Château Latour is a French wine estate, rated as a First Growth under the 1855 Bordeaux Classification, owned by Groupe Artemis. Latour lies at the southeastern tip of the commune of Pauillac in the Médoc region to the north-west of Bordeaux, at its border with Saint-Julien, only a few hundred metres from the banks of the Gironde estuary; the estate produces three red wines in all. In addition to its Grand vin, Latour has produced the second wine Les Forts de Latour since 1966, a third wine named Pauillac, has been released every year since 1989. An impériale of Château Latour sold for £135,000 in 2011; the site has been occupied since at least 1331 when Tor à Saint-Lambert was built by Gaucelme de Castillon, the estate dating to at least 1378. A garrison fort was built 300 metres from the estuary to guard against attack during the Hundred Years' War; the tower, the name mutating with time to La Tour en Saint-Mambert and Saint-Maubert, gave its name to the estate around the fortress and was in English hands until the Battle of Castillon in 1453, its complete destruction by the forces of the King of France.
The original tower no longer exists, but in the 1620s a circular tower was built on the estate named after Simon Ledwidge and though it is designed as a pigeon roost, it remains a strong symbol of the vineyard. Though two centuries apart, this building is said to have been constructed using the original edifice. Vines have existed on the site since the 14th century, Latour's wine received some early recognition, discussed as early as in the 16th century in Essays by Montaigne. Near the end of the 16th century, the estate's several smallholdings had been accumulated by the de Mullet family into one property. From 1670 began a lineage of connected family ownership not broken until 1963, when the estate was acquired by the de Chavannes family, passed by marriage to the de Clauzel family in 1677; when Alexandre de Ségur married Marie-Thérèse de Clauzel, Latour became a part of his vast property, to which he added Château Lafite in 1716, just prior to his death. In 1718 his son Nicolas-Alexandre de Ségur added Château Mouton and Château Calon-Ségur to his holdings and began producing wines of great quality.
The widespread reputation of Latour emerged at the beginning of the 18th century when its status was established on export markets such as England, alongside chateaux Lafite and Pontac. With the death of Nicolas-Alexandre Ségur in 1755 the estate was divided among four daughters, three of whom inherited Latour in 1760, with absent landlords, Latour was managed by a regisseur charged with efficient administration and thorough correspondence with the owners. Receiving more care than under the late owner whose favourite had been Lafite, Latour improved in the half of the century, became a favourite of Thomas Jefferson minister to France, when he categorised La Tour de Ségur as a vineyard of first quality in 1787. With the onset of the French Revolution, the property became divided; the Comte de Ségur-Cabanac fled France and his portion was auctioned off by the state in 1794, passing through several owners. The estate was not reunited until 1841, when the family succeeded in a plot to put the estate up for sale, emerged after an auction having regained the 20% shares owned by négociants Barton and Johnston.
The Société Civile de Château Latour was formed in 1842, exclusive to the family, who had become shareholders. Ahead of the International Exhibition in Paris, the selection of Latour as one of the four First Growths in the Classification of 1855 consolidated its reputation, ensured its high prices; the present château was completed in 1864. In 1963 the estate left the Ségur family named de Beaumont, when the heirs sold three-quarters of the Château Latour shares to the British interests of the Pearson Group under control of Lord Cowdray, with shares owned by Harvey's of Bristol. Henri Martin and Jean-Paul Gardère were appointed as managers which brought about substantial innovations. Investments were made in research, vineyards were expanded by acquisition and replanting, the chai was extended and Latour became the first of the first growths to modernise their whole production, replacing the old oak fermenting vats with stainless steel temperature-controlled vats; the second wine with fruit from younger vines was initiated, fruit for the grand vin was decided to come from the vineyards shown on the plan of the domain from 1759.
Martin and Gardère formally resigned from the Conseil d'Administration in 1987, ending a 24-year era. In 1989 Latour was purchased by Allied Lyons for around £110 million, but in 1993 returned to French ownership when bought by businessman François Pinault for £86 million when it became part of his holding company Groupe Artemis. In December 2008 it was reported; the Sunday Times speculated that among the interested parties were wine mogul Bernard Magrez, with actors Gérard Depardieu and Carole Bouquet, in a transaction which would bring one of the five first growths under the control of a resident Bordelais for the first time in several decades. The estate has 78 hectares of vineyard, of which a 47-hectare portion near the château is named l'Enclos, where fruit exclusive to the grand vin is grown; the composition of grape varieties is 80% Cabernet Sauvignon, 18% Merlot, 2% of Cabernet Franc and Petit Verdot. The grand vin Chateau Latour a blend of 75% Cabernet Sauvignon, 20% Merlot, with the remainder Petit Verdot and Cabernet Franc has an annual production of 18,000 cases.
The second wine Les Forts de Latour, typical
Château Malartic-Lagravière Domaine de Lagravière, is a Bordeaux wine from the Pessac-Léognan appellation, ranked among the Crus Classés for red and white wine in the Classification of Graves wine of 1953 and 1959. The winery and vineyards are located south of the city of Bordeaux, in the commune of Léognan; the Domaine de Lagravière was bought in 1803 by Pierre de Malartic whose uncle, Comte de Malartic through battles against the British in Canada and Mauritius brought fame to the name and the maritime theme, associated with this estate. The Malartic name was not applied to the estate until after 1850 however; the estate has belonged to the Bonnie family since 1997, with oenologists Michel Rolland and Athanase Fakorellis as consultants. From a property of 47 hectares, the vineyard area consists of 41 hectares of the red grape varieties 45% Cabernet Sauvignon, 45% Merlot, with 8% Cabernet Franc and 2% Petit Verdot, 6 hectares of the white grape varieties 80% Sauvignon blanc and 20% Sémillon.
The Grand vin, Château Malartic-Lagravière, is annually produced in 16,000 cases of the red wine and 2,500 cases of the dry white. There are red and white second wines, Sillage de Malartic, a rosé, Le Rosé de Malartic. Château Malartic-Lagravière official site
Classification of Saint-Émilion wine
In 1955 the wines of Saint-Émilion in the wine-growing region of Bordeaux were classified. Unlike the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855 covering wines from the Médoc and Graves regions, the Saint-Émilion list is updated every 10 years or so. Following the initial classification, the list was updated in 1969, 1986, 1996 and most in 2006; however the 2006 classification was declared invalid following a series of legal actions, the 1996 version of the classification has been reinstated for the vintages from 2006 to 2009. The region's Syndicat Viticole started planning for a classification of St.-Émilion wine in 1930, but it was not until October 7, 1954 that the principles behind the classification became official when the INAO agreed to take responsibility for handling the classification. The first list of classified St.-Émilion estates was published on June 16, 1955, was amended on August 7 and October 18, 1958. The original list contained; the fifth classification of St.-Émilion wine, announced in September 2006 and comprising 15 Premiers grands crus classés and 46 Grands crus classés, was challenged by four dissatisfied producers, demoted - La Tour du Pin Figeac, Cadet Bon, Guadet and Château de la Marzelle - and has resulted in several confusing legal turns during 2007 and 2008 that mean that the 2006 classification is invalid and the 1996 classification is applied instead.
The legal dispute has centered on the fact that several members of the panel involved in assessing the wines had vested interests, thus could be suspected of not being impartial. An administrative tribunal in Bordeaux declared the classification temporarily suspended in March 2007, after which a Bordeaux court suspended the classification indefinitely by denying a motion to lift the initial suspension. After that the Conseil d'État, the French supreme administrative court, on November 12, 2007 overturned the suspension of the 2006 classification, thereby reinstating it. However, this ruling was not final, only decided that the case of the four demoted châteaux did not merit a suspension of the entire classification; the matter was returned to a Bordeaux court to assess if the complaining châteux had been treated. On July 1, 2008 this court ruled that the wine tasting mechanism used in the 2006 classification was not impartial, thus again making the entire classification invalid. After the ruling, it was estimated that a further appeals process aiming at reinstating the classification could take about two years, would have an uncertain result.
This led the French regulatory body for wine, INAO, to request the French Government to use emergency powers to reinstate St.-Émilion classification, which it did on July 11, 2008. This decision extended the validity of the 1996 classification to the vintages 2006 to 2009. Thus, the complaining demoted châteaux are able to keep their classification, but those who were newly promoted are not; this measure will allow INAO to arrange for a less contested classification to be finalised by around 2010. The reaction among the estates who had their promotions retracted, such as Grand Corbin-Despagne, Pavie-Macquin and Troplong Mondot, was one of despair, who beyond facing financial consequences stated the decision was unjust, damaging to the image and community of St.-Émilion. Xavier Pariente of Troplong-Mondot said, "That's 20 years of hard work and investment by all the personnel here wiped out at the stroke of a pen, it frightens me and it revolts me". In December 2008, the French senate had allowed the 8 demoted estates to regain their previous status, with Pavie-Macquin and Troplong Mondot returning to Premiers grands crus classés, while Bellefond-Belcier, Fleur-Cardinale, Grand Corbin, Grand Corbin-Despagne, Monbousquet again to become classified as Grands crus classés, as a result of several months of lobbying.
However, in January 2009 this proposal was thrown out by the French government constitutional council. In March 2009, it was stated that the French Court of Appeal had made a final ruling, that the 2006 Saint-Émilion classification will not stand, although the ultimate outcome was the opposite. A law passed on May 13, 2009 contained a footnote clarifying that the six chateaux promoted to Grand Cru Classe in 2006 would be able to keep their status with immediate effect, date it back to the date of the classification, therefore the status of the classified estates of 1996, plus the eight chateaux promoted in 2006, is mandated by law until 2011, two years beyond what was scheduled; the 2012 classification was conducted differently than previous efforts, with tastings and inspections outsourced by INAO to independent groups with no involvement by St.-Emilion Wine Syndicate and Bordeaux wine trade, but instead wine professionals from Burgundy, the Rhône Valley, the Loire Valley and Provence made up a seven-person commission.
There is no longer a fixed number of châteaus which can be classified, the new rankings elevated Château Pavie and Château Angélus to Premier Classe A. Among new Premiers grands crus were Larcis Ducasse, Canon-la-Gaffelière and garagiste producers Valandraud and La Mondotte, while Château Magdelaine was omitted from the list as it will be merged with Château Bélair-Monange. Château La Tour du Pin Figeac did not apply for the 2012 classification, as it was being merged with Chateau Cheval Blanc. In January 2013, Château La Tour du Pin Figeac, Chateau Croque-Michotte and Château Corbin-Michotte filed complaints with a Bordeaux administrative tribunal, claiming there were procedural errors in the selection process. Chateau La Tour du Pi
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 252,040. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Lille, it is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises"; the term "Bordelais" may refer to the city and its surrounding region. Being at the center of a major wine-growing and wine-producing region, Bordeaux remains a prominent powerhouse and exercises significant influence on the world wine industry although no wine production is conducted within the city limits, it is home to the world's main wine fair and the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century.
The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved historical buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 567 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala of Aquitanian origin; the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Tigurini led by Divico; the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead, it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414, the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.
In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, Gallactorius is fighting the Basque people; the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after they stormed the fortified city and overwhelmed the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux taking them on in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne; the battle had a high death toll. Although Eudes was defeated here, he saved part of his troops and kept his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers. In 735, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but did not retain it for long.
The following year, the Frankish commander descended again to Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles's sons Pepin and Carloman, against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps strong in Bordeaux. Hunald was defeated, his son Waifer replaced him, confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, where Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him. In 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia.
They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings, who were assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes, but he was captured and executed. No bishops were mentioned during part of the 9th in Bordeaux. From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eléonore of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England; the city flourished due to the wine trade, the cathedral of St. André was built, it was the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince, but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon, it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its wealth by halting the wine commerce with England.
In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine. Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde
A grave is a location where a dead body is buried. Graves are located in special areas set aside for the purpose of burial, such as graveyards or cemeteries. Certain details of a grave, such as the state of the body found within it and any objects found with the body, may provide information for archaeologists about how the body may have lived before its death, including the time period in which it lived and the culture that it had been a part of. In some religions, it is believed; the formal use of a grave involves several steps with associated terminology. Grave cutThe excavation. Excavations vary from a shallow scraping to removal of topsoil to a depth of 6 feet or more where a vault or burial chamber is to be constructed. However, most modern graves in the United States are only 4 feet deep as the casket is placed into a concrete box to prevent a sinkhole, to ensure the grave is strong enough to be driven over, to prevent floating in the instance of a flood. Excavated soilThe material dug up.
It is piled up close to the grave for backfilling and returned to the grave to cover it. As soil decompresses when excavated and space is occupied by the burial not all the volume of soil fits back in the hole, so evidence is found of remaining soil. In cemeteries this may end up as a thick layer of soil overlying the original ground surface. Burial or intermentThe body may be placed in a coffin or other container, in a wide range of positions, by itself or in a multiple burial, with or without personal possessions of the deceased. Burial vaultA vault is a structure built within the grave to receive the body, it may be used to prevent crushing of the remains, allow for multiple burials such as a family vault, retrieval of remains for transfer to an ossuary, or because it forms a monument. Grave backfillThe soil returned to the grave cut following burial; this material may contain artifacts derived from the original excavation and prior site use, deliberately placed goods or artifacts or material.
The fill may be mounded. Monument or markerHeadstones are best known, but they can be supplemented by decorative edging, foot stones, posts to support items, a solid covering or other options. Graveyards were established at the same time as the building of the relevant place of worship and were used by those families who could not afford to be buried inside or beneath the place of worship itself. In most cultures those who were vastly rich, had important professions, were part of the nobility or were of any other high social status were buried in individual crypts inside or beneath the relevant place of worship with an indication of the name of the deceased, date of death and other biographical data. In Europe this was accompanied with a depiction of their family coat of arms. Graveyards have been replaced by cemeteries. Burial at sea Cenotaph Christian burial Church monuments Cremation Crypt Dolmen Eco-Burial Funeral pyre Funerary art God's Acre Gravedigger Islamic burial Jewish burial Mass grave Mausoleum Monumental inscription Necropolis Premature burial Pyramid Tomb Tophet Tumulus Turn in one's grave War grave Media related to Graves at Wikimedia Commons Quotations related to Grave at Wikiquote The dictionary definition of grave at Wiktionary
Château Lafite Rothschild
Château Lafite Rothschild is a wine estate in France, owned by members of the Rothschild family since the 19th century. The name Lafite comes from the surname of the La Fite family. Lafite was one of four wine-producing châteaux of Bordeaux awarded First Growth status in the 1855 Classification, based on the prices and wine quality at that time. Since it has been a consistent producer of one of the world's most expensive red wines. Situated in the wine-producing village of Pauillac in the Médoc region to the north-west of Bordeaux, the estate was the property of Gombaud de Lafite in 1234. In the 17th century, the property of Château Lafite was purchased by the Ségur family, including the 16th century manor house that still stands. Although vines certainly existed on the site, around 1680, Jacques de Ségur planted the majority of the vineyard. In the early 18th century, Nicolas-Alexandre, marquis de Ségur refined the wine-making techniques of the estate, introduced his wines to the upper echelons of European society.
Before long he was known as the "Wine Prince", the wine of Château Lafite called "The King's Wine" thanks to the influential support of the Maréchal de Richelieu. Towards the end of the 18th century, Lafite's reputation was assured and Thomas Jefferson visited the estate and became a lifelong customer. Following the French Revolution, the period known as Reign of Terror led to the execution of Nicolas Pierre de Pichard on 30 June 1794, bringing an end to the Ségur family's ownership of the estate which became public property. In 1797 the vineyards were sold to a group of Dutch merchants; the first half of the 19th century saw Lafite in the hands of the Vanlerberghe family and the wine improved more, including the great vintages of 1795, 1798 and 1818. In 1868 the Château was purchased by Baron James Mayer Rothschild for 4.4 million francs, the estate became Château Lafite Rothschild. Rothschild, died just three months after purchasing Lafite; the estate became the joint property of his three sons: Alphonse and Edmond Rothschild.
The 20th century has seen periods of success and difficulty, coping with post-phylloxera vines, two world wars. During the Second World War the Château was occupied by the German army, suffered from plundering of its cellars. Succeeding his uncle Élie de Rothschild, Lafite has been under the direction of Éric de Rothschild since 1974. At the 5 December 1985 Christie's auction, a new record price of US$156,000 was paid for a bottle of wine – a 1787 Château Lafite, thought to be owned by Thomas Jefferson; the authenticity of the bottle has been challenged. On 29 October 2010 the record was broken at a Sotheby's auction in Hong Kong – three bottles of 1869 Chateau Lafite-Rothschild were sold for HK$1.8M each. The 2008 vintage produced a worldwide increase in price of over 125% in six months from release, which in turn has come to push some Asian countries to the top of the list of worldwide markets in which investment grade wine is purchased. In early November 2012, police in the city of Wenzhou, seized nearly 10,000 bottles of suspected counterfeit Châteaux Lafite Rothschild.
Lafite is popular among China's nouveau riche, but analysts suspect that between 50 and 70 per cent of wine labeled "Château Lafite Rothschild" in China is fake. If genuine, the collection seized in Wenzhou would have been worth up to $16 million; the vineyard is one of the largest in the Médoc at 107 hectares, produces around 35,000 cases annually, of which between 15,000 and 25,000 are first growth. Its vines are around 70% Cabernet Sauvignon, 25% Merlot, 3% Cabernet Franc, 2% Petit Verdot, whereas the final wine is between 80% and 95% Cabernet Sauvignon, 5% and 20% Merlot, up to 3% Cabernet Franc and Petit Verdot. Exceptions are made, such as the 1961 vintage, 100% Cabernet Sauvignon. In addition to the first growth, around a third of the wine is released as a second wine under the label Carruades de Lafite. Across all vintages Lafite Rothschild is one of the most expensive wines in the world, with the average price per 750 ml bottle reaching $911. Prices for Carruades de Lafite rose due in part to Chinese demand, with the prices of its 2005 and 2000 vintage fetching over £10,000 per case.
After peaking in 2011, the price of some vintages halved in two years. Bordeaux wine French wine Château Mouton Rothschild Domaine de la Romanée-Conti Château Lafite Rothschild official site
Pauillac is a municipality in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. The United States Navy established a naval air station on 1 December 1917 to operate seaplanes during World War I; the base closed shortly after the First Armistice at Compiègne. Near the centre of town is a marina with moorings for about 150 boats. 2300m north of this is a floating platform where the large Airbus A380 wings and fuselage sections are transferred from sea-going RORO ferries to barges. The parts are manufactured in UK and Germany; the barges take them through Bordeaux to a dock at Langon and by oversize road convoy to the assembly plant at Blagnac, Toulouse. See Itinéraire à Grand Gabarit for more details of the transportation; the commune consists of only 3,000 acres of vineyards in the Haut-Médoc between the villages of Saint-Julien to the south and Saint-Estèphe to the north, but is home to three of Bordeaux's five first-growth wines: Château Lafite Rothschild, Château Latour, Château Mouton Rothschild.
Château d'Armailhac Château Clerc-Milon Château Duhart-Milon-Rothschild Château Grand-Puy-Ducasse Château Grand-Puy-Lacoste Château Haut-Bages-Liberal Château Haut-Batailley Château Lafite Rothschild Château Latour Château Lynch-Bages Château Mouton Rothschild Château Pedesclaux Château Pichon Longueville Baron Château Pichon Longueville Comtesse de Lalande Château Pontet-Canet French wine Bordeaux wine Bordeaux wine regions Communes of the Gironde department INSEE