A bayonet mount or bayonet connector is a fastening mechanism consisting of a cylindrical male side with one or more radial pins, a female receptor with matching L-shaped slot and with spring to keep the two parts locked together. The slots are shaped like a capital letter L with serif; the bayonet mount is the standard light bulb fitting in the United Kingdom and in many countries that were members of the British Empire including Pakistan, Hong Kong, Fiji India, Sri Lanka and New Zealand, parts of the Middle East and Africa and France and Greece. To couple the two parts, the pin on the male are aligned with the slot on the female and the two pushed together. Once the pins reach the bottom of the slot, one or both parts are rotated so that the pin slides along the horizontal arm of the L until it reaches the "serif"; the spring pushes the male connector up into the "serif" to keep the pin locked into place. A practised user can connect them and, unlike screw connectors, they are not subject to cross-threading.
To disconnect, the two parts are pushed together to move the pin out of the "serif" while twisting in the opposite direction than for connecting, pulling apart. The strength of the joint comes from the strength of the pins and the L slots, the spring. To disengage unintentionally, the pins must break, the sleeve into which the connector slides must be distorted or torn enough to free the pins, or the spring must fail and allow the connector to be pushed down and rotate - for example due to vibration, it is possible to rotate it, but not far enough to engage and lock. Bayonet electrical connectors are used in the same applications where other connectors are used, to transmit either power or signals. Bayonet connections can be made faster than screw connections, more securely than push-fit connections, they may be used to connect two cables, or to connect a cable to a connector on the panel of a piece of equipment. The coupling system is made of two bayonet ramps machined on the external side of the receptacle connector and 2 stainless steel studs mounted inside the plug connector’s coupling nut.
Several classes of electrical cable connectors, including audio and data cables use bayonet connectors. Examples include BNC, C, ST connectors; the first documented use of this type of fitting may be by Al-Jazari in the 13th century, who used it to mount candles into his candle-clocks. This type of fitting was used for soldiers who needed to mount bayonets to the ends of their rifles, hence the name; the bayonet light bulb mount is the standard fitting in many former members of the British Empire including the United Kingdom, India and New Zealand, Hong Kong, as well as parts of the Middle East and Africa. The standard size is B22d-2 referred to in the context of lighting as BC or B22. Older installations in some other countries, including France and Greece use this base. First developed by St. George Lane Fox-Pitt in the UK and improved upon by the Brush Electric Company from the late 1870s onward, standard bulbs have two pins on opposite sides of the cap. Examples of three-pin bulbs are found in mercury street lamps and fireglow bulbs in some older models of electric radiative heater.
Older railway carriages in the UK made use of a 3 pin bulb base to discourage theft. Bayonet cap bulbs are very common worldwide in applications where vibration may loosen screw-mount bulbs, such as automotive lighting and other small indicators, in many flashlights. In many other countries the Edison screw base is used for lighting; some bulbs may have offset lugs to ensure they can be only inserted in one orientation, for example the 1157 automobile tail-light which has two different filaments to act as both a tail light and a brake light. In this bulb each filament has a different brightness and is connected to a separate contact on the bottom of the base. Newer bulbs use a wedge base; some special-purpose bulbs, such as infra-red, have 3 pins 120 degrees apart to prevent them being used in any but the intended socket. Bayonet bases or caps are abbreviated to BA with a number after; the number refers to the diameter of the base. BA15, a 15 mm base, can be referred to as SBC standing for small bayonet cap.
The lower-case letter s or d specifies whether the bulb has double contacts. While G indicates bi-pin, those listed above have a twist-lock, but with parallel pins from the end instead of opposing pins on the side; these are the available sizes in the UK: Of these, only
A diamond is one of the best-known and most sought-after gemstones. Diamonds have been used as decorative items since ancient times. C; the hardness of diamond and its high dispersion of light—giving the diamond its characteristic "fire"—make it useful for industrial applications and desirable as jewelry. Diamonds are such a traded commodity that multiple organizations have been created for grading and certifying them based on the "four Cs", which are color, cut and carat. Other characteristics, such as presence or lack of fluorescence affect the desirability and thus the value of a diamond used for jewelry. Diamonds are used in engagement rings; the practice is documented among European aristocracy as early as the 15th century, though ruby and sapphire were more desirable gemstones. The modern popularity of diamonds was created by De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd. which established the first large-scale diamonds mines in South Africa. Through an advertising campaign beginning in the 1930s and continuing into the mid-20th century, De Beers made diamonds into a key part of the betrothal process and a coveted symbol of status.
The diamond's high value has been the driving force behind dictators and revolutionary entities in Africa, using slave and child labor to mine blood diamonds to fund conflicts. Though popularly believed to derive its value from its rarity, gem-quality diamonds are quite common compared to rare gemstones such as alexandrite, annual global rough diamond production is estimated to be about 130 million carats. Before diamonds were discovered in Brazil in the 1700s, India was the only place where diamonds were mined. Early references to diamonds in India come from Sanskrit texts; the Arthashastra of Kautilya mentions diamond trade in India. Buddhist works dating from the 4th century BC describe the diamond as a well-known and precious stone but do not mention the details of diamond cutting. Another Indian description written in the beginning of the 3rd century describes strength, brilliance, ability to scratch metals, good refractive properties as the desirable qualities of a diamond. Kalkutta was an important trading center for diamonds in central India.
Diamonds were traded to the east and west of India and were recognized by various cultures for their gemmological or industrial uses. In his work Naturalis Historia, the Roman writer Pliny the Elder noted diamond's ornamental uses, as well as its usefulness to engravers because of its hardness, it is however doubtful that Pliny meant diamonds, it is assumed that in fact several minerals such as corundum, spinel, or a mixture with magnetite were all referred to by the word "adamas". Diamonds spread throughout the world though India had remained the only major source of the gemstone until diamonds were discovered in Brazil in 1725. A Chinese work from the 3rd century BC mentions: "Foreigners wear it in the belief that it can ward off evil influences"; the Chinese, who did not find diamonds in their country did not use diamond as a jewel but used it as a "jade cutting knife". Diamonds reached ancient Rome from India. Diamonds were discovered in 700 in Borneo, were used by the traders of southeast Asia.
The modern era of diamond mining began in the 1860s in Kimberley, South Africa with the opening of the first large-scale diamond mine. The first diamond there was found in 1866 on the banks of the Orange River and became known as the Eureka Diamond. In 1869, an larger 83.50-carat diamond was found on the slopes of Colesberg Kopje on the farm Vooruitzigt belonging to the De Beers brothers. This sparked off the famous "New Rush" and within a month, 800 claims were cut into the hillock which were worked frenetically by two to three thousand men; as the land was lowered so the hillock became a mine—in time, the world-renowned Kimberley Mine. Following agreement by the British government on compensation to the Orange Free State for its competing land claims, Griqualand West was annexed to the Cape Colony in 1877. From 1871 to 1914, 50,000 miners dug the Big Hole with picks and shovels, yielding 2,722 kg of diamonds, by 1873 Kimberley was the second largest town in South Africa, having an approximate population of 40,000.
The various smaller mining companies were amalgamated by British imperialist Cecil Rhodes and Charles Rudd into De Beers, The Kimberley under Barney Barnato. In 1888, the two companies merged to form De Beers Consolidated Mines, which once had a monopoly over the world's diamond market; that monopoly had ended by 2005, following an antitrust lawsuit in the US, a voluntary agreement between De Beers and the European Commission. The latter agreement had been overturned upon appeal by the Russian mining company Alrosa, but the European Court of Justice upheld the decision and the European Commission subsequently concluded its investigation with no more action being taken against De Beers. Today, annual global rough diamond production is estimated to be about 130 million carats, of which 92% is cut and polished in India in the city of Surat; some 85% of the world's rough diamonds, 50% of cut diamonds, 40% of industrial diamonds are traded in Antwerp, Belgium—the diamond center of the world. The city of Antwerp hosts the Antwerpsche Diamantkring, created in 1929 to become the first and biggest diamond bourse dedicated to rough diamonds.
Antwerp's association with diamonds began in the late 15th century when a new techniq
The Moscow Kremlin, or the Kremlin, is a fortified complex in the center of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, the Alexander Garden to the west. It is the best known of the kremlins and includes five palaces, four cathedrals, the enclosing Kremlin Wall with Kremlin towers. In addition, within this complex is the Grand Kremlin Palace, the Tsar's Moscow residence; the complex now serves as the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation and as a museum with 2,746,405 visitors in 2017. The name "Kremlin" means "fortress inside a city", is also used metonymically to refer to the government of the Russian Federation in a similar sense to how "White House" refers to the Executive Office of the President of the United States, it referred to the government of the Soviet Union and its highest members. The term "Kremlinology" refers to the study of Russian politics; the site had been continuously inhabited by Finno-Ugric peoples since the 2nd century BC.
The Slavs occupied the south-western portion of Borovitsky Hill as early as the 11th century, as evidenced by a metropolitan seal from the 1090s, unearthed by Soviet archaeologists in the area. The Vyatichi built a fortified structure on the hill where the Neglinnaya River flowed into the Moskva River. Up to the 14th century, the site was known as the'grad of Moscow'; the word "Kremlin" was first recorded in 1331. The grad was extended by Prince Yuri Dolgorukiy in 1156, destroyed by the Mongols in 1237 and rebuilt in oak in 1339. Dmitri Donskoi replaced the oak walls with a strong citadel of white limestone in 1366–1368 on the basic foundations of the current walls. Dmitri's son Vasily I resumed construction of cloisters in the Kremlin; the newly built Cathedral of the Annunciation was painted by Theophanes the Greek, Andrei Rublev, Prokhor in 1406. The Chudov Monastery was founded by Metropolitan Alexis. Grand Prince Ivan III organised the reconstruction of the Kremlin, inviting a number of skilled architects from Renaissance Italy, including Petrus Antonius Solarius, who designed the new Kremlin wall and its towers, Marcus Ruffus who designed the new palace for the prince.
It was during his reign that three extant cathedrals of the Kremlin, the Deposition Church, the Palace of Facets were constructed. The highest building of the city and Muscovite Russia was the Ivan the Great Bell Tower, built in 1505–08 and augmented to its present height in 1600; the Kremlin walls as they now appear were built between 1485 and 1495. Spasskie gates of the wall still bear a dedication in Latin praising Petrus Antonius Solarius for the design. After construction of the new kremlin walls and churches was complete, the monarch decreed that no structures should be built in the immediate vicinity of the citadel; the Kremlin was separated from the walled merchant town by a 30-meter-wide moat, over which Saint Basil's Cathedral was constructed during the reign of Ivan the Terrible. The same tsar renovated some of his grandfather's palaces, added a new palace and cathedral for his sons, endowed the Trinity metochion inside the Kremlin; the metochion was administrated by the Trinity Monastery and contained the graceful tower church of St. Sergius, described by foreigners as one of the finest in the country.
During the Time of Troubles, the Kremlin was held by the Polish forces for two years, between 21 September 1610 and 26 October 1612. The Kremlin's liberation by the volunteer army of prince Dmitry Pozharsky and Kuzma Minin paved the way for the election of Mikhail Romanov as the new tsar. During his reign and that of his son Alexis and grandson Feodor, the eleven-domed Upper Saviour Cathedral, Armorial Gate, Terem Palace, Amusement Palace and the palace of Patriarch Nikon were built. Following the death of Alexis's son and the Moscow Uprising of 1682, Tsar Peter escaped with much difficulty from the Kremlin and as a result developed a dislike for it. Three decades Peter abandoned the residence of his forefathers for his new capital, Saint Petersburg. Although still used for coronation ceremonies, the Kremlin was abandoned and neglected until 1773, when Catherine the Great engaged Vasili Bazhenov to build her new residence there. Bazhenov produced a bombastic Neoclassical design on a heroic scale, which involved the demolition of several churches and palaces, as well as a portion of the Kremlin wall.
After the preparations were over, construction was delayed due to lack of funds. Several years the architect Matvey Kazakov supervised the reconstruction of the dismantled sections of the wall and of some structures of the Chudov Monastery, built the spacious and luxurious Offices of the Senate, since adapted for use as the principal workplace of the President of Russia. During the Imperial period, from the early 18th and until the late 19th century, the Kremlin walls were traditionally painted white, in accordance with fashion. French forces occupied the Kremlin from 2 September to 11 October 1812, following the French invasion of Russia; when Napoleon retreated from Moscow, he ordered the whole Kremlin to be blown up. The Kremlin Arsenal, several portions of the Kremlin Wall and several wall towers were destroyed by explosions and the Faceted Chamber and other churches were damaged by fire. Explosions continued for
Cherub with Chariot (Fabergé egg)
The Cherub with Chariot egg or Angel with Egg in Chariot is a Tsar Imperial Fabergé egg, one of a series of fifty-two jeweled eggs made under the supervision of Peter Carl Fabergé for the Russian Imperial family. It was crafted and delivered in 1888 to the Tsar of Russia, Alexander III; this is one of the lost Imperial eggs, so few details are known about it. The exact design of the Cherub with Chariot Egg is unsure. A single photograph of the egg exists, though it is hidden by another egg and can only be seen in a blurry reflection. There is a brief description from the imperial records in the Russian State Historical Archives in Moscow which describes the gift as "Angel pulling chariot with egg - 1500 roubles, angel with a clock in a gold egg 600 roubles." According to Marina Lopato in Fabergé: Imperial Jeweller this description means the clock is inside the gold egg, in the chariot being pulled by the angel. Fabergé's invoice carries a similar description, itemizing a cherub pulling a chariot with an egg and a cherub with clock in a gold egg.
These two descriptions are backed up by the 1917 inventory of seized imperial treasure which reads "gold egg, decorated with brilliants, a sapphire. The surprise would have been the clock being inside the egg on the chariot, though the exact design is not known; the egg would have been presented to Maria Feodorovna on April 24, 1888 by Alexander III. The egg was kept in the Gatchina Palace in 1891, was one of 40 or so eggs sent to the Armory Palace of the Kremlin in 1917 after the Revolution by the Provisional Government. In 1922 it was transferred to the Sovnarkom, after which the exact whereabouts of the egg are unknown. In the 1930s Victor and Armand Hammer may have purchased the egg. A sales catalog for Armand Hammer's 1934 exhibition at Lord and Taylor in New York City describes a "miniature silver armour holding wheelbarrow with Easter Egg, made by Fabergé, court jeweler" which seems to describe the Cherub with Chariot Egg. Armand Hammer may have been unaware of the significance of this item if it was in fact the 1888 Imperial egg, since he had a habit of promoting imperial items yet did not make an effort to promote this egg.
Whether this was the 1888 egg, where it is today is unknown. Egg decorating List of missing treasure
Russian Orthodox Church
The Russian Orthodox Church, alternatively known as the Moscow Patriarchate, is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian churches. The Primate of the ROC is the Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus'; the ROC, as well as the primate thereof ranks fifth in the Orthodox order of precedence below the four ancient patriarchates of the Greek Orthodox Church, those of Constantinople, Alexandria and Jerusalem. Since 15 October 2018, the ROC is not in communion with the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, having unilaterally severed ties in reaction to the establishment of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine, finalised by the Ecumenical Patriarchate on 5 January 2019; the Christianization of Kievan Rus' seen as the birth of the ROC, is believed to have occurred in 988 through the baptism of the Kievan prince Vladimir and his people by the clergy of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, whose constituent part the ROC remained for the next six centuries, while the Kievan see remained in the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate until 1686.
The ROC claims its exclusive jurisdiction over the Orthodox Christians, irrespective of their ethnic background, who reside in the former member republics of the Soviet Union, excluding Georgia and Armenia, although this claim is disputed in such countries as Estonia and Ukraine and parallel canonical Orthodox jurisdictions exist in those: the Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church, the Metropolis of Bessarabia, the Orthodox Church of Ukraine, respectively. It exercises ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the autonomous Church of Japan and the Orthodox Christians resident in the People's Republic of China; the ROC branches in Belarus, Latvia and Ukraine since the 1990s enjoy various degrees of self-government, albeit short of the status of formal ecclesiastical autonomy. The ROC should not be confused with the Orthodox Church in America, another autocephalous Orthodox church, that traces its existence in North America to the time of the Russian missionaries in Alaska in the late 18th century; the ROC should not be confused with the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, headquartered in the United States.
The ROCOR was instituted in the 1920s by Russian communities outside Communist Russia, which refused to recognize the authority of the Moscow Patriarchate de facto headed by Metropolitan Sergius Stragorodsky. The two churches reconciled on May 17, 2007; the Christian community that developed into what is now known as the Russian Orthodox Church is traditionally said to have been founded by the Apostle Andrew, thought to have visited Scythia and Greek colonies along the northern coast of the Black Sea. According to one of the legends, Andrew reached the future location of Kiev and foretold the foundation of a great Christian city; the spot where he erected a cross is now marked by St. Andrew's Cathedral. By the end of the first millennium AD, eastern Slavic lands started to come under the cultural influence of the Eastern Roman Empire. In 863–69, the Byzantine monks Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius, both from the region of Macedonia in the Eastern Roman Empire translated parts of the Bible into the Old Church Slavonic language for the first time, paving the way for the Christianization of the Slavs and Slavicized peoples of Eastern Europe, the Balkans and Southern Russia.
There is evidence that the first Christian bishop was sent to Novgorod from Constantinople either by Patriarch Photius or Patriarch Ignatios, c. 866–867. By the mid-10th century, there was a Christian community among Kievan nobility, under the leadership of Bulgarian and Byzantine priests, although paganism remained the dominant religion. Princess Olga of Kiev was the first ruler of Kievan Rus′, born a Christian, her grandson, Vladimir of Kiev, made Rus' a Christian state. The official Christianization of Kievan Rus' is believed to have occurred in 988 AD, when Prince Vladimir was baptised himself and ordered his people to be baptised by the priests from the Eastern Roman Empire; the Kievan church was a junior metropolitanate of the Patriarchate of Constantinople and the Ecumenical Patriarch appointed the metropolitan, a Greek, who governed the Church of Rus'. The Kiev Metropolitan's residence was located in Kiev itself, the capital of the medieval Rus' state; as Kiev was losing its political and economical significance due to the Mongol invasion, Metropolitan Maximus moved to Vladimir in 1299.
Following the tribulations of the Mongol invasion, the Russian Church was pivotal in the survival and life of the Russian state. Despite the politically motivated murders of Mikhail of Chernigov and Mikhail of Tver, the Mongols were tolerant and granted tax exemption to the church; such holy figures as Sergius of Radonezh and Metropolitan Alexis helped the country to withstand years of Mongol rule, to expand both economically and spiritually. The Trinity monastery founded by Sergius of Radonezh became the setting for the flourishing of spiritual art, exemplified by the work of Andrey Rublev, among others; the followers of Sergius founded four hundred monasteries, thus extending the geographical extent of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In 1439, at t
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Fabergé Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia
The Fabergé Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia, is a owned museum, established by Viktor Vekselberg and his Link of Times foundation in order to repatriate lost cultural valuables to Russia. The museum is located in the center of Saint Petersburg at Shuvalov Palace on the Fontanka River; the museum's collection contains more than 4,000 works of decorative applied and fine arts, including gold and silver items, paintings and bronze. A highlight of the museum's collection is the group of nine Imperial Easter eggs created by Fabergé for the last two Russian Tsars; the idea of creating a special museum devoted to the creative work of the great Russian jeweler Peter Carl Fabergé came to the Link of Times foundation after the purchase by Vekselberg in 2004 of a unique collection of Fabergé masterpieces, owned by the late Malcolm Forbes. Since the Link of Times foundation began building a collection of Russian decorative applied and fine arts, which contains more than 4,000 works. All of the Imperial Easter eggs in the museum's collection are connected to the rule and personal life of the last two Russian emperors — Alexander III and Nicolas II.
The Link of Times foundation began restoring the 18th-century Shuvalov Palace in St. Petersburg in 2006, with the goal of opening the museum in the palace. A significant amount of work was done over seven years to recreate the historical appearance of the palace; this was the first full-fledged restoration of the palace in its entire 200-year history. The official opening ceremony of the Fabergé Museum took place on 19 November 2013; the Fabergé Museum's collection has nine Imperial Easter eggs that were made to the order of the last two Romanov Tsars — the Emperors Alexander III and Nicolas II. The eggs were bought by Vekselberg in 2004 from the family of the American newspaper magnate Malcolm Forbes, he purchased them just before they came up for auction, paying $100 million for the Forbes family's entire Fabergé collection. In total, there are fifteen Fabergé eggs in the Blue Room of Shuvalov Palace, as well as a miniature picture frame in the form of a heart — the surprise from the lost Mauve egg of 1897.
First Hen egg Renaissance egg Rosebud egg Coronation egg Lilies of the Valley egg Cockerel egg Fifteenth Anniversary egg Bay Tree egg Order of St. George egg Kelch Hen egg Kelch Chanticleer egg Duchess of Marlborough egg Resurrection egg Scandinavian egg Spring Flowers egg Faberge's New Home in Russia - Video about the museum - WKYC-TV Fabergé Museum - official website The Link of Times Cultural-Historical Foundation