A drum kit — called a drum set, trap set, or drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum. A drum kit consists of a mix of drums and idiophones – most cymbals, but can include the woodblock and cowbell. In the 2000s, some kits include electronic instruments. Both hybrid and electronic kits are used. A standard modern kit, as used in popular music and taught in music schools, contains: A snare drum, mounted on a stand, placed between the player's knees and played with drum sticks A bass drum, played by a pedal operated by the right foot, which moves a felt-covered beater One or more toms, played with sticks or brushes A hi-hat, played with the sticks and closed with left foot pedal One or more cymbals, mounted on stands, played with the sticksAll of these are classified as non-pitched percussion, allowing the music to be scored using percussion notation, for which a loose semi-standardized form exists for both the drum kit and electronic drums.
The drum kit is played while seated on a stool known as a throne. While many instruments like the guitar or piano are capable of performing melodies and chords, most drum kits are unable to achieve this as they produce sounds of indeterminate pitch; the drum kit is a part of the standard rhythm section, used in many types of popular and traditional music styles, ranging from rock and pop to blues and jazz. Other standard instruments used in the rhythm section include the piano, electric guitar, electric bass, keyboards. Many drummers extend their kits from this basic configuration, adding more drums, more cymbals, many other instruments including pitched percussion. In some styles of music, particular extensions are normal. For example, some rock and heavy metal drummers make use of double bass drums, which can be achieved with either a second bass drum or a remote double foot pedal; some progressive drummers may include orchestral percussion such as gongs and tubular bells in their rig. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, play small kits that omit elements from the basic setup.
Before the development of the drum set and cymbals used in military and orchestral music settings were played separately by different percussionists. In the 1840s, percussionists began to experiment with foot pedals as a way to enable them to play more than one instrument, but these devices would not be mass-produced for another 75 years. By the 1860s, percussionists started combining multiple drums into a set; the bass drum, snare drum and other percussion instruments were all struck with hand-held drum sticks. Drummers in musical theater shows and stage shows, where the budget for pit orchestras was limited, contributed to the creation of the drum set by developing techniques and devices that would enable them to cover the roles of multiple percussionists. Double-drumming was developed to enable one person to play the bass and snare with sticks, while the cymbals could be played by tapping the foot on a "low-boy". With this approach, the bass drum was played on beats one and three. While the music was first designed to accompany marching soldiers, this simple and straightforward drumming approach led to the birth of ragtime music when the simplistic marching beats became more syncopated.
This resulted in dance feel. The drum set was referred to as a "trap set", from the late 1800s to the 1930s, drummers were referred to as "trap drummers". By the 1870s, drummers were using an "overhang pedal". Most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05. Liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist; the bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would revolve. William F. Ludwig, Sr. and his brother, Theobald Ludwig, founded the Ludwig & Ludwig Co. in 1909 and patented the first commercially successful bass drum pedal system, paving the way for the modern drum kit. Wire brushes for use with drums and cymbals were introduced in 1912; the need for brushes arose due to the problem of the drum sound overshadowing the other instruments on stage.
Drummers began using metal fly swatters to reduce the volume on stage next to the other acoustic instruments. Drummers could still play the rudimentary snare figures and grooves with brushes that they would play with drumsticks. By World War I, drum kits were marching band-style military bass drums with many percussion items suspended on and around them. Drum kits became a central part of jazz Dixieland; the modern drum kit was developed in the vaudeville era during the 1920s in New Orleans. In 1917, a New Orleans band called "The Original Dixieland Jazz Band " recorded jazz tunes that became hits all o
Andrew Newmark is an American session drummer, a member of Sly and the Family Stone and has played with John Lennon, Pink Floyd, David Bowie, Roxy Music. Andrew Newmark was born on July 14, 1950, in Port Chester, New York, raised in the nearby suburb of Mamaroneck, his mother was Bermudian and his father, Charles W. Newmark, was an Assistant District Attorney from 1938 to 1940 in New York City under District Attorney Thomas E. Dewey. Taking up the drums at the age of nine, Newmark honed his craft and was taking paid gigs at age 15. Visiting his mother's native Bermuda throughout his youth, Newmark made the decision to move there at the age of 16. Newmark played in a band that included guitarist Paul Muggleton. One of his first gigs was recording with Carly Simon on her albums No Secrets; these and other sessions segued into a more permanent role as a member of the funk band Sly and the Family Stone from 1972 to 1973. Hired to replace Gerry Gibson, who had replaced founding member Greg Errico, Newmark was invited to audition for Sly Stone by saxophonist Pat Rizzo.
Newmark went on to record one album, Fresh, as the Family Stone's drummer and performed with the band for two years in concert. After leaving Family Stone in 1974, Newmark returned to session work, playing drums on Gary Wright's 1975 album Dream Weaver, he continued performing on Carly Simon's solo albums into the 1990s. Newmark has performed and recorded with John Lennon, Cat Stevens, Joe Walsh, B. B. King, Eric Clapton, David Bowie, Roy Buchanan, Bryan Ferry, Dan Fogelberg, George Harrison, Rickie Lee Jones, Patrick Moraz, Randy Newman, Pink Floyd, Roger Waters, David Gilmour, Murray Head, Keith Richards, Rod Stewart, Ronnie Wood, Roxy Music, ABC, Hue and Cry, Laura Nyro, Nicolette Larson, Elkie Brooks, Steve Winwood, Nils Lofgren, George Benson, Michael Franks. In 1980, Newmark was the drummer on John Lennon's last album, Double Fantasy, as well as Milk and Honey released in 1984, he was the featured drummer on Yoko Ono's Season of Glass in 1981. His connection with the Double Fantasy album was reprised in 2012 with his contributions to the Lennon Bermuda tribute album on several tracks, including those by Paul Carrack, Bryan Ferry, Nils Lofgren, Rocky and the Natives.
According to a 2006 Sound on Sound magazine interview with engineer Andy Jackson, Newmark played drums on David Gilmour's On an Island album. Newmark plays on several tracks on David Gilmour's 2015 solo album Rattle That Lock. Newmark uses Remo drum heads, Zildjian cymbals and Vic Firth drumsticks, his drum setup and cymbals vary with who he plays with, but favors a setup consisting of a bass drum, rack tom, snare drum, one or two floor toms. He plays a mix of Zildjian K cymbals. Drums: Yamaha recording custom series: 20"x16" bass drum 12"x10" rack tom 16"x15" floor tom 18"x16" floor tomCymbals: Zildjian: 13" A new beat hi-hats or 14" A new beat hi-hats 8" A splash 16" A rock crash or 17" A thin crash 18" A thin crash 20" A medium ride or 20" K ride or 20" K Constantinople rideDrumheads: Remo Yamaha variation of Remo drumheadsDrumsticks: Vic Firth: Vic Firth 5A drumsticks With Carly Simon Anticipation No Secrets Hotcakes Playing Possum Another Passenger This is My Life Letters Never Sent With Sly and the Family Stone Fresh With Ronnie Wood I've Got My Own Album to Do The First Barbarians: Live from Kilburn Now Look With David Bowie Young Americans With Gary Wright The Dream Weaver With George Benson In Concert-Carnegie Hall Good King Bad Benson & Farrell with Joe Farrell With Bob James Three With Patti Austin End of a Rainbow with Patrick Moraz The Story of I - side 2 with Hank Crawford Hank Crawford's Back With Urbie Green The Fox With Lalo Schifrin Black Widow With Joe Walsh You Can't Argue with a Sick Mind With John Martyn One World With Mark Farner No Frills With Dan Fogelberg Phoenix Exiles With Badfinger Airwaves With John Lennon Double Fantasy Milk and Honey With George Harrison Dark Horse Extra Texture George Harrison With David "Fathead" Newman Mr. Fathead With Roxy Music Flesh and Blood Avalon The High Road With ABC Beauty Stab With Pink Floyd The Final Cut With Roger Waters The Pros and Cons of Hitch Hiking With David Gilmour On an Island Columbia Records Rattle That Lock Columbia Records With Bryan Ferry Bête Noire Virgin Records Official website Andy Newmark interview.
Keef Trouble interviews Andy Newmark
Andy Fairweather Low
Andrew Fairweather Low is a Welsh guitarist, songwriter and vocalist. He was a founder member and lead singer of 1960s British pop band Amen Corner, in recent years has toured extensively with Roger Waters, Eric Clapton and Bill Wyman's Rhythm Kings. Fairweather Low was born in Wales, he first found fame as a founding member of the pop group Amen Corner in the late 1960s. They had four successive Top 10 hits in the UK Singles Chart, including the #1 single " Half as Nice" in 1969; the overnight success and Fairweather Low's teen idol looks, as music journalist William Ruhlmann noted at Allmusic. The band split in two in 1970, with Fairweather Low leading Dennis Byron, Blue Weaver, Clive Taylor and Neil Jones into a new band, Fair Weather; the band scored a UK Singles Chart No. 6 hit with "Natural Sinner" in July 1970, although the outfit's albums, Beginning From An End and Let Your Mind Roll On, failed to chart. After twelve months Fairweather Low left to pursue a solo career, releasing four albums up to 1980 on A&M and Warner Bros.
These spawned further single chart success with "Reggae Tune", "Wide Eyed and Legless", a No. 6 Christmas time hit in 1975. Welsh group Budgie covered "I Ain't No Mountain" off Fairweather Low's 1974 album Spider Jiving on their 1975 release Bandolier. In the late 1970s and 1980s he worked for numerous artists as a session musician, performing as a backing vocalist and guitarist on albums by Roy Wood, Leo Sayer, Albion Band, Gerry Rafferty, Helen Watson, Richard and Linda Thompson. In 1978, Fairweather Low sang backing vocals on the album Who Are You, from The Who on the tracks "New Song", "Had Enough", "Guitar and Pen", "Love is Coming Down", "Who Are You". On the Who's 1982 album It's Hard, he played rhythm guitar on the song "It's Your Turn". Fairweather Low appeared on Townshend's 1993 album Psychoderelict and the accompanying concert tour. In 1995, Fairweather Low played rhythm guitar on Joe Satriani's self-titled CD, along with Nathan East on bass and Manu Katché on drums. One reviewer commented that "this backup band of gifted backup musicians sincerely adds a diverse range of textures and colors, bringing out a much-needed live feel to an otherwise bland album of blues-oriented jazz-rock."Fairweather Low has worked with Roger Waters since Waters' The Pros and Cons of Hitchhiking tour of America in 1985.
He contributed to two of Waters' albums – Radio KAOS in 1987 and Amused to Death in 1992. He played guitar and bass on Roger Waters' all-star performance of The Wall – Live in Berlin 21 July 1990, on the 1999–2002 In the Flesh world tour and was playing on Waters' Dark Side of the Moon Live world tour in 2006 and 2007, but was not able to perform with him in 2008, his role was picked up by session guitarist Chester Kamen. In 1992, he began working on projects alongside Eric Clapton. Fairweather Low had earlier appeared in Clapton's band in the 1983 ARMS concerts for Ronnie Lane and, while he has continued to do session work for various people, including Dave Edmunds, Fairweather Low has spent most of his time since the early 1990s as a sideman in Clapton's backing band, as well as session work. In the same year, he was present on tours with the 1999 Linda Ronstadt and Emmylou Harris collaboration. In December 1991, he played guitar on George Harrison's Live in Japan, along with the rest of Clapton's band, in 2002, he played several of the lead guitar parts for the Harrison tribute Concert for George, on some songs playing Harrison's famous Fender Stratocaster "Rocky" and Harrison's gold Fender Electric XII.
In 2004 he appeared in the Stratpack concert. From 1998 to 2002, he played in Roger Waters' In the Flesh tour. In 2001, Fairweather Low accompanied Eric Clapton on his world tour and is featured on the 2002 album One More Car, One More Rider, which features accompaniment by Billy Preston, Steve Gadd, Nathan East and David Sancious. In 2002, Fairweather Low featured on From Clarksdale To Heaven – Remembering John Lee Hooker with, amongst others, Jeff Beck, Gary Brooker, Jack Bruce and Peter Green. By 2005, he toured extensively with Bill Wyman's Rhythm Kings; some of the concerts were recorded for UK television, as part of their "50 Years of Rock'n' Roll" tribute. In April 2005 he played in the Gary Brooker Ensemble's charity concert at Guildford Cathedral, Surrey, in aid of the Tsunami Appeal. In 2006, Fairweather Low toured with Roger Waters once more, this time for the latter's The Dark Side of the Moon tour, with Bill Wyman's Rhythm Kings. In the same year Fairweather Low toured with Chris Barber and the Big Chris Barber Band reprising many of his earlier hits, including "Gin House Blues" and "Worried Man Blues".
Some of these performances form part of Barber's latest CD, Can't Stop Now, featuring new arrangements by Barber's staff-arranger and trombonist, Bob Hunt. In 2006 Fairweather Low released Sweet Soulful Music, his first solo album in twenty-six years; the song "Hymn for My Soul" became the title track of Joe Cocker's 2007 album. Cocker's tour of 2007/08 bore the same title. In 2007, he continued touring with Roger Waters' Dark Side of the Moon Tour; that year he was on the road with his own Sweet Soulful Music tour, performing at venues such as the Stables in Wavendon, The Ferry in Glasgow and the Library Theatre, Lancashire. In May 2008, Fairweather Low & the Lowriders started a UK tour, the Lowriders being Paul Beavis, Dave Bronze and Richard Dunn. In 2009, he joined Eric Clapton's band for a series of 11 concerts held at the London's Royal Albert Hall, he be
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that has six strings. It is played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger/fingernails of one hand, while fretting with the fingers of the other hand; the sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning; the modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument. There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, the archtop guitar, sometimes called a "jazz guitar"; the tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings' vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber.
The classical guitar is played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique where each string is plucked individually by the player's fingers, as opposed to being strummed. The term "finger-picking" can refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues and country guitar playing in the United States; the acoustic bass guitar is a low-pitched instrument, one octave below a regular guitar. Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier and a loudspeaker that both makes the sound of the instrument loud enough for the performers and audience to hear, given that it produces an electric signal when played, that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone using an equalizer and a huge variety of electronic effects units, the most used ones being distortion and reverb. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but solid wood guitars began to dominate during the 1960s and 1970s, as they are less prone to unwanted acoustic feedback "howls"; as with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of electric guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars, which are used in rock music.
The loud, amplified sound and sonic power of the electric guitar played through a guitar amp has played a key role in the development of blues and rock music, both as an accompaniment instrument and performing guitar solos, in many rock subgenres, notably heavy metal music and punk rock. The electric guitar has had a major influence on popular culture; the guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, rock and many forms of pop. Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, a flat back, most with incurved sides." The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and in the Americas. A 3,300-year-old stone carving of a Hittite bard playing a stringed instrument is the oldest iconographic representation of a chordophone and clay plaques from Babylonia show people playing an instrument that has a strong resemblance to the guitar, indicating a possible Babylonian origin for the guitar.
The modern word guitar, its antecedents, has been applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times and as such causes confusion. The English word guitar, the German Gitarre, the French guitare were all adopted from the Spanish guitarra, which comes from the Andalusian Arabic قيثارة and the Latin cithara, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek κιθάρα. Which comes from the Persian word "sihtar"; this pattern of naming is visible in setar and sitar. The word "tar" at the end of all of these words is a Persian word that means "string". Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar. Although the development of the earliest "guitars" is lost in the history of medieval Spain, two instruments are cited as their most influential predecessors, the European lute and its cousin, the four-string oud. At least two instruments called "guitars" were in use in Spain by 1200: the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca; the guitarra morisca had a rounded back, wide fingerboard, several sound holes.
The guitarra Latina had a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers "moresca" or "morisca" and "latina" had been dropped, these two cordophones were referred to as guitars; the Spanish vihuela, called in Italian the "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 15th and 16th centuries, is considered to have been the single most important influence in the development of the baroque guitar. It had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a cut waist, it was larger than the contemporary four-course guitars. By the 16th century, the vihuela's construction had more in common with the modern guitar, with its curved one-piece ribs, than with the viols, more like a larger version of the contemporary four-course guita
A mandolin is a stringed musical instrument in the lute family and is plucked with a plectrum or "pick". It has four courses of doubled metal strings tuned in unison, although five and six course versions exist; the courses are tuned in a succession of perfect fifths. It is the soprano member of a family that includes the mandola, octave mandolin and mandobass. There are many styles of mandolin, but three are common, the Neapolitan or round-backed mandolin, the carved-top mandolin and the flat-backed mandolin; the round-back has a deep bottom, constructed of strips of wood, glued together into a bowl. The carved-top or arch-top mandolin has a much shallower, arched back, an arched top—both carved out of wood; the flat-backed mandolin uses thin sheets of wood for the body, braced on the inside for strength in a similar manner to a guitar. Each style of instrument is associated with particular forms of music. Neapolitan mandolins feature prominently in traditional music. Carved-top instruments are common in American folk music and bluegrass music.
Flat-backed instruments are used in Irish and Brazilian folk music. Some modern Brazilian instruments feature an extra fifth course tuned a fifth lower than the standard fourth course. Other mandolin varieties differ in the number of strings and include four-string models such as the Brescian and Cremonese, six-string types such as the Milanese and the Sicilian and 6 course instruments of 12 strings such as the Genoese. There has been a twelve-string type and an instrument with sixteen-strings. Much of mandolin development revolved around the soundboard. Pre-mandolin instruments were quiet instruments, strung with as many as six courses of gut strings, were plucked with the fingers or with a quill. However, modern instruments are louder—using four courses of metal strings, which exert more pressure than the gut strings; the modern soundboard is designed to withstand the pressure of metal strings that would break earlier instruments. The soundboard comes in many shapes—but round or teardrop-shaped, sometimes with scrolls or other projections.
There is one or more sound holes in the soundboard, either round, oval, or shaped like a calligraphic f. A round or oval sound hole may be bordered with decorative rosettes or purfling. Mandolins evolved from the lute family in Italy during the 17th and 18th centuries, the deep bowled mandolin, produced in Naples, became common in the 19th century. Dating to c. 13,000 BC, a cave painting in the Trois Frères cave in France depicts what some believe is a musical bow, a hunting bow used as a single-stringed musical instrument. From the musical bow, families of stringed instruments developed. In turn, this led to being able to play chords. Another innovation occurred when the bow harp was straightened out and a bridge used to lift the strings off the stick-neck, creating the lute; this picture of musical bow to harp bow has been contested. In 1965 Franz Jahnel wrote his criticism stating that the early ancestors of plucked instruments are not known, he felt that the harp bow was a long cry from the sophistication of the 4th-century BC civilization that took the primitive technology and created "technically and artistically well made harps, lyres and lutes."
Musicologists have put forth examples of that 4th-century BC technology, looking at engraved images that have survived. The earliest image showing a lute-like instrument came from Mesopotamia prior to 3000 BC. A cylinder seal from c. 3100 BC or earlier shows. From the surviving images, theororists have categorized the Mesopotamian lutes, showing that they developed into a long variety and a short; the line of long lutes may have developed into pandura. The line of short lutes was further developed to the east of Mesopotamia, in Bactria and Northwest India, shown in sculpture from the 2nd century BC through the 4th or 5th centuries AD. Bactria and Gandhara became part of the Sasanian Empire. Under the Sasanians, a short almond shaped lute from Bactria came to be called the barbat or barbud, developed into the Islamic world's oud or ud; when the Moors conquered Andalusia in 711 AD, they brought their ud along, into a country that had known a lute tradition under the Romans, the pandura. During the 8th and 9th centuries, many musicians and artists from across the Islamic world flocked to Iberia.
Among them was Abu l-Hasan ‘Ali Ibn Nafi‘, a prominent musician who had trained under Ishaq al-Mawsili in Baghdad and was exiled to Andalusia before 833 AD. He taught and has been credited with adding a fifth string to his oud and with establishing one of the first schools of music in Córdoba. By the 11th century, Muslim Iberia had become a center for the manufacture of instruments; these goods spread to Provence, influencing French troubadours and trouvères and reaching the rest of Europe. Beside the introduction of the lute to Spain by the Moors, another important point of transfer of the lute from Arabian to European culture was Sicily, where it was brought either by Byzantine or by Muslim musicians. There were singer-lutenists at the court in Palermo following the N
The Quran is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God. It is regarded as the finest work in classical Arabic literature; the Quran is divided into chapters. Muslims believe that the Quran was orally revealed by God to the final Prophet, through the archangel Gabriel, incrementally over a period of some 23 years, beginning on 22 December 609 CE, when Muhammad was 40, concluding in 632, the year of his death. Muslims regard the Quran as Muhammad's most important miracle, a proof of his prophethood, the culmination of a series of divine messages starting with those revealed to Adam and ending with Muhammad; the word "Quran" occurs some 70 times in the Quran's text, other names and words are said to refer to the Quran. According to tradition, several of Muhammad's companions served as scribes and recorded the revelations. Shortly after his death, the Quran was compiled by the companions, who had written down or memorized parts of it; the codices showed differences that motivated Caliph Uthman to establish a standard version, now known as Uthman's codex, considered the archetype of the Quran known today.
There are, variant readings, with minor differences in meaning. The Quran assumes familiarity with major narratives recounted in the Biblical scriptures, it summarizes some, dwells at length on others and, in some cases, presents alternative accounts and interpretations of events. The Quran describes itself as a book of guidance for mankind 2:185, it sometimes offers detailed accounts of specific historical events, it emphasizes the moral significance of an event over its narrative sequence. Hadith are additional written traditions supplementing the Quran. In most denominations of Islam, the Quran is used together with hadith to interpret sharia law. During prayers, the Quran is recited only in Arabic. Someone who has memorized the entire Quran is called a hafiz. Quranic verse is sometimes recited with a special kind of elocution reserved for this purpose, called tajwid. During the month of Ramadan, Muslims complete the recitation of the whole Quran during tarawih prayers. In order to extrapolate the meaning of a particular Quranic verse, most Muslims rely on exegesis, or tafsir.
The word qurʼān appears assuming various meanings. It is a verbal noun of the Arabic verb qaraʼa, meaning "he read" or "he recited"; the Syriac equivalent is qeryānā, which refers to "scripture reading" or "lesson". While some Western scholars consider the word to be derived from the Syriac, the majority of Muslim authorities hold the origin of the word is qaraʼa itself. Regardless, it had become an Arabic term by Muhammad's lifetime. An important meaning of the word is the "act of reciting", as reflected in an early Quranic passage: "It is for Us to collect it and to recite it."In other verses, the word refers to "an individual passage recited ". Its liturgical context is seen in a number of passages, for example: "So when al-qurʼān is recited, listen to it and keep silent." The word may assume the meaning of a codified scripture when mentioned with other scriptures such as the Torah and Gospel. The term has related synonyms that are employed throughout the Quran; each synonym possesses its own distinct meaning, but its use may converge with that of qurʼān in certain contexts.
Such terms include kitāb. The latter two terms denote units of revelation. In the large majority of contexts with a definite article, the word is referred to as the "revelation", that, "sent down" at intervals. Other related words are: dhikr, used to refer to the Quran in the sense of a reminder and warning, ḥikmah, sometimes referring to the revelation or part of it; the Quran describes itself as "the discernment", "the mother book", "the guide", "the wisdom", "the remembrance" and "the revelation". Another term is al-kitāb, though it is used in the Arabic language for other scriptures, such as the Torah and the Gospels; the term mus'haf is used to refer to particular Quranic manuscripts but is used in the Quran to identify earlier revealed books. Islamic tradition relates that Muhammad received his first revelation in the Cave of Hira during one of his isolated retreats to the mountains. Thereafter, he received revelations over a period of 23 years. According to hadith and Muslim history, after Muhammad immigrated to Medina and formed an independent Muslim community, he ordered many of his companions to recite the Quran and to learn and teach the laws, which were revealed daily.
It is related that some of the Quraysh who were taken prisoners at the Battle of Badr regained their freedom after they had taught some of the Muslims the simple writing of the time. Thus a group of Muslims became literate; as it was spoken, the Quran was recorded on tablets and the wide, flat ends of date palm fronds. Most suras were in use amongst early Mu
Chrysalis Records is a British record label, created in 1968. The name was both a reference to the pupal stage of a butterfly and a combination of its founders' names, Chris Wright and Terry Ellis, it started as the Ellis-Wright Agency. In an interview for Jethro Tull's video 20 Years of Jethro Tull, released in 1988, Wright states "Chrysalis Records might have come into being anyway, you never know what might have happened, but Chrysalis Records came into being because Jethro Tull couldn't get a record deal and MGM couldn't get their name right on the record"; this was. Chrysalis entered into a licensing deal with Chris Blackwell's Island Records for distribution, based on the success of bands like Jethro Tull, Ten Years After and Procol Harum, which were promoted by the label. Jethro Tull signed with Reprise Records in the United States, which led Chrysalis to an American distribution deal with Reprise's parent company, Warner Bros. Records; this lasted from 1972 until U. S. Chrysalis switched to independent distribution in 1976.
PolyGram handled Festival Records covered Australia and New Zealand. Towards the end of the 1970s, the label began to extend its range of music, incorporating acts from the Punk Rock scene such as Generation X; the Chrysalis offshoot 2 Tone Records brought in bands such as The Specials and The Selecter. In 1979 Chrysalis bought and distributed U. S. folk label Takoma Records, naming manager/producer Denny Bruce as president, who signed The Fabulous Thunderbirds and T-Bone Burnett. Jon Monday, Vice President of Takoma Records prior to the acquisition continued as General Manager becoming Director of Marketing of Chrysalis Records. Chrysalis made history in 1979 by creating the first "music video album", a videocassette featuring a corresponding music video for each song on Blondie's Eat to the Beat album. In the 1980s, Chrysalis was at the forefront of the British New Romantic movement with bands such as Gen X, Spandau Ballet; the 1980s proved to be the most successful time for the label, whose roster included Billy Idol, Pat Benatar and Huey Lewis and the News.
Chrysalis distributed Animal Records, the short-lived label founded by Blondie guitarist Chris Stein. In 1983 Daniel Glass moved to Chrysalis as Director of New Music Marketing, advancing to Senior Vice President. In 1984 after the label re-established itself in New York, Eric Heckman, formally of Atlantic and Epic records promotion took over as Senior Director of Promotion and Marketing. During the next two years Chrysalis broke the News, Billy Idol and Spandau Ballet. Pat Benetar continued to find success on both traditional and dance charts; the Chrysalis Records label was sold 50% in 1990 the remaining half in 1991 to EMI with catalogue and artists such as Starsailor being shifted to the main EMI imprints. Chrysalis Records folded into EMI subsidiary and flagship label EMI Records in 2005. In 2010, BMG Rights Management bought Chrysalis Music's assets; the British Chrysalis catalogue was put up for sale by Universal Music Group after its acquisition of EMI. In July 2013, Warner Music Group completed acquisition of Parlophone Label Group, which includes the British Chrysalis catalogue, for £487 million.
When Universal Music Group purchased EMI in 2012 ownership of Chrysalis passed to UMG. In 2013 Warner Music Group acquired part of EMI from UMG, including the original UK Chrysalis Records Ltd with its catalogue of 130 artists; the American Chrysalis catalogue, including artists such as Blondie, Huey Lewis and The News, Pat Benatar, was merged into EMI Records Group America, merged into former sister label Capitol Records, is distributed by that label. In May 2016, Blue Raincoat Music purchased Chrysalis Records Ltd and most of the British signed artist catalogue from Warner Music Group. Blue Raincoat founders Jeremy Lascelles and Robin Millar brought in Robert Devereux and Chrysalis co-founder Chris Wright to augment the team; the deal reunited Wright, named non-executive chairman of Chrysalis, with the company he set up 47 years previously. The catalogues of namely Spandau Ballet, The Proclaimers, The Ramones, Jethro Tull stayed behind with Warners. Besides its European catalogue, the Chrysalis deal included the rights to Everything but the Girl, Suzi Quatro, Steve Harley & Cockney Rebel, Fun Lovin' Criminals, Naked Eyes, Grant Lee Buffalo, The Swinging Blue Jeans, Lucinda Williams, Dario G, Toumani Diabaté.
In March 2017, BMG assigned distribution of releases by other former Chrysalis artists, namely Arrow, David Dundas, Lynsey de Paul, Climax Blue Band, Ivor Cutler, to WMG's Alternative Distribution Alliance returning Chrysalis to Warners. Official site for Chrysalis Records UK at Blue Raincoat Music Ben Sisario, "Warner Music Group Buys EMI Assets for $765 Million". New York Times, "Media Decoder" blog, 7 February 2013 Discogs page on Chrysalis Records "Chrysalis Records acquired by Blue Raincoat Music founders Jeremy Lascelles and Robin Millar". Musicweek.com. Retrieved 7 December 2017. "Newly independent Chrysalis Records extends catalogue with more EMI divestments from Warner - Complete Music Update". Completemusicupdate.com. Retrieved 7 December 2017