Binghamton, New York
Binghamton is a city in, the county seat of, Broome County, New York, United States. It lies in the state's Southern Tier region near the Pennsylvania border, in a bowl-shaped valley at the confluence of the Susquehanna and Chenango Rivers. Binghamton is the principal city and cultural center of the Binghamton metropolitan area, home to a quarter million people; the population of the city itself, according to the 2010 census, is 47,376. From the days of the railroad, Binghamton was a transportation crossroads and a manufacturing center, has been known at different times for the production of cigars and computers. IBM was founded nearby, the flight simulator was invented in the city, leading to a notable concentration of electronics- and defense-oriented firms; this sustained. However, following cuts made by defense firms after the end of the Cold War, the region has lost a significant portion of its manufacturing industry. Today, while there is a continued concentration of high-tech firms, Binghamton is emerging as a healthcare- and education-focused city, with the presence of Binghamton University acting as much of the driving force behind this revitalization.
The first known people of European descent to come to the area were the troops of the Sullivan Expedition in 1779, during the American Revolutionary War, who destroyed local villages of the Onondaga and Oneida tribes. The city was named after William Bingham, a wealthy Philadelphian who bought the 10,000 acre patent for the land in 1786 consisting of portions of the towns of Union and Chenango. Joshua Whitney, Jr. Bingham's land agent, chose land at the junction of the Chenango and Susquehanna Rivers to develop a settlement named Chenango Point, helped build its roads and erect the first bridge. Significant agricultural growth led to the incorporation of the village of Binghamton in 1834; the Chenango Canal, completed in 1837, connected Binghamton to the Erie Canal, was the impetus for the initial industrial development of the area. This growth accelerated with the completion of the Erie Railroad between Binghamton and New York City in 1849. With the Delaware and Western Railroad arriving soon after, the village became an important regional transportation center.
Several buildings of importance were built at this time, including the New York State Inebriate Asylum, opened in 1858 as the first center in the United States to treat alcoholism as a disease. Binghamton incorporated as a city in 1867 and, due to the presence of several stately homes, was nicknamed the Parlor City. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many immigrants moved to the area, finding an abundance of jobs. During the 1880s, Binghamton grew to become the second-largest manufacturer of cigars in the United States. However, by the early 1920s, the major employer of the region became Endicott Johnson, a shoe manufacturer whose development of welfare capitalism resulted in many amenities for local residents. An larger influx of Europeans immigrated to Binghamton, the working class prosperity resulted in the area being called the Valley of Opportunity. In 1913, 31 people perished in the Binghamton Clothing Company fire, which resulted in numerous reforms to the New York fire code. Major floods in 1935 and 1936 resulted in a number of deaths, washed out the Ferry Street Bridge.
The floods were devastating, resulted in the construction of flood walls along the length of the Susquehanna and Chenango Rivers. During the Second World War and corporate generosity continued as IBM, founded in greater Binghamton, emerged as a global technology leader. Along with Edwin Link's invention of the flight simulator in Binghamton, IBM transitioned the region to a high-tech economy. Other major manufacturers included General Electric; until the Cold War ended, the area never experienced an economic downfall, due in part to its defense-oriented industries. The population of the city of Binghamton peaked at around 85,000 in the mid-1950s. Post-war suburban development led to a decline in the city population, as the towns of Vestal and Union experienced rapid growth; as in many other Rust Belt cities, traditional manufacturers saw steep declines, though Binghamton's technology industry limited this impact. In an effort to reverse these trends, urban renewal dominated much of the construction during the 1960s and early 1970s, with many ornate city buildings torn down during this period.
The construction included the creation of Government Plaza, the Broome County Veterans Memorial Arena, the Brandywine Highway. As was typical of urban renewal, these projects failed to stem most of the losses, though they did establish Binghamton as the government and cultural center of the region; the city's population declined from 64,000 in 1969 to 56,000 by the early 1980s. As the Cold War came to a close in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union, the defense-related industries in the Binghamton area began to falter, resulting in several closures and widespread layoffs These were most notable at IBM, which sold its Federal Systems division and laid off several thousands of workers; the local economy went into a deep recession, the long-prevalent manufacturing jobs dropped by 64% from 1990 to 2013. A mass shooting took place on April 3, 2009, at the American Civic Association, leaving 14 dead, including the gunman. In the 21st century, the city has attempted to diversify its economic base in order to spur revitalization.
The local economy has transitioned towards a focus on services and healthcare. Major emphasis has been placed on Binghamton University, which built a downtown cam
Scranton is the sixth-largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. It is the county seat and largest city of Lackawanna County in Northeastern Pennsylvania's Wyoming Valley and hosts a federal court building for the United States District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania. With a population of 77,291, it is the largest city in the Scranton–Wilkes-Barre–Hazleton, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a population of about 570,000; the city is conventionally divided into 7 districts: North Scranton, Westside, East Scranton, Central City and Green Ridge, though these areas do not have legal status. Scranton is the geographic and cultural center of the Lackawanna River valley, the largest of the former anthracite coal mining communities in a contiguous quilt-work that includes Wilkes-Barre, Nanticoke and Carbondale. Scranton was incorporated on February 14, 1856, as a borough in Luzerne County and as a city on April 23, 1866, it became a major industrial city, a center of mining and railroads, attracted thousands of new immigrants.
It was the site of the Scranton General Strike in 1877. People in northern Luzerne County sought a new county in 1839 but the Wilkes-Barre area resisted losing its assets. Lackawanna County did not gain independent status until 1878. Under legislation allowing the issue to be voted by residents of the proposed territory, voters favored the new county by a proportion of 6 to 1, with Scranton residents providing the major support; the city was designated as the county seat when Lackawanna County was established in 1878, a judicial district was authorized in 1879. The city "took its first step toward earning its reputation as the "Electric City" when electric lights were introduced in 1880 at Dickson Locomotive Works. Six years the nation's first streetcars powered by electricity began operating in the city. Rev. David Spencer, a local Baptist minister proclaimed Scranton as the "Electric City". Present-day Scranton and its surrounding area had been long inhabited by the native Lenape tribe, from whose language "Lackawanna", is derived.
In 1778, Isaac Tripp, the area's first known European-American settler, built his home here. More settlers from Connecticut came to the area in the late 18th and early 19th centuries after the American Revolutionary War, as their state claimed this area as part of their colonial charter, they established mills and other small businesses in a village that became known as Slocum Hollow. People in the village during this time carried the traits and accent of their New England settlers, which were somewhat different from most of Pennsylvania; some area settlers from Connecticut participated in what was known as the Pennamite Wars, where settlers competed for control of the territory, included in royal colonial land grants to both states. Though anthracite coal was being mined in Carbondale to the north and Wilkes-Barre to the south, the industries that precipitated the city's early rapid growth were iron and steel. In the 1840s, brothers Selden T. and George W. Scranton, who had worked at Oxford Furnace in Belvidere, New Jersey, founded what became Lackawanna Iron & Coal developing as the Lackawanna Steel Company.
It started producing iron nails, but that venture failed due to low-quality iron. The Erie Railroad's construction in New York State was delayed by its having to acquire iron rails as imports from England; the Scrantons' firm decided to switch its focus to producing T-rails for the Erie. In 1851, the Scrantons built the Lackawanna and Western Railroad northward, with recent Irish immigrants supplying most of the labor, to meet the Erie Railroad in Great Bend, Pennsylvania, thus they could transport manufactured rails from the Lackawanna Valley to the Midwest. They invested in coal mining operations in the city to fuel their steel operations, to market it to businesses. In 1856, they expanded the railroad eastward as the Delaware and Western Railroad, in order to tap into the New York City metropolitan market; this railroad, with its hub in Scranton, was Scranton's largest employer for one hundred years. The Pennsylvania Coal Company built a gravity railroad in the 1850s through the city for the purpose of transporting coal.
The gravity railroad was replaced by a steam railroad built in 1886 by the Erie and Wyoming Valley Railroad. The Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, which had its own gravity railroad from Carbondale to Honesdale, built a steam railroad that entered Scranton in 1863. During this short period of time, the city transformed from a small, agrarian-based village of people with New England roots to a multicultural, industrial-based city. From 1860 to 1900, the city's population increased more than tenfold. Most new immigrants, such as the Irish and south Germans and Polish, were Catholic, a contrast to the majority-Protestant early settlers of colonial descent. National, ethnic and class differences were wrapped into political affiliations, with many new immigrants joining the Democratic Party In 1856, the Borough of Scranton was incorporated, it was incorporated as a city of 35,000 in 1866 in Luzerne County, when the surrounding boroughs of Hyde Park and Providence
Urban decay is the sociological process by which a functioning city, or part of a city, falls into disrepair and decrepitude. It may feature deindustrialization, depopulation or deurbanization, economic restructuring, abandoned buildings and infrastructure, high local unemployment, fragmented families, political disenfranchisement, a desolate cityscape, known as greyfield or urban prairie. Since the 1970s and 1980s, urban decay has been associated with Western cities in North America and parts of Europe. Since major structural changes in global economies and government policy created the economic and the social conditions resulting in urban decay; the effects counter the development of most of North America. In contrast, North American and British cities experience population flights to the suburbs and exurb commuter towns. Another characteristic of urban decay is blight—the visual and physical effects of living among empty lots and condemned houses. Urban decay has no single cause. During the Industrial Revolution, from the late eighteenth century to the early nineteenth century, rural people moved from the country to the cities for employment in manufacturing industry, thus causing the urban population boom.
However, subsequent economic change left many cities economically vulnerable. Studies such as the Urban Task Force, the Urban White Paper, a study of Scottish cities posit that areas suffering industrial decline—high unemployment, a decaying physical environment —prove "highly resistant to improvement". Changes in means of transport, from the public to the private—specifically, the private motor car—eliminated some of the cities' public transport service advantages, e.g. fixed-route buses and trains. In particular, at the end of World War II, many political decisions favored suburban development and encouraged suburbanization, by drawing city taxes from the cities to build new infrastructure for towns; the manufacturing sector has been a base for the prosperity of major cities. When the industries have relocated outside of cities, some have experienced population loss with associated urban decay, riots. Cut backs on police and fire services may result, while lobbying for government funded housing may increase.
Increased city taxes encourage residents to move out. Rent controls are enacted due to public pressure and complaints regarding the cost of living. Proponents of rent controls argue that rent controls combat inflation, stabilize the economic characteristics of a city's population, prevent rent gouging, improve the quality of housing. Capitalist economists have documented that rent control affects the supply and demand relationship in housing markets which can contribute to urban blight and does not provide the benefits its proponents advocate. Rent control contributes to urban blight by reducing new construction and investment in housing and deincentivizing maintenance. If a landlord's costs to perform maintenance consume too large a proportion of profit, revenue minus costs, from rent, the landlord will feel pressure to drastically reduce or eliminate maintenance entirely; this effect has been observed in New York City, a 2009 study by a lobbying firm found 29% of rent-controlled buildings were categorized as either deteriorated or dilapidated in contrast with 8% of non-rent-controlled housing.
The largest example of urban decay is Traverse City Michigan's Boardman Neighborhood. In the United States, the white middle class left the cities for suburban areas because of higher crime rates and perceived danger caused by African-American migration north toward cities after World War I —the so-called "white flight" phenomenon; some historians differentiate between the first Great Migration, numbering about 1.6 million Black migrants who left Southern rural areas to migrate to northern and midwestern industrial cities, after a lull during the Great Depression, a Second Great Migration, in which 5 million or more African-Americans moved, including many to California and various western cities. Between 1910 and 1970, Blacks moved from 14 states of the South Alabama, Louisiana and Texas to the other three cultural regions of the United States. More townspeople with urban skills moved during the second migration. By the end of the Second Great Migration, African Americans had become an urbanized population.
More than 80 percent lived in cities. A majority of 53 percent remained in the South, while 40 percent lived in the North and 7 percent in the West. From the 1930s until 1977, African-Americans seeking borrowed capital for housing and businesses were discriminated against via the federal-government–legislated discriminatory lending practices for the Federal Housing Administration via redlining. In 1977, the US Congress passed the Community Reinvestment Act, designed to encourage commercial banks and
Las Vegas the City of Las Vegas and known as Vegas, is the 28th-most populated city in the United States, the most populated city in the state of Nevada, the county seat of Clark County. The city anchors the Las Vegas Valley metropolitan area and is the largest city within the greater Mojave Desert. Las Vegas is an internationally renowned major resort city, known for its gambling, fine dining and nightlife; the Las Vegas Valley as a whole serves as the leading financial and cultural center for Nevada. The city bills itself as The Entertainment Capital of the World, is famous for its mega casino–hotels and associated activities, it is a top three destination in the United States for business conventions and a global leader in the hospitality industry, claiming more AAA Five Diamond hotels than any other city in the world. Today, Las Vegas annually ranks as one of the world's most visited tourist destinations; the city's tolerance for numerous forms of adult entertainment earned it the title of Sin City, has made Las Vegas a popular setting for literature, television programs, music videos.
Las Vegas was settled in 1905 and incorporated in 1911. At the close of the 20th century, it was the most populated American city founded within that century. Population growth has accelerated since the 1960s, between 1990 and 2000 the population nearly doubled, increasing by 85.2%. Rapid growth has continued into the 21st century, according to a 2018 estimate, the population is 648,224 with a regional population of 2,227,053; as with most major metropolitan areas, the name of the primary city is used to describe areas beyond official city limits. In the case of Las Vegas, this applies to the areas on and near the Las Vegas Strip, located within the unincorporated communities of Paradise and Winchester; the earliest visitors to the Las Vegas area were nomadic Paleo-Indians, who traveled there 10,000 years ago, leaving behind petroglyphs. Anasazi and Paiute tribes followed at least 2,000 years ago. A young Mexican scout named Rafael Rivera is credited as the first non-Native American to encounter the valley, in 1829.
Trader Antonio Armijo led a 60-man party along the Spanish Trail to Los Angeles, California in 1829. The area was named Las Vegas, Spanish for "the meadows," as it featured abundant wild grasses, as well as the desert spring waters needed by westward travelers; the year 1844 marked the arrival of John C. Frémont, whose writings helped lure pioneers to the area. Downtown Las Vegas's Fremont Street is named after him. Eleven years members of the LDS Church chose Las Vegas as the site to build a fort halfway between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles, where they would travel to gather supplies; the fort was abandoned several years afterward. The remainder of this Old Mormon Fort can still be seen at the intersection of Las Vegas Boulevard and Washington Avenue. Las Vegas was founded as a city in 1905, when 110 acres of land adjacent to the Union Pacific Railroad tracks were auctioned in what would become the downtown area. In 1911, Las Vegas was incorporated as a city. 1931 was a pivotal year for Las Vegas.
At that time, Nevada legalized casino gambling and reduced residency requirements for divorce to six weeks. This year witnessed the beginning of construction on nearby Hoover Dam; the influx of construction workers and their families helped Las Vegas avoid economic calamity during the Great Depression. The construction work was completed in 1935. In 1941, the Las Vegas Army Air Corps Gunnery School was established. Known as Nellis Air Force Base, it is home to the aerobatic team called the Thunderbirds. Following World War II, lavishly decorated hotels, gambling casinos, big-name entertainment became synonymous with Las Vegas. In the 1950s the Moulin Rouge opened and became the first racially integrated casino-hotel in Las Vegas. In 1951, nuclear weapons testing began at the Nevada Test Site, 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. During this time the city was nicknamed the "Atomic City". Residents and visitors were able to witness the mushroom clouds until 1963, when the limited Test Ban Treaty required that nuclear tests be moved underground.
The iconic "Welcome to Las Vegas" sign, never located within municipal limits, was created in 1959 by Betty Willis. During the 1960s, corporations and business powerhouses such as Howard Hughes were building and buying hotel-casino properties. Gambling was referred to as "gaming"; the year 1995 marked the opening of the Fremont Street Experience in Las Vegas's downtown area. This canopied five-block area features 12.5 million LED lights and 550,000 watts of sound from dusk until midnight during shows held on the top of each hour. Due to the realization of many revitalization efforts, 2012 was dubbed "The Year of Downtown." Hundreds of millions of dollars' worth of projects made their debut at this time. They included The Smith Center for the Performing Arts and DISCOVERY Children's Museum, Mob Museum, Neon Museum, a new City Hall complex and renovations for a new Zappos.com corporate headquarters in the old City Hall building. Las Vegas is situated within Clark County in a basin on the floor of the Mojave Desert and is surrounded by mountain ranges on all sides.
Much of the landscape is arid with desert vegetation and wildlife. It can be subjected to torrential flash floods, although much has been done to mitigate the effects of flash floods through improved drainage systems; the peaks surrounding Las Vegas reach elevations of o
Fire performance is a group of performance arts or skills that involve the manipulation of fire. Fire performance involves equipment or other objects made with one or more wicks which are designed to sustain a large enough flame to create a visual effect. Fire performance includes skills based on juggling, baton twirling, poi spinning, other forms of object manipulation, it includes skills such as fire breathing, fire eating, body burning. Fire performance has various styles of performance including fire dancing. Performances can be done as choreographed routines to music; some aspect of fire performance can be found in a wide variety of cultural traditions and rituals from around the world. Any performance involving fire carries inherent danger and risks, fire safety precautions should always be taken. Ancient Aztecs performed a fire dance dedicated to the god of fire; the Aztec fire dance is performed today for tourists in Mexico. In Bali, the Angel Dance and the Fire Dance performed for tourists, have origins in ancient rituals.
Both the Angel Dance and the Fire Dance originated in a trance ritual called the sanghyang, a ritual dance "performed to ward off witches at the time of an epidemic." Known as the "horse dance" men perform the dance by holding rods representing horses, while leaping around burning coconut husks, walking through the flames. French Polynesia, Antigua and Saint Lucia are other locations where fire dances are recreated for tourists; the Siddha Jats of the Thar Desert in India perform traditional fire dances as part of the Spring festival. Fire dancing is performed to music played on the behr. There are variations of the fire dancing. A large fire is allowed to burn down until it is a pit of glowing embers; the performers jump in and out of the pit kicking up the embers to create showers of sparks while women perform a dance while balancing flaming tin pots on their heads. Today this ritual is performed for tourists. Since the mid-1990s fire performance has grown in popularity; this growth has occurred both for professional practitioners.
Fire skills are performed at raves, beach parties, music festivals. A festival, popular with fire performers is at Burning Man, where the fire skills are prevalent. Fire performance has become popular as entertainment at corporate events, street festivals, celebration events and as a precursor to firework displays. Fire performance has become more popular through the availability of a wider variety of fire equipment and teaching methods. Traditional fire shows: Traditional shows incorporate Polynesian costuming and other cultural elements. Many conform to the guidelines or are inspired by the annual World Fireknife Competition and Samoa Festival. Modern fire shows: These shows vary from performances choreographed to music to street style shows with varying levels of audience interaction and participation. Modern fire shows can use a wide range of fire skills and props. See Pembrokeshire Fire Spinners. Fire theatre: Such shows are theatrical shows which include fire and fire performance as elements of staged dramatic presentations.
The fire performance is a small element of the larger show. These shows can focus less on technical skill. Fire fetish show: Such shows are recognizable by more overt sexuality in the performance and extremely risqué costuming and implied or actual sexual contact between performers, are seen as a fusion between exotic dancing or burlesque with fire dancing. Thus, fire fetish refers to a particular style of performance, not a sexual fetish on the part of the performer, as would pyrophilia. Erotic fire show: Such shows may be seen as a normal improvised fire dance but with emphasis on sexually arousing body gyrations, seductive facial expressions, an eroticised musical selection, minimal clothing of the performer, thus promoting sexual arousal or desire in addition to the expected visual entertainment for an audience. Unlike a fire fetish show, this performance is more low-key, slower in tempo, may be performed by a solo dancer in front of a small and select audience a spouse or romantic partner.
This performance can be an visually exciting form of ritual foreplay. However this type of show is enticing to a select audience. Ritual fire show: Such shows are a fusion of pagan or occult ceremony with fire and fire performance, they focus less on technical skill, more on the use of the fire dancer to highlight the ritual or represent the specific element of fire. Fire and belly dance: Such shows are a fusion of Middle Eastern belly dancing and combine elements of fire dancing and belly dancing; the dancers use palm torches and fire swords made to resemble scimitars. Fire comedy jugglers combine juggling and comedy; this can include lighting parts of their body on fire. Fire performance is performed with props that have been made for the purpose. Fire torches, fire staffs, fire poi, fire hula hoops, fire whips, other fire props are all available. Poi – A pair of arm-length chains with handles attached to one end, bundle of wicking material on the other. Staff – A metal or wooden tube ranging from 1–2 meters long with wicki
Burlington is the most populous city in the U. S. state of Vermont and the seat of Chittenden County. It is located 45 miles south of the Canada–United States border and 94 miles south of Montreal; the city's population was 42,452 according to a 2015 U. S. census estimate. It is the least populous municipality in the United States to be the most populous incorporated area in a state. A regional college town, Burlington is home to the University of Vermont and Champlain College, a small private college. Vermont's largest hospital, the UVM Medical Center, is located within the city limits; the City of Burlington owns the state of Vermont's largest airport, the Burlington International Airport, in neighboring South Burlington. In 2015, Burlington became the first city in the U. S. to run on renewable energy. Two theories have been put forward regarding the origin of Burlington's name; the first is that it was named after Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, the second is that the name honors the politically prominent and wealthy Burling family of New York.
While no Burling family members are listed as grantees of the town, the family held large tracts of land in nearby towns, some of which were granted on the same day as Burlington. One of the New Hampshire grants, the land, developed as Burlington was awarded by New Hampshire colonial governor Benning Wentworth on June 7, 1763, to Samuel Willis and 63 others. In the summer of 1775, settlers began clearing land and built two or three log huts, but the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War delayed permanent settlement until after its conclusion. In 1783, Stephen Lawrence arrived with his family; the town was organized in 1785. The War of 1812 was unpopular in Vermont and New England, which had numerous trading ties with Canada. Neither Vermont nor other New England states provided financial support. Vermont voters supported the Federalist Party. At one point during the war, the U. S. had 5,000 troops stationed in Burlington, outnumbering residents and putting a strain on resources. About 500 soldiers died of disease, always a problem due to poor sanitation in army camps.
Some soldiers were quartered in the main building at the University of Vermont, where a memorial plaque commemorates them. In a skirmish on August 2, 1813, British forces from Canada shelled Burlington; this is described as either a bold stroke by the British with an ineffectual response from the Americans, or a weak sally by the British, rightly ignored by the Americans. The cannonade caused no casualties; the American troops involved were commanded by Naval Lieutenant Thomas Macdonough hero of the Battle of Lake Champlain. The town's position on Lake Champlain helped it develop into a port of entry and center for trade after completion of the Champlain Canal in 1823, the Erie Canal in 1825, the Chambly Canal in 1843. Wharves allowed steamboats to connect freight and passengers with the Rutland & Burlington Railroad and Vermont Central Railroad. Burlington became a bustling lumbering and manufacturing center and was incorporated as a city in 1865, its Victorian era prosperity left behind much fine architecture, including buildings by Ammi B.
Young, H. H. Richardson, McKim, Mead & White. In 1870, the waterfront was extended by construction of the Pine Street Barge Canal; this became polluted over the years and was a focus for cleanup in 2009 under the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund program. In 1978, the ice cream enterprise Ben & Jerry's was founded in Burlington in a renovated gas station, it became a national brand, with retail outlets in numerous cities. In 2007, the city was named one of the top four "places to watch" in the United States by the American Association of Retired Persons; the ratings were based on. Criteria included the factors that make a community livable: new urbanism, smart growth, mixed-use development, easy-living standards. Forbes magazine ranked the city in 2010 as one of the "prettiest" towns in America, featuring a picture of the Church Street Marketplace on its cover. Burlington is situated on the eastern shore of Lake Champlain, north of Shelburne Bay, it was built on a strip of land extending about 6 miles south from the mouth of the Winooski River along the lake shore, rises from the water's edge to a height of 300 feet.
A large ravine in what is now downtown was filled in with refuse and raw sewage in the 19th century to make way for further development. Burlington's neighborhoods are recognized by residents, but have no legal or political authority. Downtown: The city's commercial hub is north of Maple Street, south of Pearl Street, west of Willard Street. Hill Section: Burlington's wealthiest neighborhood is east of U. S. Route 7 and south of U. S. excludes UVM and University Terrace, while including all of Champlain College. The Hill Section is; the Intervale: The Intervale cannot be considered a neighborhood but is a large area encompassing many locally owned organic farms and natural preserves along the Winooski River. It is included on this list because its total area is larger than that of most neighborhoods in Burlington. New North End: Burlington's most populous neighborhood, a northwest suburban extension of the city, includes all points north of Burlington High School, as well as Leddy Park and North Beach, is west of Vermont Route 127.
Old North End: Burlington's oldest and most densely populated neighborhood is north of all properties along Pearl Street, west of
Portland is a city in the U. S. state of Maine, with a population of 67,067 as of 2017. The Greater Portland metropolitan area is home to over half a million people, more than one-third of Maine's total population, making it the most populous metro in northern New England. Portland is Maine's economic center, with an economy that relies on tourism; the Old Port district is known for its 19th-century nightlife. Marine industry still plays an important role in the city's economy, with an active waterfront that supports fishing and commercial shipping; the Port of Portland is the largest tonnage seaport in New England. The city has seen growth in the technology sector, with companies such as WEX building headquarters in the city; the city seal depicts a phoenix rising from ashes, a reference to the recoveries from four devastating fires. Portland was named after the English Isle of Dorset. In turn, the city of Portland, Oregon was named after Maine. Portland itself comes from the Old English word Portlanda, which means "land surrounding a harbor".
Native Americans called the Portland peninsula Machigonne. Portland was named for the English Isle of Portland, the city of Portland, was in turn named for Portland, Maine; the first European settler was Capt. Christopher Levett, an English naval captain granted 6,000 acres in 1623 to found a settlement in Casco Bay. A member of the Council for New England and agent for Ferdinando Gorges, Levett built a stone house where he left a company of ten men returned to England to write a book about his voyage to bolster support for the settlement; the settlement was a failure and the fate of Levett's colonists is unknown. The explorer sailed from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony to meet John Winthrop in 1630, but never returned to Maine. Fort Levett in the harbor is named for him; the peninsula was settled in 1632 as a trading village named Casco. When the Massachusetts Bay Colony took over Casco Bay in 1658, the town's name changed again to Falmouth. In 1676, the village was destroyed by the Abenaki during King Philip's War.
It was rebuilt. During King William's War, a raiding party of French and their native allies attacked and destroyed it again in the Battle of Fort Loyal. On October 18, 1775, Falmouth was burned in the Revolution by the Royal Navy under command of Captain Henry Mowat. Following the war, a section of Falmouth called The Neck developed as a commercial port and began to grow as a shipping center. In 1786, the citizens of Falmouth formed a separate town in Falmouth Neck and named it Portland, after the isle off the coast of Dorset, England. Portland's economy was stressed by the Embargo Act of 1807, which ended in 1809, the War of 1812, which ended in 1815. In 1820, Maine was established as a state with Portland as its capital. In 1832, the capital was moved East to Augusta. In 1851, Maine led the nation by passing the first state law prohibiting the sale of alcohol except for "medicinal, mechanical or manufacturing purposes." The law subsequently became known as the Maine law, as 18 states followed.
On June 2, 1855, the Portland Rum Riot occurred. In 1853, upon completion of the Grand Trunk Railway to Montreal, Portland became the primary ice-free winter seaport for Canadian exports; the Portland Company manufactured more than 600 19th-century steam locomotives. Portland became a 20th-century rail hub as five additional rail lines merged into Portland Terminal Company in 1911. Following nationalization of the Grand Trunk system in 1923, Canadian export traffic was diverted from Portland to Halifax, Nova Scotia, resulting in marked local economic decline. In the 20th century, icebreakers enabled ships to reach Montreal in winter, drastically reducing Portland's role as a winter port for Canada. On June 26, 1863, a Confederate raiding party led by Captain Charles Read entered the harbor at Portland leading to the Battle of Portland Harbor, one of the northernmost battles of the Civil War; the 1866 Great Fire of Portland, Maine, on July 4, 1866, ignited during the Independence Day celebration, destroyed most of the commercial buildings in the city, half the churches and hundreds of homes.
More than 10,000 people were left homeless. By act of the Maine Legislature in 1899, Portland annexed the city of Deering, despite a vote by Deering residents rejecting the annexation, thereby increasing the size of the city and opening areas for development beyond the peninsula; the construction of The Maine Mall, an indoor shopping center established in the suburb of South Portland, during the 1970s, economically depressed downtown Portland. The trend reversed when tourists and new businesses started revitalizing the old seaport, a part of, known locally as the Old Port. Since the 1990s, the industrial Bayside neighborhood has seen rapid development, including attracting a Whole Foods and Trader Joes supermarkets, as well as Baxter Academy, an popular charter school. Other developing neighborhoods include the India Street neighborhood near the Ocean Gateway and Munjoy Hill, where many modern condos have been built; the Maine College of Art has been a revitalizing force downtown, attracting students from around the country.
The historic Porteous building on Congress Street was restored by the College. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 69.44 square miles, of which 21.31 square miles is land and 48.13 square miles is water. Portland is situated on a peninsula in Casco Bay on the Gulf of Maine and