communist satellites, along with neighboring People's Republic of China and North Korea.
Larger escalation of the insurgency occurred in 1965 with the landing of United States regular forces of Marines, followed by Army units to supplement the cadre of military advisors guiding ARVN southern forces. A regular bombing campaign over North Vietnam was conducted by offshore U. S. Navy airplanes and aircraft carriers joined by Air Force squadrons through 1966 and 1967. Fighting peaked up to that point during the Tet Offensive of February 1968, when there were over a million South Vietnamese soldiers and 500,000 U. S. soldiers in South Vietnam. On the war turned into a more conventional fight as the balance of power became equalized. An larger, armored invasion commenced during the Easter Offensive following US ground-forces withdrawal, had nearly overran some major northern cities until beaten back. Despite a truce agreement under the Paris Peace Accords, concluded in January 1973, after a torturous five years of on and off negotiations, fighting continued immediately afterwards; the North Vietnamese regular army and Viet Cong launched a major second combined-arms invasion in 1975, termed the Spring Offensive.
Communist forces overran Saigon on 30 April 1975. On the day President Duong Van Minh declared RVN cease to exist, five ARVN generals, one Saigon police chief, numbers of ARVN soldiers and officers commit suicide to avoid being humiliated surrender. On July 2, 1976, the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam merged to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam; the official name of the South Vietnamese state was Việt Nam Cộng hòa and the French name was referred to as République du Viêt Nam. The North was known as the "Democratic Republic of Vietnam". Việt Nam was the name adopted by Emperor Gia Long in 1804, it is a name used in ancient times. In 1839, Emperor Minh Mạng renamed the country Đại Nam. In 1945, the nation's official name was changed back to "Vietnam"; the name is sometimes rendered as "Viet Nam" in English. The term "South Vietnam" became common usage in 1954, when the Geneva Conference provisionally partitioned Vietnam into communist and non-communist parts.
Other names of this state were used during its existence such as Free Vietnam and the Government of Viet Nam. Before World War II, the southern third of Vietnam was the concession of Cochinchina, administered as part of French Indochina. A French governor-general in Hanoi administered all the five parts of Indochina while Cochinchina was under a French governor, but the difference from the other parts was that most indigenous intellensia and wealthy were naturalized French The northern third of Vietnam (then the colony of Tonkin was under
The Trần dynasty ruled in Vietnam from 1225 to 1400. The dynasty was founded when emperor Trần Thái Tông ascended to the throne after his uncle Trần Thủ Độ orchestrated the overthrow of the Lý dynasty; the final emperor of the dynasty was Thiếu Đế, who at the age of five years was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of his maternal grandfather, Hồ Quý Ly. The Trần dynasty defeated three Mongol invasions, most notably in the decisive Battle of Bạch Đằng River in 1288; the ancestors of the Trần clan originated from the province of Fujian before they migrated under Trần Kính to Đại Việt, where their mixed-blooded descendants established the Trần dynasty which ruled Đại Việt. The descendants of the Trần clan who came to rule Đại Việt were of mixed-blooded descent due to many intermarriages between the Trần and several royal members of the Lý dynasty alongside members of their royal court as in the case of Trần Lý and Trần Thừa, the latter whose son Trần Thái Tông would become the first emperor of the Trần dynasty.
Their descendants established the Tran dynasty. Some of the mixed-blooded descendants and certain members of the clan could still speak Chinese, as when a Yuan dynasty envoy met with the Chinese-speaking Tran Prince Trần Quốc Tuấn in 1282; the first of the Trần clan to live in Đại Việt was Trần Kinh, who settled in Tức Mặc village who lived by fishing. After three generations in Đại Việt, the Trần clan became a rich and powerful family under Trần Lý, Trần Kinh's grandson. During the troubled time under the reign of Lý Cao Tông, the Crown Prince Lý Sảm sought refuge in the family of Trần Lý and decided to marry his beautiful daughter Trần Thị Dung in 1209. Afterward, it was the Trần clan who helped Lý Cao Lý Sảm restore the throne in Thăng Long; as a result, the Emperor appointed several members of the Trần clan for high positions in the royal court, such as Tô Trung Từ, an uncle of Trần Thị Dung, Trần Tự Khánh and Trần Thừa, who were Trần Lý's sons. In 1211 the Crown Prince Lý Sảm was enthroned as Lý Huệ Tông after the death of Lý Cao Tông.
By that time the Trần clan's position began to rise in the royal court. Having been mentally ill for a long time, the Emperor Lý Huệ Tông decided to cede the throne of the Lý dynasty to crown princess Lý Chiêu Hoàng in October of the lunar calendar, 1224. Ascending the throne at the age of only six, Lý Chiêu Hoàng ruled under the total influence of the commander of the royal guard, Trần Thủ Độ; the Empress Regnant's servants were chosen by Trần Thủ Độ. When Trần Cảnh informed Trần Thủ Độ that the Empress Regnant seemed to have affection towards him, the leader of the Trần clan decided to take this chance to carry out his plot to overthrow the Lý dynasty and establish a new dynasty ruled by his own clan. First Trần Thủ Độ moved the whole Trần clan to the royal palace and arranged a secret marriage between Lý Chiêu Hoàng and Trần Cảnh there, without the appearance of any mandarin or member of the Lý royal family. After that, he announced the fait accompli to the royal court and made Lý Chiêu Hoàng cede the throne to her new husband on the grounds that she was incapable of holding office.
Thus Trần Cảnh was chosen as her successor. As a result, the 216-year reign of the Lý dynasty was ended and the new Trần dynasty was created on the first day of the twelfth lunar month, 1225. After the collapse of the Lý Dynasty, Trần Thủ Độ was still afraid that the newly established Trần Dynasty might be overthrown by its political opponents, he therefore continued to ruthlessly eliminate members of the Lý royal family. First the former emperor Lý Huệ Tông in the tenth lunar month of 1226 other members of the Lý royal family were massacred by the order of Trần Thủ Độ in the eighth lunar month of 1232. Trần Thái Tông was enthroned. There were several rebellions in Đại Việt at that time, so Trần Thủ Độ had to devote all of his efforts to consolidating the rule of Thái Tông in the royal court and over the country. Right after the coronation of the Emperor in 1226, Nguyễn Nộn and Đoàn Thượng rose in revolt in the mountainous region of Bắc Giang and Hải Dương. By both military and diplomatic measures, such as sending an army and by awarding two leaders of the revolt the title of Prince, Trần Thủ Độ was able to put down this revolt in 1229.
According to Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, Thái Tông and his wife, the Empress Chiêu Thánh, did not have their first son for some time. This situation worried the grand chancellor Trần Thủ Độ because he had profited from similar circumstances with the Emperor Lý Huệ Tông in overthrowing the Lý dynasty. Therefore, in 1237 Trần Thủ Độ decided to force Prince Hoài Trần Liễu, Thái Tông's elder brother, to give up his wife, Princess Thuận Thiên, for the Emperor when she had been pregnant with Trần Quốc Khang for three months. After the royal marriage, Thuận Thiên was entitled the new empress of the Trần dynasty, while Chiêu Thánh was downgraded to princess. Furious at losing his pregnant wife, Trần Liễu rose in revolt against the royal family. Meanwhile, Thái Tông felt awkward about the situation and decided to become a monk at Yên Tử Mountain in Quảng Ninh. Trần Thủ Độ persuaded Thái Tông to return to the throne, Trần Liễu had to surrender after judging that he could not stand with his fragile force.
All soldiers who participated in this revolt were killed. Fujian was the origin of the Trần ancestors who migrated to Vietnam under Trần Kinh along with a large amount of other Chinese during the Ly dynasty where they served as officials. Distinctl
An Dương Vương
An Dương Vương is the title of Thục Phán, who ruled over the kingdom of Âu Lạc from 257 to 207 BC. As the leader of the Âu Việt tribes, he defeated and seized the throne from the last Hùng king of the state of Văn Lang and united its people–known as the Lạc Việt—with the Âu Việt. In 208 BC, the capital Cổ Loa was attacked and the imperial citadel ransacked. An Dương Vương committed suicide. According to Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư and Khâm định Việt sử Thông giám cương mục, Thục Phán was a prince of the state of Shu, sent by his father first to explore what are now the southern Chinese provinces of Guangxi and Yunnan and second to move their people to modern-day northern Vietnam during the invasion of the Qin dynasty. However, this story is illogical, as Shu was conquered in 316BC and Thục Phán lived between 257-207BC; some modern Vietnamese believe. Thục Phán assembled an army and defeated the 18th dynasty of the Hùng king, the last line of rulers of the Hồng Bàng dynasty of Văn Lang, around 257 BC.
He proclaimed himself An Dương Vương and renamed Văn Lang as Âu Lạc after the names of the conquering and conquered peoples. He established his fortress and new capital on a rise above the Red River valley at Co Loa in present-day Hanoi's Dong Anh district, about 16 kilometers northeast of downtown. There is not much written about how the new Âu Lạc was administered and organized. Nonetheless, based on legendary records, he is assumed to have been an astute and significant figure, he was a talented general who knew how to exploit the confusion and turmoil in China during that period, not only to grab a piece of land for himself but to secure his state's prosperity and survival. Around that same time, various states were fighting for control of China; the Qin state rose to power and unified China under Emperor Qin Shi Huang. While Qin Shi Huang ordered the construction of the Great Wall, An Dương Vương had begun the construction of a spiral fortress called Cổ Loa Citadel to defend against invasions.
After Thục Phán defeated the last Hùng king and ascended to the throne as An Dương Vương, he renamed Văn Lang to Âu Lạc and established Cổ Loa Citadel as the new capital. He saw the geographic importance of Cổ Loa. On two of its sides, Cổ Loa was surrounded by impenetrable forests. There was a river flowing by. No one knows why An Dương Vương favored the spiral, shell-like shape of Cổ Loa Citadel, but legend has it that its construction was tough and difficult to complete; each time it seemed near completion, it was undone at night by a horde of evil spirits. An Dương Vương burnt incense, made offerings, evoked the gods to help him. One night, in a dream, an old and frail man with long, white hair came to him and told him the only person who could help him build his citadel was a golden turtle that lived somewhere around Cổ Loa. A few days while sitting in a boat on the river and thinking about the meaning of his dream, a giant golden turtle emerged from the water; the golden turtle told An Dương Vương that he would need one of its claws in order to accomplish his plan.
Pulling out one of its claws and throwing it to An Dương Vương, the turtle vanished. An Dương Vương had Cao Lỗ, his weaponry engineer, build a crossbow incorporating this claw which could shoot thousands of arrows at once. Indeed, right after obtaining this claw, An Dương Vương saw his fortunes change, his capital started taking shape. His kingdom soon was coveted by neighboring states. Among one of those who coveted his territory was Zhao Tuo, a Qin general who refused to surrender to the newly established Han Dynasty. For a period of ten years around 217 to 207 BC, Triệu Đà attempted many invasions to conquer Âu Lạc but failed each time due to An Dương Vương's military skills and defense tactics. Triệu Đà, having been beaten several times, devised a new plan, he negotiated a peace treaty with Âu Lạc. He determined to find out, he went so far as to propose marriage between An Dương Vương’s daughter, Princess Mỵ Châu and his son Trọng Thủy. In time Triệu Đà found out through his daughter-in-law Mỵ Châu that An Dương Vương had a magic crossbow that made him invincible.
Triệu Đà he told his son Trọng Thủy to sneak into his father-in-law's palace and steal this "magic crossbow", replacing it with a fake. Triệu Đà, with the magic crossbow in his hands, launched a new attack on his foe and in-law An Dương Vương; this time, Cổ Loa fortress fell into Triệu Đà's hands. An Dương Vương grabbed Mỵ Châu, his only daughter, fled the scene of the battle, he rode to the river and encountered the giant golden turtle, which told An Dương Vương, “The enemy is sitting right behind you!” Angered by his own daughter's betrayal, the king slew his daughter. He jumped into the river with the giant golden turtle. Trọng Thủy, searching for his beloved wife, arrived a few minutes at the scene; the body of his beloved wife was lying in a pool of blood and his father-in-law was nowhere to be seen. In accordance with conjugal fidelity and devotion, he drew his sword and killed himself as well, in order to be with his wife forever in eternity. In another version Trọng Thủy after discovering Mị Châu's body, he took her home.
When Trọng Thủy had Âu Lạc, he couldn't feel happy and missed Mị C