Anglo-Spanish War (1654–1660)
The Anglo-Spanish War was a conflict between the English Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell and Spain, between 1654 and 1660. It was caused by commercial rivalry; each side attacked the other's commercial and colonial interests in various ways such as privateering and naval expeditions. In 1655, an English amphibious expedition invaded Spanish territory in the Caribbean; the major land actions took place in the Spanish Netherlands. In 1657, England formed an alliance with France, merging the Anglo–Spanish war with the larger Franco-Spanish War; the war ended with two peace treaties which were signed at Madrid in 1667 and 1670. When the First Anglo-Dutch War came to an end, Cromwell turned his attention to the conflict between France and Spain, both traditional rivals of England. France and Spain were both of the Roman Catholic faith, anathema to Cromwell, who believed it God's will that Protestantism should prevail in Europe. However, he considered Spain to be the greater threat to the Protestant cause, thus pragmatically allied his nation with France.
By going to war with Spain, he sought a return to a policy of commercial opportunism pursued in the days of Elizabeth I and subsequently abandoned by her Stuart successors. Cromwell's attack on Spanish trade and treasure routes recalled the exploits of Francis Drake and Walter Raleigh. There was, one important difference: alongside silver and gold a new treasure was becoming more important – sugar; this meant occupation of a step beyond the piracy pursued in Elizabethan days. During the first year of the Protectorate, Cromwell conducted negotiations with the French statesman Cardinal Mazarin, resulting in the drafting of an Anglo-French alliance against Spain in October 1655; the alliance had an added benefit: France, offering refuge to the Stuarts, would now be disinclined to assist them in reclaiming the English throne. Meanwhile, Cromwell had launched the Western Design against Spain's colonies in the Spanish West Indies; the fleet arrived in the West Indies in January. In May 1655, an English amphibious expedition led by General at Sea William Penn, father of the founder of Pennsylvania, General Robert Venables invaded Spanish territory in the West Indies with the objective of capturing Hispaniola.
It was one of the strongest to sail from England, with some 3,000 marines under the command of General Robert Venables, further reinforced in Barbados, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis. Although Cromwell had been interested in the possible acquisition of Hispaniola island, the expedition's commanders were given the freedom to determine their own priorities in the circumstances they faced on arrival. Several options were considered, including a landing on Cuba. Both were discounted, as Penn and Venables decided to attempt to repeat Drake's attack on Santo Domingo on Hispaniola. However, the 1655 Siege of Santo Domingo failed because the Spanish had improved their defences in the face of Dutch attacks earlier in the century. Cromwell, on the other hand, saw the Hispaniola defeat as God's judgement. Despite various subsequent successes, the defeat made the whole operation against the Spanish West Indies a general failure. Venables and Penn were imprisoned therefore in the Tower of London on their arrival on England.
Jamaica was the casus belli that resulted in the actual Anglo-Spanish War in 1655. Weakened by fever, the English force sailed west for the Colony of Santiago, the only Spanish West Indies island that did not have new defensive works, they landed in May 1655 at a place called Santiago de la Vega, now Spanish Town. They came, they stayed, in the face of prolonged local resistance, reinforced by troops sent from Spain and New Spain. In 1657 the English Governor invited the Buccaneers to base themselves at Port Royal on Santiago, to deter the Spanish from recapturing the island. For England, Jamaica was to be the'dagger pointed at the heart of the Spanish Empire', although in fact it was a possession of little value then. Cromwell, despite all difficulties, was determined that the presence should remain, sending reinforcements and supplies. New Spanish troops sailing from Cuba, lost the Battle of Ocho Rios in 1657 and the Battle of Rio Nuevo in 1658, failing in their attempts to retake Jamaica; the fear of another invasion meant that the English governor of Jamaica Edward D'Oyley felt his new duty was to organize the defence of the island against the Spanish.
By using the tactic of attacking instead of defending, he sent out Christopher Myngs to raid Spanish colonial cities and bases. Tolú and Santa Marta were among them in 1658 and the following year Cumana, Puerto Caballos and Coro were plundered and devastated and Myngs returned to Jamaica with a vast amount of plunder and treasure. In April 1656 English Admiral Robert Blake with a fleet of around forty warships and supply vessels sailed to blockade the Spanish port of Cadiz which continued throughout the summer; the Spanish took no aggressive action against the English fleet. In mid-June, Captain Edward Blagg sailed with eight ships to raid ports in northern Spain. On 24 June, Blagg raided Vigo. While Blake replenished his water supplies on the African coast, a detachment of five frigates under a Captain Smith raided Malaga in southern Spain on 19 July. Smith bombarded the town. A similar raid on Alicante was unsuccessful, but the threat of attack disrupted trade all along the coasts of Spain
The Pequot War was an armed conflict that took place between 1636 and 1638 in New England between the Pequot tribe and an alliance of the colonists of the Massachusetts Bay and Saybrook colonies and their allies from the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes. The war concluded with the decisive defeat of the Pequots. At the end, about 700 Pequots had been taken into captivity. Hundreds of prisoners were sold into slavery to the West Indies; the result was the elimination of the Pequot tribe as a viable polity in Southern New England, the colonial authorities classified them as extinct. Survivors were absorbed into other local tribes. In the late 20th century, people claiming to be descended from the Pequot tribe gained federal recognition as a modern-day tribe and were given reserves of land along the Thames and Mystic rivers in southeastern Connecticut; the name Pequot is a Mohegan term, the meaning of, disputed among Algonquian-language specialists. Most recent sources claim that "Pequot" comes from Paquatauoq, relying on the theories of Frank Speck, an early 20th-century anthropologist and specialist of the Pequot-Mohegan language in the 1920s–1930s.
He had doubts about this etymology, believing that another term seemed more plausible, after translation relating to the "shallowness of a body of water". The Pequot people and their traditional enemies the Mohegans were at one time a single sociopolitical entity. Anthropologists and historians contend that they split into the two competing groups sometime before contact with the Puritan English colonists; the earliest historians of the Pequot War speculated that the Pequot people migrated from the upper Hudson River Valley toward central and eastern Connecticut sometime around 1500. These claims are disputed by the evidence of modern archaeology and anthropology finds. In the 1630s, the Connecticut River Valley was in turmoil; the Pequots aggressively extended their area of control at the expense of the Wampanoags to the north, the Narragansetts to the east, the Connecticut River Valley Algonquians and Mohegans to the west, the Lenape Algonquian people of Long Island to the south. The tribes contended for political control of the European fur trade.
A series of epidemics over the course of the previous three decades had reduced the Indian populations, there was a power vacuum in the area as a result. The Dutch and the English from Western Europe were striving to extend the reach of their trade into the North American interior to achieve dominance in the lush, fertile region; the colonies were new at the original settlements having been founded in the 1620s. By 1636, the Dutch had fortified their trading post, the English had built a trading fort at Saybrook. English Puritans from the Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies settled at the four established river towns of Windsor, Wethersfield and Springfield Pequot: Sachem Sassacus Eastern Niantic Western Niantic: Sachem Sassious Mohigg: Sachem Uncas Niantic Sagamore Wequash Narragansett: Sachem Miantonomo Montauk or Massachusetts Bay Colony: Governors Henry Vane and John Winthrop, Captains John Underhill and John Endecott Plymouth Colony: Governors Edward Winslow and William Bradford, Captain Myles Standish Connecticut Colony: Thomas Hooker, Captain John Mason, Robert Seeley, Lt. William Pratt Saybrook Colony: Lion Gardiner Beginning in the early 1630s, a series of contributing factors increased the tensions between English colonists and the tribes of Southeastern New England.
Efforts to control fur trade access resulted in a series of escalating incidents and attacks that increased tensions on both sides. Political divisions widened between the Pequots and Mohegans as they aligned with different trade sources, the Mohegans with the English colonists and the Pequots with the Dutch colonists; the peace ended between the Dutch and Pequots when the Pequots assaulted a tribe of Indians who had tried to trade in the area of Hartford. Tensions grew as the Massachusetts Bay Colony became a stronghold for wampum production, which the Narragansetts and Pequots had controlled up until the mid-1630s. Adding to the tensions, John Stone and about seven of his crew were murdered in 1634 by the Niantics, Western tributary clients of the Pequots. According to the Pequots' explanations, they murdered him in reprisal for the Dutch murdering the principal Pequot sachem Tatobem, they claimed to be unaware that Stone was English and not Dutch. In the earlier incident, Tatobem had boarded a Dutch vessel to trade.
Instead of conducting trade, the Dutch seized the sachem and appealed for a substantial amount of ransom for his safe return. The Pequots sent bushels of wampum, but received only Tatobem's dead body in return. Stone was from the West Indies and had been banished from Boston for malfeasance, including drunkenness and piracy, he had abducted two Western Niantic men. Soon after, he and his crew were killed by a larger group of Western Niantics; the initial reactions in Boston varied from indifference to outright joy at Stone's death, but the colonial officials still felt compelled to protest the killing. They did not accept the Pequots' excuses. Pequot sachem Sassacus sent some wampum to atone for the killing, but refused the colonists' demands that the warriors responsible for Stone's death be turned over to them for trial and punishment; the Great Colonial Hurricane of 1635 placed a great deal of pressur
Saint Mary Parish, Jamaica
Saint Mary is a parish located in the northeast section of Jamaica. With a population of 114,227 it is one of Jamaica's smallest parishes, located in the county of Middlesex, its chief town and capital is Port Maria, located on the coast. It is the birthplace of established dancehall reggae artists, such as Capleton, Lady Saw, Ninja Man and Tanya Stephens. Other notable residents of St. Mary parish include bestselling author Colin Simpson, the great-great grandson of noted slavery abolitionist James Phillippo, famed Jamaican writer and community activist Erna Brodber, acclaimed music producer Chris Blackwell, credited with "discovering" Bob Marley. There are a few traces of Taíno/Arawak presence in the parish. Saint Mary was one of the first sections of the island to be occupied by the Spaniards. Puerto Santa Maria was the second town. In 1655, after the English captured Jamaica from the Spanish, the north coastal town of Santa Maria became known as Port Maria. One of St. Mary’s most famous early residents was Sir Henry Morgan, who had a home on the hill overlooking Port Maria.
The property offered a commanding view of the St. Mary harbour and provided Morgan with a strategic vantage point and featured a secret escape tunnel to Port Maria. Morgan’s home was purchased by Sir Noël Coward and is located beside Fort Haldane. Fort Haldane was built in 1759 to protect the strategic harbour of Port Maria from Spanish raids, it was used as a garrison to keep the enslaved and working classes of St. Mary under control, it was named after General George Haldane Governor of Jamaica. The fort’s cannons were strategically positioned on a hill facing seaward over Port Maria for protection. Fort Haldane served a pivotal role in the famous Tacky's rebellion, one of Jamaica's bloodiest rebellions against slavery in 1760. On Easter Sunday, a runaway slave known as Tacky and a small group of slaves from neighboring plantations murdered their masters and marched to Port Maria where they killed the guards at Fort Haldane and stole several barrels of gunpowder and firearms, they fought alongside hundreds of other slaves and Maroons for five months but their rebellion was quashed by the far more powerful British and the death of Tacky in a fierce gunbattle.
Descendants of the Maroons carried on their struggle after the abolition of slavery and they joined with Reverend James Phillippo in his quest to establish one of his Free Villages in St. Mary. Phillippo built the first church in Oracabessa and led a defiant protest against the local landowner’s refusal to sell land to former slaves; the Maroons joined Phillippo in a show of force that led to the landowner’s capitulation and the sale of enough land to build homes for the local population. St. Mary's present size was determined in 1867. One of the largest landowners in Saint Mary at the turn of the 20th Century was Blanche Blackwell, mother of Chris Blackwell. Blanche sold plots of land from Oracabessa to Port Maria to her coterie of friends, including playwright Noël Coward, U. S. Ambassador Ruth Bryan Owen, James Bond author Ian Fleming. Noël Coward's Firefly Estate is designated as a National Historic site, overlooks St. Mary harbour; the First James Bond film, Dr. No was filmed in part in st Mary including in the Oracabessa river.
In the 1990s, the Island Outpost Corporation developed one of St. Mary's best-known tourist attractions, the James Bond Beach and the facility includes a concert pavilion as well as a large bar/restaurant. St. Mary is home to the Oracabessa Bay Fish Sanctuary, established in 2011 to protect the marine ecosystem in Oracabessa Bay; the eastern perimeter of the Oracabessa Bay Fish Sanctuary is located on the edge of the Cayman Trough with walls that begin at 60 ft. and drop down to over 150 ft. These walls are covered in a large variety of soft corals; the walls contain many overhangs and ledges and are home to lobsters, king crab and spotted moray eels, a host of other marine creatures. Beyond the boundaries of the Oracabessa Bay Fish Sanctuary, the Cayman Trough plunges to depths of over 25,000 ft and is renowned for deep-water sport fishing including marlin and tuna. St. Mary is located at latitude 18°09'N, longitude 77°03'W, it is bordered by Portland in the east, St. Ann in the west, parts of St. Catherine and St. Andrew in the south.
The parish covers an area of 610 km ². The terrain is mountainous, rising up to 1,200 metres at the highest point, but there are no distinctive mountain ranges; the climate is varied, like most parishes on the island. The eastern section of the parish has shale rock and an intricate surface draining pattern, while the western section is limestone with predominantly underground rivers. There are three main rivers in the Rio Nuevo, Wag Water River and White River; the parish has a good variety of agricultural resources. The principal products are bananas, citrus, cocoa, coffee, vegetables and anatto. Pastoralism is practised. In recent years, agriculture has been on the decline, which may be due to the problems that Jamaican banana export has been facing. St. Mary's parish, had once been listed as one of the poorest in Jamaica, but over the past 10 years there have been substantial improvements in the economy due to the influx of investments in infrastructure, including a new international airport, a new highway, development of luxury resorts such as Goldeneye and Golden Clouds.
The new intercoastal highway constructed in 2005 has benefitted the parish and has brought a significant increase to tourism-related activities. The parish boasts what
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean. Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres south of Cuba, 191 kilometres west of Hispaniola. Inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Many of the indigenous people died of disease, the Spanish transplanted African slaves to Jamaica as labourers; the island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England conquered it and renamed it Jamaica. Under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with its plantation economy dependent on African slaves; the British emancipated all slaves in 1838, many freedmen chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the 1840s, the British utilized Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations.
The island achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962. With 2.9 million people, Jamaica is the third-most populous Anglophone country in the Americas, the fourth-most populous country in the Caribbean. Kingston is the country's capital and largest city, with a population of 937,700. Jamaicans have African ancestry, with significant European, Indian and mixed-race minorities. Due to a high rate of emigration for work since the 1960s, Jamaica has a large diaspora in Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States. Jamaica is an upper-middle income country with an average of 4.3 million tourists a year. Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm, with Elizabeth II as its queen, her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Sir Patrick Allen since 2009. Andrew Holness has served as Prime Minister of Jamaica since March 2016. Jamaica is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with legislative power vested in the bicameral Parliament of Jamaica, consisting of an appointed Senate and a directly elected House of Representatives.
The indigenous people, the Taíno, called the island Xaymaca in Arawakan, meaning the "Land of Wood and Water" or the "Land of Springs". Colloquially Jamaicans refer to their home island as the "Rock." Slang names such as "Jamrock", "Jamdown", or "Ja", have derived from this. The Arawak and Taíno indigenous people, originating in South America, first settled on the island between 4000 and 1000 BC; when Christopher Columbus arrived in 1494, there were more than 200 villages ruled by caciques. The south coast of Jamaica was the most populated around the area now known as Old Harbour; the Taino still inhabited Jamaica when the English took control of the island in 1655. The Jamaican National Heritage Trust is attempting to locate and document any evidence of the Taino/yamaye. Today, few Jamaican natives remain. Most notably among some Maroon communities as well as within some communities in Cornwall County, Jamaica Christopher Columbus claimed Jamaica for Spain after landing there in 1494, his probable landing point was Dry Harbour, called Discovery Bay, St. Ann's Bay was named "Saint Gloria" by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land.
One and a half kilometres west of St. Ann's Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, established in 1509 and abandoned around 1524 because it was deemed unhealthy; the capital was moved to Spanish Town called St. Jago de la Vega, around 1534. Spanish Town has the oldest cathedral of the British colonies in the Caribbean; the Spanish were forcibly evicted by the English at Ocho Rios in St. Ann. In the 1655 Invasion of Jamaica, the English, led by Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables, took over the last Spanish fort on the island; the name of Montego Bay, the capital of the parish of St. James, was derived from the Spanish name manteca bahía, alluding to the lard-making industry based on processing the numerous boars in the area. In 1660, the population of Jamaica was about 4,500 1,500 black. By the early 1670s, as the English developed sugar cane plantations and "imported" more slaves, black people formed a majority of the population; the colony was shaken and destroyed by the 1692 Jamaica earthquake.
The Irish in Jamaica formed a large part of the island's early population, making up two-thirds of the white population on the island in the late 17th century, twice that of the English population. They were brought in as indentured labourers and soldiers after the conquest of Jamaica by Cromwell's forces in 1655; the majority of Irish were transported by force as political prisoners of war from Ireland as a result of the ongoing Wars of the Three Kingdoms at the time. Migration of large numbers of Irish to the island continued into the 18th century. Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492 and forcibly converted to Christianity in Portugal, during a period of persecution by the Inquisition; some Spanish and Portuguese Jewish refugees went to the Netherlands and England, from there to Jamaica. Others were part of the Iberian colonisation of the New World, after overtly converting to Catholicism, as only Catholics were allowed in the Spanish colonies. By 1660, Jamaica had become a refuge for Jews in the New World attracting those, expelled from Spain and Portugal.
An early group of Jews arrived in 1510, soon after the son of Christopher Columbus settled on the island. Working as merchants and traders, the
Battle of Swally
The naval Battle of Swally known as Battle of Suvali, took place on 29–30 November 1612 off the coast of Suvali a village near the Surat city and was a victory for four English East India Company galleons over four Portuguese galleons and 26 barks. This small naval battle is important as it marked the beginning of the end of Portugal's commercial monopoly over India, the beginning of the ascent of the English East India Company's presence in India; this battle convinced the English East India Company to establish a small navy to safeguard their commercial interests from other European powers and from pirates. This small beginning is regarded as the root of the modern Indian Navy; the background to this battle points to the main reason for the Dutch Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie being organised in 1602. This battle was the result of the Portuguese monopoly over trade with India in the late-15th and 16th centuries. Two English ventures, The Company of Merchant Adventurers which became the Muscovy Company in 1555, the English East India Company known as "John Company", were attempting to find routes to the East Indies and the spice trade.
The following three individuals played a key part in the events leading up to this battle: The Portuguese guarded their new-found routes to Asia well. During July, 1583 an English merchant, Ralph Fitch was arrested for spying at Ormuz, he was on a voyage from Syria to the Indian Ocean in his ship,Tiger, via what is now Iraq using the Euphrates river. Ralph was presented before the Portuguese Viceroy in Goa, he was released on the surety provided by Jesuit priests, but escaped from Goa and wandered around India for several years. He returned to England in 1591, became a valuable advisor to the Company. Jan Huyghens van Linschoten was a Dutch Protestant traveller and historian who served as the Portuguese Viceroy's secretary in Goa between 1583 and 1588, he returned to Holland in 1592. He published a book, Itinerario in 1596 which graphically displayed for the first time in Europe, detailed maps of voyages to the East Indies India. During his stay in Goa, abusing the trust put in him by the Viceroy, Jan Huyghens meticulously copied the top-secret charts page-by-page.
More crucially, Jan Huyghens provided nautical data like currents, deeps and sandbanks, vital for safe navigation, along with coastal depictions to guide the way. His publications were responsible for the establishment of the Dutch East India Company in 1602 to unify Dutch efforts at trade with Asia. Sir William Hawkins led the first voyage of the English East India Company to India and sailed into the Gujarat port of Surat on 24 August 1608 aboard the Hector, he had with him 25,000 pieces of gold and a personal letter to the Mughal Emperor Jehangir from King James I seeking trade concessions. He persisted for over two years, however pirates stole his gold, tried several times to murder him while on shore, he returned to England empty-handed. The next envoy, Paul Canning, lasted only a few months; the initial voyages of the English East India Company were not to India. Each voyage was a venture in itself, separately funded by issuance of subscription stock. An eighth voyage was led in 1611 by Captain John Saris to Japan.
The ninth voyage was to Sumatra. The tenth voyage on behalf of the English East India Company was led by Captain Thomas Best, it set out from Gravesend on 1 February 1612 passing via the present day Trinidad Daman on 3 September 1612 reaching Surat on 5 September 1612. Surat was the principal port for the Mughals, was situated at the mouth of the river Tapti. Coincidentally, on 13 September 1612 a squadron of 16 Portuguese barks sailed into Surat. On 22 September 1612 Captain Best decided to send an emissary to the Emperor asking for permission to trade and settle a factory at Surat. If refused he planned to quit the country; this may have been because King James I had extended the Company's charter in 1609 on the basis that it would be cancelled if no profitable ventures were concluded within three years. On 30 September 1612 Captain Best got news that two of his men, Mr Canning and William Chambers were arrested while on shore. Fearing the worst, Captain Best detained a ship belonging to the Governor of Gujarat and offered to release it in exchange for his men.
On 10 October Captain Best and his ships sailed to Suvali, a small town about 12 miles North of Surat. This may have been because the Governor was battling a Rajput rebellion at a fort situated in the town. Between 17–21 October, amidst negotiations he managed to obtain a treaty with the Governor allowing trading privileges, subject to ratification by the Emperor. A skirmish took place between the two navies on the 29th without much damage to either side. At daylight on 30 October, Captain Best in Red Dragon sailed through the four Portuguese galleons during which three of them ran aground, was joined by Hosiander on the other side; the Portuguese managed to get the three galleons refloated. At 9pm that night in an attempt to set the English ships alight, a bark was sent towards them as a fire ship, but the English watch was alert, the bark was sunk by cannon fire with the loss of eight lives. A standoff remained until 5 December, when Captain Best sailed
Bryan Edwards (politician)
Bryan Edwards, FRS was an English politician and historian born in Westbury, Wiltshire. Edwards supported the slave trade, was described by abolitionist William Wilberforce as a powerful opponent, he was the eldest son of Bryan Edwards and his wife, Elizabeth Bayly, sister of Zachary Bayly, a slave-owner in Jamaica. After his father's death he was supported for a time by Nathaniel Bayly, another uncle, but they fell out, his maintenance and education were undertaken by Zachary Bayly. About 1759 Edwards joined his uncle Zachary Bayly in Jamaica, Bayly engaged a private tutor to complete the boy's education; when Bayly died Edwards inherited his wealth, including six Jamaican plantations. In 1773 he succeeded to the estate of another Jamaica resident named Hume. Edwards became a leading member of the colonial assembly of Jamaica, but in a few years returned to England. In 1782 Edwards failed to secure a seat in parliament as member for Chichester, he was in Jamaica again from 1787 to 1792. He settled in England as a West India merchant, making another failed attempt to enter Parliament in 1795, this time standing in Southampton.
On 28 May 1796, he became Member of Parliament for Grampound, a notoriously corrupt Cornish borough, along with Robert Sewell, another pro-slavery politician with interests in Jamaica. Edwards retained this seat until his death. Edwards was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1794. Edwards died in Southampton in 1800. In 1784 Edwards wrote Thoughts on the late Proceedings of Government respecting the Trade of the West India Islands with the United States of America, in which he attacked the restrictions placed by the government upon trade with the United States. In 1793 he published in two volumes the History and Commercial, of the British Colonies in the West Indies, in 1797 published his Historical Survey of the French Colony in the Island of St Domingo; the latter two titles were republished, with some additional material, as the History of the British Colonies in the West Indies, in three volumes. This has been translated into German and, in part, into Spanish. A fifth edition was issued in 1819.
When Mungo Park returned in 1796 from his celebrated journey in Africa, Edwards drew up from Park's narrative an account of his travels. Edwards was secretary of the Association for Promoting the Discovery of the Interior Parts of Africa, which published this piece in their Proceedings; when Park wrote his own account of his journeys he availed himself of Edwards' assistance. Edwards wrote poems and some other works relating to the history of the West Indies. Edwards married Martha Phipps, daughter of Thomas Phipps of Brook House and had one surviving son a daughter, he left the bulk of his estates to Zacchary Hume Edwards. Stephen, Leslie, ed.. "Edwards, Bryan". Dictionary of National Biography. 17. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Edwards, Bryan; the history and commercial, of the British colonies in the West Indies. 1 ed.). Edwards, Bryan; the History and Commercial, of the British Colonies in the West Indies
History of the Acadians
The Acadians are the descendants of the French settlers, sometimes the Indigenous peoples, of parts of Acadia in the northeastern region of North America comprising what is now the Canadian Maritime Provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, a Gaspé, in Quebec, to the Kennebec River in southern Maine. The history of the Acadians was influenced by the six colonial wars that took place in Acadia during the 17th and 18th century; the last of the colonial wars—the French and Indian War—resulted in the British Expulsion of the Acadians from the region. After the war, many Acadians returned to Acadia from the British Colonies. Others remained in France and some migrated from there to Louisiana, where they became known as Cajuns, a corruption of the word Acadiens or Acadians; the nineteenth century saw the beginning of the Acadian Renaissance and the publication of Evangeline, which helped galvanize Acadian identity. In the last century Acadians have made achievements in the areas of equal language and cultural rights as a minority group in the Maritime provinces of Canada.
Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts built the Habitation at Port-Royal in 1605 as a replacement for his initial attempt at colonizing Saint Croix Island. The trading monopoly of de Monts was cancelled in 1607, most of the French settlers returned to France, although some remained with the natives. Jean de Biencourt de Poutrincourt et de Saint-Just led a second expedition to Port Royal in 1610; the survival of the Acadian settlements was based on successful cooperation with the Indigenous peoples of the region. In the early years of Acadian settlement, this included a small number of recorded marriages between Acadian settlers and Indigenous women; some records have survived showing marriages between Acadian settlers and Indigenous women in formal Roman Catholic rites, for example, the marriage of Charles La Tour to a Mi'kmaw woman in 1626. There were reported instances of Acadian settlers marrying Indigenous spouses according to Mi'kmaq rites, subsequently living in Mi'kmaq communities. Many settlers brought French wives with them to Acadia, such as La Tour's second wife, Françoise-Marie Jacquelin, who joined him in Acadia in 1640.
Governor Isaac de Razilly's administration at LaHave, Nova Scotia, prepared the ground for the arrival of the first recorded migrant families on board the Saint Jehan, which left La Rochelle on 1 April 1636. There were a number of sailings from the French Atlantic Coast to Acadia between 1632 and 1636, but this is the only one for which a detailed passenger list has survived. Nicolas Denys, stationed across the LaHave River at Port Rossingol, acted as agent for the Saint Jehan. After a 35-day crossing of the Atlantic, the Saint Jehan arrived on 6 May 1636 at LaHave, Nova Scotia. There were eighteen crew members. With this ship, Acadia began a slow shift from being a matter of explorers and traders, of men, to a colony of permanent settlers, including women and children. While the presence of European women is a signal that settlement was contemplated, there were yet so few of them in this group of migrants that they did not affect the status of Acadia as a colony of European transients. By the end of the year, the migrants were re-established at Port Royal.
At Port Royal in 1636, Pierre Martin and Catherine Vigneau, who had arrived on the Saint Jehan, were the first European parents to have a child in Acadia. The first-born child was Mathieu Martin. In part because of this distinction, Mathieu Martin became the Seigneury of Cobequid. Kennedy argues that the emigrants from the Vienne region of France carried to Acadia their customs and social structure, they were frontier people. They emphasized trading for a profit, they were politically active. The French and the Acadian villages were similar in terms of prosperity and independent-mindedness. Kennedy says the emergence of a distinct Acadian identity emerged from the gradual adaptation of traditional French methods and ideas to the North American environmental and political situations. With the death of Isaac de Razilly, Acadia was plunged into what some historians have described as a civil war. Acadia had two legitimate Lieutenant Governors; the war was between Port Royal, where Governor Charles de Menou d'Aulnay de Charnisay was stationed, present-day Saint John, New Brunswick, where Governor Charles de Saint-Étienne de la Tour was stationed.
In the war, there were four major battles. La Tour attacked d'Aulnay at Port Royal in 1640. In response to the attack, D'Aulnay sailed out of Port Royal to establish a five-month blockade of La Tour's fort at Saint John, which La Tour defeated. La Tour attacked d'Aulnay again at Port Royal in 1643. D'Aulnay and Port Royal won the war against La Tour with the 1645 siege of Saint John. After d'Aulnay died, La Tour re-established himself in Acadia. In 1654, war between France and England broke out. Led by Major Robert Sedgwick, a flotilla from Boston, under orders from Cromwell, arrived in Acadia to chase the French out; the flotilla seized La Tour's fort Port-Royal. La Tour managed to find himself in England, with the support of John Kirke, succeeded in receiving from Cromwell a part of Acadia, along with Sir Thomas Temple. La Tour returned to Cap-de-Sable where he remained until his death in 1666 at the age of 73. During the En