Black Sea Region
The Black Sea Region is a geographical region of Turkey. It is bordered by the Marmara Region to the west, the Central Anatolia Region to the south, the Eastern Anatolia Region to the southeast, the Republic of Georgia to the northeast, the Black Sea to the north. Western Black Sea Section Inner Western Black Sea Area Küre Mountains Area Central Black Sea Section Canik Mountains Area Inner Central Black Sea Area Eastern Black Sea Section Eastern Black Sea Coast Area Upper Kelkit - Çoruh Gully Euxine-Colchic deciduous forests Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Provinces that are in the Black Sea Region: Amasya Bartın Giresun Kastamonu Karabük Ordu Rize Samsun Sinop Tokat Trabzon ZonguldakProvinces that are in the Black Sea Region: Artvin Bayburt Çorum DüzceProvinces that are in the Black Sea Region: Ankara Ardahan Çankırı Erzincan Erzurum Sivas Yozgat The Black Sea region's population is 8,439,213 based on the 2010 census. 4,137,166 people live in 4,301,747 people in villages.
This makes it the only one of the seven regions of Turkey in which more people live in rural rather than urban areas. Though the overwhelming majority is Turkish, the east of the region is inhabited by the Laz, a people who speak a Kartvelian language, related to Georgian and converted to Islam from Georgian Orthodoxy in the late Ottoman period as well as Muslim Georgians the Hemsin, Armenian converts to Islam, Pontic Greeks, who converted to Islam in the 17th century. While a large community of Christian Pontic Greeks remained throughout the Pontus area until the 1920s, in parts of Georgia and Armenia until the 2010s, preserving their own customs and dialect of Greek, the vast majority have since left to Greece. However, most Muslim Pontic Greeks remained in Turkey; the Black Sea region has a steep, rocky coast with rivers that cascade through the gorges of the coastal ranges. A few larger rivers, those cutting back through the Pontic Mountains, have tributaries that flow in broad, elevated basins.
Access inland from the coast is limited to a few narrow valleys because mountain ridges, with elevations of 1,525 to 1,800 meters in the west and 3,000 to 4,000 meters in the east in Kaçkar Mountains, form an unbroken wall separating the coast from the interior. The higher slopes facing northwest tend to be densely forested; because of these natural conditions, the Black Sea coast has been isolated from Anatolia. The mild, damp oceanic climate of the Black Sea coast makes commercial farming profitable. Running from Zonguldak in the west to Rize in the east, the narrow coastal strip widens at several places into fertile, intensely cultivated deltas; the Samsun area, close to the midpoint, is a major tobacco-growing region. East of Samsun, the area around Trabzon is world-renowned for the production of hazelnuts, farther east the Rize region has numerous tea plantations. All cultivable areas, including mountain slopes wherever they are not too steep, are sown or used as pasture; the western part of the Black Sea region the Zonguldak area, is a center of coal mining and heavy industry.
The North Anatolian Mountains in the north are an interrupted chain of folded highlands that parallel the Black Sea coast. In the west, the mountains tend to be low, with elevations exceeding 1,500 meters, but they rise in an easterly direction to heights greater than 3,000 meters south of Rize. Lengthy, trough-like valleys and basins characterize the mountains. Rivers flow from the mountains toward the Black Sea; the southern slopes—facing the Anatolian Plateau—are unwooded, but the northern slopes contain dense growths of both deciduous and evergreen trees. Black Sea region has an oceanic climate. At the coast, summers are warm and humid, winters are cool and damp; the Black Sea coast receives the greatest amount of precipitation and is the only region of Turkey that receives high precipitation throughout the year. The eastern part of that coast averages 2,500 millimeters annually, the highest precipitation in the country. Snowfall is quite common between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two, it can be heavy once it snows.
The water temperature in the whole Turkish Black Sea coast is always cool and fluctuates between 8° and 20 °C throughout the year. Those who dislike the heat and humidity of the summer in the Mediterranean and Aegean regions of Turkey, escape to the plateaux of the mountains in the Black Sea region which are permanently cloudy and receive immense amounts of rain and are attractive with rich flora and fauna, crater lakes, rivers, streams and nature walk, rafting and winter sports and fishing, grass skiing, healing water and local dishes. Provinces of Turkey List of fish of the Black Sea Trabzon Province World Trade Center Trabzon Geography of Turkey Black Sea topics Serander.net: Blacksea Region Culture Giresunda.com: Karadeniz 9sn.net/Turkiye: Karadeniz Resimleri
Southeastern Anatolia Region
The Southeastern Anatolia Region is a geographical region of Turkey. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Region to the west, the Eastern Anatolia Region to the north, Syria to the south, Iraq to the southeast. Middle Euphrates Section Gaziantep Area Şanlıurfa Area Tigris Section Diyarbakır Area Mardin - Midyat Area Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Zagros Mountains forest steppe Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Provinces that are in the Southeastern Anatolia Region: Mardin ŞanlıurfaProvinces that are in the Southeastern Anatolia Region: Adıyaman Batman Diyarbakır Gaziantep SiirtProvinces that are in the Southeastern Anatolia Region: Bitlis Bingöl Kahramanmaraş Kilis Malatya Southeastern Anatolia Region has an area of 59,176 km2 and is the second smallest region of Turkey. Southeastern Anatolia Region has a semi-arid continental climate with hot and dry summers and cold and snowy winters. Tourism information is available in English at the Southeastern Anatolian Promotion Project site.
Provinces of Turkey Southeastern Anatolia travel guide from Wikivoyage
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately
Ankara known as Ancyra and Angora, is the capital of Turkey. With a population of 4,587,558 in the urban center and 5,150,072 in its province, it is Turkey's second largest city after Istanbul, having outranked İzmir in the 20th century. On 23 April 1920 the Grand National Assembly of Turkey was established in Ankara, which became the headquarters of Atatürk and the Turkish National Movement during the Turkish War of Independence. Ankara became the new Turkish capital upon the establishment of the Republic on 29 October 1923, succeeding in this role the former Turkish capital Istanbul following the fall of the Ottoman Empire; the government is a prominent employer, but Ankara is an important commercial and industrial city, located at the center of Turkey's road and railway networks. The city gave its name to the Angora wool shorn from Angora rabbits, the long-haired Angora goat, the Angora cat; the area is known for its pears and muscat grapes. Although situated in one of the driest places of Turkey and surrounded by steppe vegetation except for the forested areas on the southern periphery, Ankara can be considered a green city in terms of green areas per inhabitant, at 72 square metres per head.
Ankara is a old city with various Hittite, Hellenistic, Roman and Ottoman archaeological sites. The historical center of town is a rocky hill rising 150 m over the left bank of the Ankara Çayı, a tributary of the Sakarya River, the classical Sangarius; the hill remains crowned by the ruins of the old citadel. Although few of its outworks have survived, there are well-preserved examples of Roman and Ottoman architecture throughout the city, the most remarkable being the 20 BC Temple of Augustus and Rome that boasts the Monumentum Ancyranum, the inscription recording the Res Gestae Divi Augusti; the orthography of the name Ankara has varied over the ages. It has been identified with the Hittite cult center Ankuwaš, although this remains a matter of debate. In classical antiquity and during the medieval period, the city was known as Ánkyra in Greek and Ancyra in Latin. Following its annexation by the Seljuk Turks in 1073, the city became known in many European languages as Angora; the form "Angora" is preserved in the names of breeds of many different kinds of animals, in the names of several locations in the US.
Ankara has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate which borders a hot summer Mediterranean continental climate. Under the Trewartha climate classification, Ankara has a middle latitude steppe climate. Due to its elevation and inland location, Ankara has cold, somewhat snowy winters and hot, dry summers. Rainfall occurs during the spring and autumn. Ankara lies in USDA Hardiness zone 7b, its annual average precipitation is low at 400 millimeters precipitation can be observed throughout the year. Monthly mean temperatures range from 0.3 °C in January to 23.5 °C in July, with an annual mean of 12.02 °C. Ankara had a population of 75,000 in 1927. In 2013, Ankara Province had a population of 5,045,083; when Ankara became the capital of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, it was designated as a planned city for 500,000 future inhabitants. During the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s, the city grew in a planned and orderly pace. However, from the 1950s onward, the city grew much faster than envisioned, because unemployment and poverty forced people to migrate from the countryside into the city in order to seek a better standard of living.
As a result, many illegal houses called gecekondu were built around the city, causing the unplanned and uncontrolled urban landscape of Ankara, as not enough planned housing could be built fast enough. Although precariously built, the vast majority of them have electricity, running water and modern household amenities. Many of these gecekondus have been replaced by huge public housing projects in the form of tower blocks such as Elvankent, Eryaman and Güzelkent. Although many gecekondus still remain, they too are being replaced by mass housing compounds, as empty land plots in the city of Ankara for new construction projects are becoming impossible to find; the region's history can be traced back to the Bronze Age Hattic civilization, succeeded in the 2nd millennium BC by the Hittites, in the 10th century BC by the Phrygians, by the Lydians, Greeks, Romans and Turks. The oldest settlements in and around the city center of Ankara belonged to the Hattic civilization which existed during the Bronze Age and was absorbed c.
2000–1700 BC by the Indo-European Hittites. The city grew in size and importance under the Phrygians starting around 1000 BC, experienced a large expansion following the mass migration from Gordion, after an earthquake which damaged that city around that time. In Phrygian tradition, King Midas was venerated as the founder of Ancyra, but Pausanias mentions that the city was far older, which accords with present archaeological knowledge. Phrygian rule was succeeded first by Lydian and by Persian rule, though the Phrygian character of the peasantry remained, as evidenced by the gravestones of the much Roman period. Persian sovereignty lasted until the Persians' defeat at the
Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes. Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities—not where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. Geography is defined in terms of two branches: human geography and physical geography. Human geography deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Physical geography deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere; the four historical traditions in geographical research are: spatial analyses of natural and the human phenomena, area studies of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships, the Earth sciences. Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical sciences".
Geography is a systematic study of its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with place names. Although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartology, this is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the space and the temporal database distribution of phenomena and features as well as the interaction of humans and their environment; because space and place affect a variety of topics, such as economics, climate and animals, geography is interdisciplinary. The interdisciplinary nature of the geographical approach depends on an attentiveness to the relationship between physical and human phenomena and its spatial patterns. Names of places...are not geography...know by heart a whole gazetteer full of them would not, in itself, constitute anyone a geographer. Geography has higher aims than this: it seeks to classify phenomena, to compare, to generalize, to ascend from effects to causes, and, in doing so, to trace out the laws of nature and to mark their influences upon man.
This is ` a description of the world' --. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause and effect. Just as all phenomena exist in time and thus have a history, they exist in space and have a geography. Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main subsidiary fields: human geography and physical geography; the former focuses on the built environment and how humans create, view and influence space. The latter examines the natural environment, how organisms, soil and landforms produce and interact; the difference between these approaches led to a third field, environmental geography, which combines physical and human geography and concerns the interactions between the environment and humans. Physical geography focuses on geography as an Earth science, it aims to understand the physical problems and the issues of lithosphere, atmosphere and global flora and fauna patterns. Physical geography can be divided into many broad categories, including: Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape the human society.
It encompasses the human, cultural and economic aspects. Human geography can be divided into many broad categories, such as: Various approaches to the study of human geography have arisen through time and include: Behavioral geography Feminist geography Culture theory Geosophy Environmental geography is concerned with the description of the spatial interactions between humans and the natural world, it requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment. Environmental geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and the physical geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields. Furthermore, as human relationship with the environment has changed as a result of globalization and technological change, a new approach was needed to understand the changing and dynamic relationship. Examples of areas of research in the environmental geography include: emergency management, environmental management and political ecology.
Geomatics is concerned with the application of computers to the traditional spatial techniques used in cartography and topography. Geomatics emerged from the quantitative revolution in geography in the mid-1950s. Today, geomatics methods include spatial analysis, geographic information systems, remote sensing, global positioning systems. Geomatics has led to a revitalization of some geography departments in Northern America where the subject had a declining status during the 1950s. Regional geography is concerned with the description of the unique characteristics of a particular region such as its natural or human elements; the main aim is to understand, or define the uniqueness, or character of a particular region that consists of natural as well as human elements. Attention is paid to regionalization, which covers the proper techniques of space delimitation into regions. Urban planning, regional planning, spatial planning: Use the science of geography to assist in determining how to develop the land to meet particular criteria, such as safety, economic opportunities, the preservation of the built or natural heritage, so on.
The planning of towns, c
Mediterranean Region, Turkey
The Mediterranean Region is a geographical region of Turkey. It is bordered by the Aegean Region to the west, the Central Anatolia Region to the north, the Eastern Anatolia Region to the northeast, the Southeastern Anatolia Region to the east, Syria to the southeast, the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Adana Section Çukurova - Taurus Mountains Area Antakya - Kahramanmaraş Area Antalya Section Antalya Area Göller Area Taşeli - Mut Area Teke Area Central Anatolian steppe Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Provinces that are in the Mediterranean Region: Adana Antalya Mersin Burdur Hatay Isparta OsmaniyeProvinces that are in the Mediterranean Region: Kahramanmaraş Kilis KaramanProvinces that are in the Mediterranean Region: Konya Niğde Kayseri Denizli Gaziantep Muğla Mediterranean Region is a mountainous region. Toros Mountains, a mountain chain from west to east, covers most of the region.
Another chain is Amonos Mountains. The mountains run in parallel to sea and in most places the mountains meet the sea except in coastal plains; the coastal plains were formed in the lower courses of the rivers. The most important coastal plain is Çukurova in the eastern part of the region, it was formed by three rivers, Berdan and Ceyhan. Main lakes of the region, like Lake Beyşehir, Lake Eğridir and Lake Burdur which form a closed basin are in the north west of the region; the capital of each province is a city bearing the name of the province except Antakya, the capital city of Hatay Province. However, as the provinces are the administrative units their border lines do not match that of the region, thus the region includes the eastern part of Muğla Province as well as southern parts of the neighbouring provinces like Konya Province, Karaman Province and Niğde Province. On the other hand and eastern parts of Kahramanmaraş Province are not included in Mediterranean region; the Mediterranean Region has a Mediterranean climate at the coast, with hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters and a semi-arid continental climate in the interior with hot, dry summers and cold, snowy winters.
Provinces of Turkey Mediterranean Turkey travel guide from Wikivoyage
Eastern Anatolia Region
The Eastern Anatolia Region is a geographical region of Turkey. The region and the name "Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi" were defined at the First Geography Congress in 1941, it has the highest average altitude, largest geographical area, lowest population density of all regions of Turkey. Prior to getting its current name from the Turkish state, most of the region was part of the Six Armenian provinces in the region known as the Armenian Highlands. After the Armenian Genocide, the geopolitical term "Eastern Anatolia" was coined to replace what had been known as Western Armenia. Beginning in 1880, the name Armenia was forbidden to be used in official Ottoman documents, in an attempt to censor the history of Armenians in their own homeland; the government of Sultan Abdul Hamid II replaced the name Armenia with such terms as "Kurdistan" or "Anatolia". The Sublime Porte believed; the process of “nationalization” of toponyms was continued by the Kemalists, who were the ideological successors of the Young Turks, gained momentum during the Republican period.
Starting from 1923 the entire territory of Western Armenia was renamed “Eastern Anatolia”. The word Anatolia means “sunrise” or “east” in Greek; this name was given to the Asia Minor peninsula in the 5th or 4th centuries B. C. During the Ottoman era, the term Anadolou included the north-eastern vilayets of Asia Minor with Kyotahia as its center; the numerous European, Armenian, Persian and other primary sources did not confuse the term Armenia with Anatolia. This testifies, inter alia, to the fact that after the loss of its statehood the Armenian nation still constituted a majority in its homeland, recognized by Ottoman occupiers as well; the Armenian Highlands have been situated to the east of Anatolia, with the border between them located near Sivas and Kayseri. Therefore, it is incorrect to refer to Armenia as part of "Eastern Anatolia". In the 17th century, when the Armenian Question was not yet included into the international diplomacy agenda, the terms "Anatolia" or "Eastern Anatolia" were never used to indicate Armenia.
Furthermore, the "Islamic World Map" of the 16th century and other Ottoman maps of the 18th and 19th centuries have indicated Armenia on a specific territory as well as its cities. Armenia, together with its boundaries, was unequivocally mentioned in the works of earlier Ottoman historians and chroniclers until the end of the 19th century. Kâtip Çelebi, a famous Ottoman chronicler of the 17th century, had a special chapter titled “About the Country Called Armenia” in his book Jihan Numa. However, when this book was republished in 1957, its modern Turkish editor H. Selen changed this title into “Eastern Anatolia”. Osman Nuri, a historian of the second half of the 19th century, mentions Armenia in his three-volume Abdul Hamid and the Period of His Reign. In the 1960s, the Swiss airline Swissair removed the nomenclature'plateau arménien' from the maps provided by their planes at the request of the Turkish ambassador in Bern. Upper Euphrates Section Erzurum - Kars Section Upper Murat - Van Section Upper Murat Area Van Area Hakkari Section Provinces that are in the Eastern Anatolia Region: Ağrı Bingöl Elazığ Hakkari Iğdır Kars Tunceli VanProvinces that are in the Eastern Anatolia Region: Ardahan Erzurum Şırnak The Eastern Anatolia Region is located in the easternmost part of Turkey.
It is bounded by Turkey's Central Anatolia Region to the west. The area of the region is 146,330 km ²; the total population of the region is 6,100,000 and 5,906,565. The region has the second most rural population of Turkey after the Black Sea region; the migration level is high and population density is lower than the average for Turkey. The migration toward other Turkey's regions and toward foreign countries is higher than the natural population increase, a fact, leading to a slight decline of the Region's population; the average altitude is 2,200 m. Major geographic features include plains and massifs. There is some volcanic activity today. Massifs and mountains There are three massif lines running north-south: To the north, the Çimen Dağı, Kop Dağı and Yalnızçam mountains In the centre, the Munzur, Karasu Dağı, Aras Dağı mountains To the south, Southeast Tauros, Hakkâri, Buzul mountains; the volcanic mountains Nemrut, Süphan, Tendürek and Ararat are in the region. Plateaus and plains The largest plateau in the region is Erzurum-Kars Plato.
The region includes the Van Lake basin. Lakes Rivers Since most of the region is far from the sea, has high altitude, it has a harsh continental climate with long winters and short summers. During the winter, it is cold and snowy, during summer the weather is cool in the highlands and warm in the lowlands; the region has the lowest average temperature of all Turkish regions, with -25 °C. Although it can get below -40 °C; the summer average is about 20 °C. The region's annual temperature difference is the highest in Turkey; some areas in the region hav