Isabel Martínez de Perón
María Estela Martínez Cartas de Perón, better known as Isabel Martínez de Perón or Isabel Perón, served as the 42nd President of Argentina from 1974 to 1976. She was the third wife of President Juan Perón. During her husband's third term as president from 1973 to 1974, Isabel served as both vice president and First Lady. Following her husband's death in office in 1974, Isabel served as president of Argentina from 1 July 1974 to 24 March 1976, when the military took over the government and placed her under house arrest for five years, before exiling her to Spain in 1981, she holds the distinction of having been the first woman to have had the title of "President", as opposed to a queen or prime minister. In 2007 an Argentine judge ordered her arrest over the forced disappearance of an activist in February 1976, on the grounds that the disappearance was authorized by her signing of decrees allowing Argentina's armed forces to take action against "subversives", she was arrested near her home in Spain on 12 January 2007.
Spanish courts subsequently refused her extradition to Argentina. María Estela Martínez Cartas was born in La Rioja, into a lower-middle-class family, daughter of María Josefa Cartas Olguín and Carmelo Martínez, she dropped out of school after the fifth grade. In the early 1950s she became a nightclub dancer, adopting the name Isabel, the saint's name that she had chosen as a confirmation name, she met her future husband during his exile in Panama. Juan Perón, 35 years her senior, was attracted by her beauty and believed she could provide him with the female companionship he had been lacking since the death of his second wife Eva Perón in 1952. Perón brought Isabel with him when he moved to Madrid, Spain, in 1960. Authorities in the conservative Roman Catholic nation did not approve of Perón's cohabitation with a young woman to whom he was not married, so on 15 November 1961 the former president reluctantly married for a third time; as Perón resumed an active role in Argentine politics from exile, Isabel acted as a go-between from Spain to South America.
Having been deposed in a coup in 1955, Perón was forbidden from returning to Argentina, so his new wife was appointed to travel in his stead. The CGT leader José Alonso became one of her main advisers in Perón's dispute against Steelworkers' leader Augusto Vandor's Popular Union faction during mid-term elections in 1965. Isabel met José López Rega, a former policeman with an interest in occultism and fortune-telling, during a visit to Argentina in 1964, she was interested in occult matters, so the two became friends. Under pressure from Isabel, Perón appointed López as her personal secretary. Dr. Héctor Cámpora was nominated by Perón's Justicialist Party to run in the March 1973 presidential elections on the FREJULI ticket. Cámpora won, but it was understood that Juan Perón held the real power; that year, Perón returned to Argentina, Cámpora resigned to allow Perón to run for president. He chose Isabel as his nominee for the Vice Presidency to mollify feuding Peronist factions, as these could agree on no other running mate.
His return from exile was marked by a growing rift between the right and left wings of the Peronist movement. The latter was, supported by the CGT labor federation leadership and Isabel herself, this faction became known by the left as the entorno due to the inner circle status Perón afforded them. Juan Perón cultivated their support while he was in exile, his sympathies ended, after the assassination of CGT leader José Ignacio Rucci by the leftist Montoneros in September. Perón's victory in a snap election called by Congress in September 1973 was always considered and he won with 62% of the vote, he began his third term on 12 October, with Isabel as Vice President. Perón was by in precarious health, however. Isabel had to take over as Acting President on several occasions during his tenure. Juan Perón suffered a series of heart attacks on 28 June 1974. Juan Perón died on 1 July 1974, less than a year after his third election to office; as vice-president his widow formally ascended to the presidency, thus becoming the first female in the world to hold the title of "President", although she was not the first female to lead a country.
She was popularly known as La Presidente. Although she lacked Evita Perón's charisma, the grieving widow at first attracted support from the nation, she pledged to uphold the social market economy policies embodied in the 1973 "Social Pact" as well her husband's long-held economic nationalism. Extremist groups, having fallen out with Juan Perón in previous months, publicly offered support to her; however she cancelled meetings with various constituent and political groups, the sympathy re
Luis Sáenz Peña
Luis Sáenz Peña Davila was a lawyer and President of Argentina. He was the father of president Roque Sáenz Peña He graduated in law from the University of Buenos Aires, participated in the constitutional assembly of 1860, he was a number of times senator. In 1882 he occupied a seat on the Supreme Court of the Province of Buenos Aires, he was employed as president of the Provincial Bank, director of the Academy of Jurisprudence, had a seat in the General Council of Education. On 12 October 1892 Sáenz Peña was inaugurated president of the country. Weakened by many radical uprisings, on 23 January 1895 he presented his resignation to Congress, which accepted it; the government passed into the hands of José Evaristo Uriburu, who completed the term ending in 1898
María Juliana Awada Baker is an Argentine businesswoman and philanthropist of Lebanese and Syrian descent. She is the current First Lady of Argentina, married to the 53rd President of Argentina, Mauricio Macri, she is the first First Lady of Argentina to receive the distinction of the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic in 70 years and the second in history after Eva Perón in 1947. In 2016 she was chosen the most elegant First Lady in the world by ¡Hola! magazine. Awada was born in Villa Ballester on 3 April 1974, the daughter of Ibrahim Awada, a Lebanese Muslim immigrant native of Baalbek, Elsa Esther "Pomi" Baker, of Syrian descent, she is the sister of entrepreneurs Zoraida and Daniel Awada, artist Leila Awada, actor Alejandro Awada. During her childhood and adolescence, she traveled with her mother to Europe and the United States to Paris and New York, looking for fashion collections. After completing her secondary education at a bilingual English school in Belgrano, the now defunct Chester College, she honed her knowledge of that language in the city of Oxford, England.
As soon as she returned to Argentina, she was involved in the family business, a textile company set up by her father in the 1960s. In 1997, she married Gustavo Capello, she would enter into a relationship with the Belgian aristocrat Bruno Laurent Barbier, whom she had met on a flight of Air France. Despite having lived together for ten years, they never married, but had a daughter named Valentina. Awada and Mauricio Macri began a relationship in 2009, they wed on 16 November 2010 and have one daughter, Antonia born in 2011. In an interview with La Nación newspaper in 2012, she stated that her father is a Liberal Muslim who did not object to one of Juliana's sisters marrying a Christian and the other a Jew. Awada played an important role during the campaign of her husband, Mauricio Macri, in the presidential elections. At first with an low profile, Awada always differed from the other wives of the presidential candidates, much more prominent in the campaigns of their husbands, but the campaign advisers sought to turn their profile and make it much more visible for the campaign.
She joined the campaign of Maria Eugenia Vidal in the Province of Buenos Aires in a tour of the party of José C. Paz, where they visited the Zonal Hospital of Agudos Governor Domingo Mercante, talked with neighbors and merchants in Plaza Manuel Belgrano of that locality. Awada was concerned about the hospital's building situation, she was present during the presidential debate that took place in the Law College of the University of Buenos Aires, between her husband, Mauricio Macri and the candidate Daniel Scioli. After the debate, the wives of both candidates came onstage to accompany their husbands, Awada and Macri performed an intense kiss, replicated by the media in Argentina. In the 2015 presidential elections held on October 25, Mauricio Macri, candidate of the alliance Cambiemos, formed by the Republican Proposal, the Radical Civic Union and the Civic Coalition ARI, came second with 34.33% of the vote, while the candidate of the Front for Victory, Daniel Scioli, it outstripped by little difference.
In a historic ballotage, the first to be held in Argentina, Mauricio Macri won with 51.34% of the votes, becoming the successor of Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner, Awada in the First Lady of Argentina. On December 10, 2015, Awada accompanied her husband during his inauguration as President; the ceremony starting from their apartment in the neighborhood of Recoleta at the corner of Avenida del Libertador and Cavia at 11:00am to the National Congress of Argentina where Macri delivered a speech of 27 minutes. They went to the Casa Rosada, where Macri received the presidential attributes in the White Hall of the Casa Rosada. After being anointed President and her husband gave a reception at the San Martín Palace of Argentina Foreign Ministry to all the heads of state present: Michelle Bachelet from Chile, Horacio Cartes from Paraguay, Juan Manuel Santos from Colombia, Rafael Correa from Ecuador, Evo Morales from Bolivia, Dilma Rousseff from Brazil, representatives of other countries attending the inauguration.
Buenos Aires Governor María Eugenia Vidal confirmed that the First Lady is her personal advisor regarding her wardrobe. Awada and President Mauricio Macri alongside her daughters Antonia and Valentina lives in the Presidential Residence of Quinta de Olivos. On March 23, 2016 she gave her first speech at the Metropolitan Design Center of the Buenos Aires neighborhood of Barracas, where she presented her counterpart Michelle Obama. Both First Ladies gave a talk to teens to raise awareness about the importance of education; this speech was held during the official visit made by the Obama family to Argentina on 23–24 March 2016, where they visited the city of Bariloche, in the Argentine Patagonia. On June 2016, the first lady welcomed the Second lady of the United States, Jill Biden, emphasized her commitment to education and her work in defense of equal rights for women. Awada received the wife of Vice President of the United States, Joe Biden in the Presidential Residence of Olivos and shared with her the visit to a Space of First Childhood in the locality of San Martin, Buenos Aires.
After a talk they kept in the presidential villa, she invited her to visit the fifth and the organic garden that she cultivates herself in the gardens of the residence. The first lady and Minister, Carolina Stanley explained to Biden details of the objectives and role of these centers in the framework of the policy of comprehensive care for child
First Lady is an unofficial title used for the wife of a non-monarchical head of state or chief executive. The term is used to describe a woman seen to be at the top of her profession or art; the term is used to a non-monarchical heads of state or chief executives who don't have that kind of style in their own country. Some countries have a title, official or unofficial, or can be translated as first lady; the title is not used for the wife of a head of government, not head of state. First Gentleman is the male equivalent of the title in countries where the head of state's spouse has been a man, such as the Philippines or Malta. While there has never been a male spouse of a U. S. President, "First Gentleman" is used in the United States for the husband of a governor. First Spouse, a rare version of the title, can be used in either case where the spouse of a head of state is male or female; this term is used to promote gender gender neutrality. In the United States, the President of the United States and his spouse are known as the First Couple and, if they have children, they are referred to as the First Family.
The designation First Lady seems to have originated in the United States, where one of the earliest uses in print, in 1838, was in reference to Martha Washington. Other sources indicate that, in 1849, President Zachary Taylor called Dolley Madison "first lady" at her state funeral, while reciting a eulogy written by himself; the wife of the current President of Armenia is referred to as "Հայաստանի Առաջին տիկին", which translates as "First Lady of Armenia". The wife of the current President of Azerbaijan uses the term "Birinci xanım"; the wife of the current Prime Minister of Australia has been referred to as the country's "unofficial first lady". The wife of the President of Brazil is called "Primeira-Dama"; the wife of the President of Bulgaria is called "Първа дама". The term "Lok Chumteav" is used; the term "Primera Dama" is used. The terms Supruga Predsjednika Republike or Suprug Predsjednice Republike are most used in Croatia, while the terms Prva dama and Prvi gospodin are used, except by foreign sources.
The current husband of the President of Croatia is Jakov Kitarović. The wife of the Prime Minister has in exceptionally rare cases been referred to as the First Lady of Croatia, however as the spouses of Prime Ministers have maintained a low profile and have never been public figures, the title Supruga Predsjednika Vlade has been used in cases when such a reference is needed; the current wife of the Prime Minister is Ana Maslać Plenković. The term První dáma is used for wife of the President of the Czech Republic; the current first lady is Ivana Zemanová. Following a petition against a proposed change in her status that gathered more than 275,000 signatures, the French government announced that Brigitte Macron will not be holding the official title of "First Lady", will not be allocated an official budget for her activities. In an interview with French magazine Elle, she stated that a soon-to-be published transparency charter would clarify her "role and accompanying resources", including the composition and size of her staff.
The Prime Minister of Greece is the country's leading political figure and the active chief executive of its government. As such, the term "Proti Kyria" is unofficially used by the Press to refer to the wife of the country's Prime Minister; the term "First Lady" is less used in India. The term might be used at times to refer to the wife of the President of India in newspapers; the term "First Lady" is not used to refer to the wife of the Prime Minister. The term "Ibu Negara" is used for wife of the President of Indonesia. In the Republic of Ireland, the term "First Lady" is not used in official contexts, but is used in the media to refer to the wife of the President and, less to refer to the wife of the Taoiseach. During the first half of Bertie Ahern's term as Taoiseach, he was separated from his wife Miriam and the role of First Lady was filled by his domestic partner, Celia Larkin; the term "First Gentleman" has been used to describe the husband of a female President. Leo Varadkar was elected Taoiseach in the first homosexual person to hold either post.
However, he has said that he does not plan for his domestic partner, Dr Matthew "Matt" Barrett, to fulfil First Gentleman roles. During the administration of President Kamuzu Banda, Malawi had an "Official Hostess" who served in the same capacity as "First Lady" because the President was unmarried. Banda was never married and therefore Cecilia Kadzamira served in this capacity for the nation; the title First Lady of Maldives is used by the office of the president, governmental offices, by visiting dignitaries. The term "first lady" is not used in New Zealand, but is sometimes used in the press and colloquially to refer to the wife of the Prime Minister; the term first lady has been used intermittently for the wife of the President of Nigeria. The spouse of the President has no official title, but receives the same style as the president, Excellency. A former president Shehu Shagari was a polygamist, none of his wives were referred to as the first lady. In Pakistan, the term خاتون اول is used for the wife of Moha
José Evaristo Uriburu
José Félix Evaristo de Uriburu y Álvarez de Arenales was President of Argentina from 23 January 1895 to 12 October 1898. He was an adept diplomat, he became President of Argentina in 1895 when Luis Sáenz Peña resigned. His son was José Evaristo Uriburu y Tezanos Pinto, Argentinian Ambassador in London in the 1920s, father of Clarita de Uriburu, Cecil Beaton's model. Reformed the National Constitution in 1898. Created the National Lottery. Created the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes Buenos Aires. Created the Otto Krause Technical School. Federal Judge, Salta National Deputy House President Justice Minister under Bartolomé Mitre for a short time. Senator for the City of Buenos Aires
Uruguay the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to an estimated 3.44 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Montevideo. With an area of 176,000 square kilometres, Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America, after Suriname. Uruguay was inhabited by the Charrúa people for 4,000 years before the Portuguese established Colonia del Sacramento in 1680. Montevideo was founded as a military stronghold by the Spanish in the early 18th century, signifying the competing claims over the region. Uruguay won its independence between 1811 and 1828, following a four-way struggle between Spain and Argentina and Brazil, it remained subject to foreign influence and intervention throughout the 19th century, with the military playing a recurring role in domestic politics.
A series of economic crises put an end to a democratic period that had begun in the early 20th century, culminating in a 1973 coup, which established a civic-military dictatorship. The military government persecuted leftists and political opponents, resulting in several deaths and numerous instances of torture by the military. Uruguay is today a democratic constitutional republic, with a president who serves as both head of state and head of government. Uruguay is ranked first in Latin America in democracy, low perception of corruption, e-government, is first in South America when it comes to press freedom, size of the middle class and prosperity. On a per-capita basis, Uruguay contributes more troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions than any other country, it tops the rank of absence of a unique position within South America. It ranks second in the region on economic freedom, income equality, per-capita income and inflows of FDI. Uruguay is the third-best country on the continent in terms of HDI, GDP growth and infrastructure.
It is regarded as a high-income country by the UN. Uruguay was ranked the third-best in the world in e-Participation in 2014. Uruguay is an important global exporter of combed wool, soybeans, frozen beef and milk. Nearly 95% of Uruguay's electricity comes from renewable energy hydroelectric facilities and wind parks. Uruguay is a founding member of the United Nations, OAS, Mercosur, UNASUR and NAM. Uruguay is regarded as one of the most advanced countries in Latin America, it ranks high on global measures of personal rights and inclusion issues. The Economist named Uruguay "country of the year" in 2013, acknowledging the policy of legalizing the production and consumption of cannabis; the name of the namesake river comes from the Spanish pronunciation of the regional Guarani word for it. There are several interpretations, including "bird-river"; the name could refer to a river snail called uruguá, plentiful in the water. In Spanish colonial times, for some time thereafter and some neighbouring territories were called the Cisplatina and Banda Oriental for a few years the "Eastern Province".
Since its independence, the country has been known as la República Oriental del Uruguay, which means "the eastern republic of the Uruguay ". However, it is translated either as the "Oriental Republic of Uruguay" or the "Eastern Republic of Uruguay"; the documented inhabitants of Uruguay before European colonization of the area were the Charrúa, a small tribe driven south by the Guarani of Paraguay. It is estimated that there were about 9,000 Charrúa and 6,000 Chaná and Guaraní at the time of contact with Europeans in the 1500s. Fructuoso Rivera - Uruguay's first president – organized the Charruas' genocide; the Portuguese were the first Europeans to enter the region of present-day Uruguay in 1512. The Spanish arrived in present-day Uruguay in 1516; the indigenous peoples' fierce resistance to conquest, combined with the absence of gold and silver, limited their settlement in the region during the 16th and 17th centuries. Uruguay became a zone of contention between the Spanish and Portuguese empires.
In 1603, the Spanish began to introduce cattle. The first permanent Spanish settlement was founded in 1624 at Soriano on the Río Negro. In 1669–71, the Portuguese built a fort at Colonia del Sacramento. Montevideo was founded by the Spanish in the early 18th century as a military stronghold in the country, its natural harbor soon developed into a commercial area competing with Río de la Plata's capital, Buenos Aires. Uruguay's early 19th century history was shaped by ongoing fights for dominance in the Platine region, between British, Spanish and other colonial forces. In 1806 and 1807, the British army attempted to seize Buenos Aires and Montevideo as part of the Napoleonic Wars. Montevideo was occupied by a British force from February to September 1807. In 1811, José Gervasio Artigas, who became Uruguay's national hero, launched a successful revolt against the Spanish authorities, defeating them on 18 May at the Battle of Las Piedras. In 1813, the new government in Buenos Aires convened a constituent assembly where Artigas emerged as a champ
Santiago Rafael Luis Manuel José María Derqui Rodríguez was president of Argentina from March 5, 1860 to November 5, 1861. He was featured on the 10 Australes note, now obsolete; the firstborn son of Manuel José María Derqui y García and his wife Ramona Rodríguez y Orduña, Santiago Derqui studied at the Córdoba National University, receiving a degree in law in 1831. At the university he was professor of law of philosophy, vice-dean. On May 14, 1845, he married Modesta García de Cossio y Vedoya Lagraña with whom he had three boys and three girls, he was first assistant and Minister of the government of Corrientes Province under José María Paz. Justo José de Urquiza named him'Business administrator' and sent him to Paraguay on a foreign business mission, he became deputy for Córdoba Province. In 1854 Urquiza named him head of the Ministry of Justice and Public Instruction, where he worked for the six years of Urquiza's mandate, pushing forward the still-emerging nation, he was an active Freemason.
After Urquiza's mandate, Derqui became constitutional president. Being from Córdoba and not from Buenos Aires, it was expected that under his rule the continuous revolts of the provincial governments against the federal government would end. Derqui accepted the revised national constitution with the changes that would favour Buenos Aires, named the country República Argentina; this and other unpopular policies towards the rest of the country provoked a general discontent in the provinces that led to the Battle of Pavón. Unable to maintain authority, Derqui fled to Montevideo. While in exile, Bartolomé Mitre helped him to go back to his wife's native city of Corrientes, where he would die a few years later