Suppression of the Society of Jesus
The suppression of the Jesuits in the Portuguese Empire, the Two Sicilies, Parma, the Spanish Empire and Austria and Hungary is a complex topic. Analysis of the reasons is complicated by the political maneuvering in each country, not carried on in the open but has left some trail of evidence; the papacy reluctantly went along with the demands of the various Catholic kingdoms involved, advanced no theological reason for the suppression. The power and wealth of the Society of Jesus with its influential educational system was confronted by adversaries in this time of cultural change in Europe, leading to the revolutions that would follow. Monarchies attempting to centralize and secularize political power viewed the Jesuits as being too international, too allied to the papacy, too autonomous from the monarchs in whose territory they operated. By the brief Dominus ac Redemptor Pope Clement XIV suppressed the Society of Jesus, as a fait accompli and with no reasons given. Russia and the United States allowed the Jesuits to continue their work, Catherine the Great allowed the founding of a new novitiate in Russia.
Soon after their restoration by Pope Pius VII in 1814, the Jesuits began returning to most of the places from which they had been expelled. Prior to the eighteenth-century suppression of the Jesuits in many countries, there was an early ban in territories of the Venetian Republic between 1606 and 1656/7, begun and ended as part of disputes between the Republic and the Papacy, beginning with the Venetian Interdict. By the mid-18th century, the Society had acquired a reputation in Europe for political maneuvering and economic success. Monarchs in many European states grew progressively wary of what they saw as undue interference from a foreign entity; the expulsion of Jesuits from their states had the added benefit of allowing governments to impound the Society's accumulated wealth and possessions. However, historian Charles Gibson cautions, "ow far this served as a motive for the expulsion we do not know."Various states took advantage of different events in order to take action. The series of political struggles between various monarchs France and Portugal, began with disputes over territory in 1750 and culminated in suspension of diplomatic relations and dissolution of the Society by the Pope over most of Europe, some executions.
The Portuguese Empire, the Two Sicilies and the Spanish Empire were involved to one degree or another. The conflicts began with trade disputes, in 1750 in Portugal, in 1755 in France, in the late 1750s in the Two Sicilies. In 1758 the government of Joseph I of Portugal took advantage of the waning powers of Pope Benedict XIV and deported Jesuits from South America after relocating the Jesuits and their native workers, fighting a brief conflict, formally suppressing the order in 1759. In 1762 the Parlement Français, ruled against the Society in a huge bankruptcy case under pressure from a host of groups – from within the Church but secular notables and the king's mistress. Austria and the Two Sicilies suppressed the order by decree in 1767. There were long-standing tensions between the Portuguese crown and the Jesuits, which increased when the Count of Oeiras became the monarch's minister of state, culminating in the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1759; the Távora affair in 1758 could be considered a pretext for the expulsion and crown confiscation of Jesuit assets.
According to historians James Lockhart and Stuart B. Schwartz, the Jesuits' "independence, wealth, control of education, ties to Rome made the Jesuits obvious targets for Pombal's brand of extreme regalism."Portugal's quarrel with the Jesuits began over an exchange of South American colonial territory with Spain. By a secret treaty of 1750, Portugal relinquished to Spain the contested Colonia del Sacramento at the mouth of the Rio de la Plata in exchange for the Seven Reductions of Paraguay, the autonomous Jesuit missions, nominal Spanish colonial territory; the native Guaraní, who lived in the mission territories, were ordered to quit their country and settle across the Uruguay. Owing to the harsh conditions, the Guaraní rose in arms against the transfer, the so-called Guaraní War ensued, it was a disaster for the Guaraní. In Portugal a battle escalated with inflammatory pamphlets denouncing or defending the Jesuits who for over a century had protected the Guarani from enslavement through a network of Reductions, as depicted in The Mission.
The Portuguese colonizers secured the expulsion of the Jesuits. On 1 April 1758, Pombal persuaded the aged Pope Benedict XIV to appoint the Portuguese Cardinal Saldanha to investigate allegations against the Jesuits. Benedict was skeptical as to the gravity of the alleged abuses, he ordered a "minute inquiry", but so as to safeguard the reputation of the Society, all serious matters were to be referred back to him. Benedict died the following month on May 3. On May 15 Saldanha, having received the papal brief only a fortnight before, declared that the Jesuits were guilty of having exercised "illicit and scandalous commerce," both in Portugal and in its colonies, he had not visited Jesuit houses as ordered, pronounced on the issues which the pope had reserved to himself. Pombal implicated the Jesuits in the Távora affair, an attempted assassination of the king on 3 September 1758, on the grounds of their friendship with some of the supposed conspirators. On 19 January 1759, he issued a decree sequestering the property of the Society in the Portuguese dominions and the following September deported the Portuguese fathers, about one thousand in number, to the Pontifical States, keeping the foreigners in prison.
Antonio Pigafetta was an Italian scholar and explorer from the Republic of Venice. He joined the expedition to the Spice Islands led by explorer Ferdinand Magellan under the flag of King Charles I of Spain and, after Magellan's death in the Philippines, the subsequent voyage around the world. During the expedition, he served as Magellan's assistant and kept an accurate journal which assisted him in translating the Cebuano language, it is the first recorded document concerning the language. Pigafetta was one of the 18 men who returned to Spain in 1522, under the command of Juan Sebastián Elcano, out of the 240 who set out three years earlier; these men completed the first circumnavigation of the world. Pigafetta's surviving journal is the source for much of what is known about Magellan and Elcano's voyage. At least one warship of the Italian Navy, a destroyer of the Navigatori class, was named after him in 1931. Pigafetta belonged to a rich family city of Vicenza in northeast Italy. In his youth he studied astronomy and cartography.
He served on board the ships of the Knights of Rhodes at the beginning of the 16th century. Until 1519, he accompanied Monsignor Francesco Chieregati, to Spain. In Seville, Pigafetta heard of Magellan's planned expedition and decided to join, accepting the title of supernumerary, a modest salary of 1,000 maravedís. During the voyage, which started in August 1519, Pigafetta collected extensive data concerning the geography, flora and the native inhabitants of the places that the expedition visited, his meticulous notes proved invaluable to future explorers and cartographers due to his inclusion of nautical and linguistic data, to latter-day historians because of its vivid, detailed style. The only other sailor to maintain a journal during the voyage was Francisco Albo, Victoria's last pilot, who kept a formal logbook. Pigafetta was wounded on Mactan in the Philippines, where Magellan was killed in the Battle of Mactan in April 1521 by the local ruler Lapu-Lapu, he recovered and was among the 18 who accompanied Juan Sebastián Elcano on board the Victoria on the return voyage to Spain.
Upon reaching port in Sanlúcar de Barrameda in the modern Province of Cadiz in September 1522, three years after his departure, Pigafetta returned to the Republic of Venice. He related his experiences in the "Report on the First Voyage Around the World", composed in Italian and was distributed to European monarchs in handwritten form before it was published by Italian historian Giovanni Battista Ramusio in 1550–59; the account centers on the events in the Mariana Islands and the Philippines, although it included several maps of other areas as well, including the first known use of the word "Pacific Ocean" on a map. The original document was not preserved. However, it was not through Pigafetta's writings that Europeans first learned of the circumnavigation of the globe. Rather, it was through an account written by a Flanders-based writer Maximilianus Transylvanus, published in 1523. Transylvanus had been instructed to interview some of the survivors of the voyage when Magellan's surviving ship Victoria returned to Spain in September 1522 under the command of Juan Sebastian Elcano.
After Magellan and Elcano's voyage, Pigafetta utilized the connections he had made prior to the voyage with the Knights of Rhodes to achieve membership in the order. Antonio Pigafetta wrote a book, in which a detailed account of the voyage was given, it is quite unclear when it was first published and what language had been used in the first edition. The remaining sources of his voyage were extensively studied by Italian archivist Andrea da Mosto, who wrote a critical study of Pigafetta's book in 1898 and whose conclusions were confirmed by J. Dénucé. Today, four manuscripts survive. One of the three books is in French. Of the four manuscripts, three are in French, one in Italian. From a philological point of view, the French editions seem to derive from an Italian original version, while the remaining Italian editions seem to derive from a French original version; because of this, it's still quite unclear whether the original version of Pigafetta's manuscript was in French or Italian though it wasn't in French language.
The most complete manuscript, the one, supposed to be more related to the original manuscript, is the one found by Carlo Amoretti inside the Biblioteca Ambrosiana and published in 1800. Amoretti, in his printed edition, modified many words and sentences whose meaning was uncertain; the modified version published by Amoretti was translated in other languages and therefore the edits by Amoretti spread in foreign editions too. Andrea da Mosto critically analyzed the original version stored in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana and published a faithful version of Pigafetta's book in 1894. Andrea da Mosto's edition is deemed more rigorous than Amoretti's edition. Regarding the French versions of Pigafetta's book, J. Dénucé extensively studied them and published a critical edition. A
National Historical Commission of the Philippines
The National Historical Commission of the Philippines is a government agency of the Philippines. Its mission is "the promotion of Philippine history and cultural heritage through research, conservation, sites management and heraldry works." As such, it "aims to inculcate awareness and appreciation of the noble deeds and ideals of our heroes and other illustrious Filipinos, to instill pride in the Filipino people and to rekindle the Filipino spirit through the lessons of history." The present day NHCP was established in 1972 as part of the reorganization of government after President Ferdinand Marcos' declaration of martial law, but the roots of the institute can be traced back to 1933, when the American colonial Insular Government first established the Philippine Historical Research and Markers Committee. The Philippine Historical Research and Markers Committee was created by U. S. Governor General Frank Murphy, by Executive Order 451, to identify and mark "historic antiquities" in Manila as a first step towards their preservation.
Church of San Agustin, Fort Santiago, Plaza McKinley, Roman Catholic Cathedral of Manila, San Sebastian Church, Concordia College, Manila Railroad Company, Dr. Lorenzo Negrao, University of Santo Tomas were among the first structures to be granted markers; the installation of markers were first limited to identify antiquities in Manila. Many markers were destroyed or lost due to World War II, along with the structures they represent, many have been replaced by post-war markers; this first committee was composed of American journalist Walter Robb. Miguel Selga, SJ. With the establishment of the Philippine Commonwealth in 1935, the PHRMC was replaced by the Philippines Historical Committee, which took over the functions as its predecessor, as well as the tasks of repairing government-owned antiquities and acquiring antiquities owned by private individuals. There are no known records of the activities of the committee during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines during World War II. In the postwar reconstruction years the PHC was busy as there was a government interest in "the reconstruction of the past as a means to form nationhood."
Reconstituted six months after Philippine independence in 1946, the committee was first placed under the Office of the President, transferred to the Department of Education. During this time, it installed over 400 historical markers all over the archipelago; as the nation rebuilt itself, a number of other historical commissions were created by law to commemorate the birth centennials of various Philippine heroes of the late 19th century. All of these commissions were merged into one National Heroes Commission created in 1963. In 1965, Congress passed Republic Act No. 4368 that created the National Historical Commission and abolished the Philippine Historical Committee and the National Heroes Commission whose functions were delegated to the NHC. Among the functions of the NHC are the following: to publish or cause to have written or published the works of our national heroes and other great and good Filipinos. In 1972, President Ferdinand Marcos' declaration of martial law resulted in a reorganization of government and the renaming of the NHC as the National Historical Institute.
On May 12, 2010, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed the law reverting the National Historical Institute into its original form as the National Historical Commission of the Philippines. The NHCP still undertakes all the functions of the previous commissions, most notably those of preserving historical sites and structures and serving as lead agency for the commemorations of Independence Day, Rizal Day. Historical markers issued by the NHCP and its predecessors Rene R. Escalante, PhD-Chairperson Abraham Sakili, PhD-Member Fe Buenaventura-Mangahas, PhD-Member Rene R. Escalante, PhD-Member Cesar Gilbert Q. Adriano-Member Victorino M. Manalo-Member Jeremy Robert M. Barns-Member Ludovico D. Badoy-Member Conducts researches on Philippine
Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano. Born into a family of the Portuguese nobility in around 1480, Magellan became a skilled sailor and naval officer and was selected by King Charles I of Spain to search for a westward route to the Maluku Islands. Commanding a fleet of five vessels, he headed south through the Atlantic Ocean to Patagonia, passing through the Strait of Magellan into a body of water he named the "peaceful sea". Despite a series of storms and mutinies, the expedition reached the Spice Islands in 1521 and returned home via the Indian Ocean to complete the first circuit of the globe. Magellan did not complete the entire voyage, as he was killed during the Battle of Mactan in the Philippines in 1521, his gift, the Santo Niño de Cebú image, remains one of his legacies during his arrival. Magellan had reached the Malay Archipelago in Southeast Asia on previous voyages traveling east.
By visiting this area again but now travelling west, Magellan achieved a nearly complete personal circumnavigation of the globe for the first time in history. The Magellanic penguin is named after him. Magellan's navigational skills have been acknowledged in the naming of objects associated with the stars, including the Magellanic Clouds, now known to be two nearby dwarf galaxies. Magellan was born in northern Portugal in around 1480, either at Vila Nova de Gaia, near Porto, in Douro Litoral Province, or at Sabrosa, near Vila Real, in Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Province, he was the son of Rodrigo de Magalhães, Alcaide-Mor of Aveiro and wife Alda de Mesquita and brother of Leonor or Genebra de Magalhães, wife with issue of João Fernandes Barbosa. In March 1505 at the age of 25, Magellan enlisted in the fleet of 22 ships sent to host D. Francisco de Almeida as the first viceroy of Portuguese India. Although his name does not appear in the chronicles, it is known that he remained there eight years, in Goa and Quilon.
He participated including the battle of Cannanore in 1506, where he was wounded. In 1509 he fought in the battle of Diu, he sailed under Diogo Lopes de Sequeira in the first Portuguese embassy to Malacca, with Francisco Serrão, his friend and cousin. In September, after arriving at Malacca, the expedition fell victim to a conspiracy ending in retreat. Magellan had a crucial role, saving Francisco Serrão, who had landed. In 1511, under the new governor Afonso de Albuquerque and Serrão participated in the conquest of Malacca. After the conquest their ways parted: Magellan was promoted, with a rich plunder and, in the company of a Malay he had indentured and baptized, Enrique of Malacca, he returned to Portugal in 1512. Serrão departed in the first expedition sent to find the "Spice Islands" in the Moluccas, where he remained, he married a woman from Amboina and became a military advisor to the Sultan of Ternate, Bayan Sirrullah. His letters to Magellan would prove decisive, giving information about the spice-producing territories.
After taking a leave without permission, Magellan fell out of favour. Serving in Morocco, he was wounded, he was accused of trading illegally with the Moors. The accusations were proved false, but he received no further offers of employment after 15 May 1514. On in 1515, he got an employment offer as a crew member on a Portuguese ship, but rejected this. In 1517 after a quarrel with King Manuel I, who denied his persistent demands to lead an expedition to reach the spice islands from the east, he left for Spain. In Seville he befriended his countryman Diogo Barbosa and soon married the daughter of Diogo's second wife, María Caldera Beatriz Barbosa, they had two children: Rodrigo de Magalhães and Carlos de Magalhães, both of whom died at a young age. His wife died in Seville around 1521. Meanwhile, Magellan devoted himself to studying the most recent charts, investigating, in partnership with cosmographer Rui Faleiro, a gateway from the Atlantic to the South Pacific and the possibility of the Moluccas being Spanish according to the demarcation of the Treaty of Tordesillas.
Christopher Columbus's voyages to the West had the goal of reaching the Indies and to establish direct commercial relations between Spain and the Asian kingdoms. The Spanish soon realized that the lands of the Americas were not a part of Asia, but a new continent; the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas reserved for Portugal the eastern routes that went around Africa, Vasco da Gama and the Portuguese arrived in India in 1498. Castile urgently needed to find a new commercial route to Asia. After the Junta de Toro conference of 1505, the Spanish Crown commissioned expeditions to discover a route to the west. Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa reached the Pacific Ocean in 1513 after crossing the Isthmus of Panama, Juan Díaz de Solís died in Río de la Plata in 1516 while exploring South America in the service of Spain. In October 1517 in Seville, Magellan contacted Juan de Factor of the Casa de Contratación. Following the arrival of his partner Rui Faleiro, with the support of Aranda, they presented their project to the Spanish king, Charles I, f
Saint James the Great Parish Church (Bolinao)
The Saint James the Great Parish Church is a Spanish colonial church located at Brgy. Germinal in Bolinao, Philippines; the church was made out of black coral stones. The church underwent series of natural and man-made calamities, such as the 1788 earthquake, 1819 fire incident, Typhoon Emong in 2009; the first religious friars in Bolinao were the Augustinians who stayed in the town from 1585 to 1587. The Dominicans took charge from 1588 to 1599. In 1600, the Augustinians returned and stayed until 1607; the missionary work left by the Augustinians were taken over by the Augustinian Recollects who administered the town from 1609 to 1679, up to 1712 when the Dominicans took over again. When the Recollects returned in 1609, they transferred the town to the mainland because of the troubles inflicted by the piratical raids; the Recollect fathers returned in 1749 and took charge until 1784. Since several priests administered the parish; the church tower of Bolinao used to be the tallest in Pangasinan until an earthquake destroyed half of the tower in 1788.
The church convent was accidentally burned in 1819. The first priest was ordained in Bolinao Church in 1974. In 1985, it became a parish of the Diocese of Alaminos being under the Diocese of Lingayen. On May 7, 2009, the church was devastated by Typhoon Emong and has since been undergoing repairs and renovations. Saint James the Great Parish is in High Renaissance style. One feature of the church is its trefoil arch main door; the overall design of the facade is plain and simple with the super-positioned columns alternating with window openings and tall blind arches conspicuously dominating the ends of the walls. In front of the church is a marker stating that the first Mass on Philippine soil was celebrated in Bolinao Bay in 1324 by a Franciscan missionary, Blessed Odorico. However, Bl. Odoric being in the Philippines is doubted by scholars. Further, the National Historical Institute recognized the historical records of Limasawa in Southern Leyte as the venue of the first Mass, held on March 31, 1521.
The town center of the Saint James the Great Parish Church in Bolinao, Pangasinan was one of the Miniland models featured at the Legoland Malaysia Resort. It was the only Philippine town featured at the said park. Media related to Saint James the Great Parish Church of Bolinao at Wikimedia Commons
Timeline of Philippine history
This is a timeline of Philippine history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in the Philippines and their predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of the Philippines. See the list of Presidents of the Philippines. Timeline of Manila List of disasters in the Philippines Benjamin Vincent, "Philippine Isles", Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, London: Ward, Lock & Co. – via Hathi Trust David Lea and Colette Milward, ed.. "Philippines". Political Chronology of South East Asia and Oceania. Political Chronologies of the World. Europa Publications. Pp. 157–175. ISBN 978-1-135-35659-0. Artemio R. Guillermo. "Chronology". Historical Dictionary of the Philippines. Maryland, USA: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-7246-2. "Philippines Profile: Timeline". BBC News. "Philippines: Timeline". ABC News. Jan 6, 2006. "Timeline of Philippine History". Philippine History. "Philippines History Timeline Chronological Timetable of Events" worldatlas. "Timeline Philippines".
Timelines of History. "Important Dates in the Philippines". The Robinson Library. "Chronological Table". 1906. "Sultanate History Timeline ". Sulu Online Library. "Filipino History". On This Day. "Philippines Events in History". BrainyHistory. "Philippine History -- The Philippine Centennial: Celebrating Historical Events". Filipino.biz.ph. Detailed timeline
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Spain and ruler of the Spanish Empire, Archduke of Austria, ruler of the Habsburg Netherlands. The Spanish conquest of the Aztecs and Incas, the German colonisation of Venezuela both occurred during his reign. Charles V revitalized the medieval concept of the universal monarchy of Charlemagne and travelled from city to city, with no single fixed capital: overall he spent 28 years in the Habsburg Netherlands, 18 years in Spain and 9 years in Germany. After four decades of incessant warfare with the Kingdom of France, the Ottoman Empire, the Protestants, Charles V abandoned his multi-national project with a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556 in favor of his son Philip II of Spain and brother Ferdinand I of Austria; the personal union of his European and American territories, spanning over nearly 4 million square kilometres, was the first collection of realms to be defined as "the empire on which the sun never sets". Charles was the heir of three of Europe's leading dynasties: Valois of Burgundy, Habsburg of Austria, Trastámara of Spain.
As heir to the House of Burgundy, he inherited areas in the Netherlands and around the eastern border of France. As the head of the House of Habsburg, he inherited Austria and other lands in central Europe, was elected to succeed his grandfather, Maximilian I, as Holy Roman Emperor; as a grandson of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, both from the Spanish House of Trastámara he inherited the Crown of Castile, developing a nascent empire in the Americas and Asia, the Crown of Aragon, which included a Mediterranean empire extending to southern Italy. Charles was the first king to rule Castile and Aragon in his own right, as a result he is referred to as the first king of Spain; the personal union under Charles of the Holy Roman Empire with the Spanish Empire was the closest Europe has come to a universal monarchy since the time of Charlemagne in the 9th century. Because of widespread fears that his vast inheritance would lead to the realisation of a universal monarchy and that he was trying to create a European hegemony, Charles was the object of hostility from many enemies.
His reign was dominated by war by three major simultaneous prolonged conflicts: the Italian Wars with France, the struggle to halt the Turkish advance into Europe, the conflict with the German princes resulting from the Protestant Reformation. The French wars fought in Italy, lasted for most of his reign. Enormously expensive, they led to the development of the Tercios; the struggle with the Ottoman Empire was fought in the Mediterranean. The Turkish advance was halted at the Siege of Vienna in 1529, a lengthy war of attrition, conducted on Charles' behalf by his younger brother Ferdinand, continued for the rest of Charles's reign. In the Mediterranean, although there were some successes, he was unable to prevent the Ottomans' increasing naval dominance and the piratical activity of the Barbary pirates. Charles opposed the Reformation, in Germany he was in conflict with Protestant nobles who were motivated by both religious and political opposition to him, he could not prevent the spread of Protestantism and was forced to concede the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, which divided Germany along denominational lines.
While Charles did not concern himself with rebellions, he was quick to put down three dangerous rebellions. Once the rebellions were quelled the essential Castilian and Burgundian territories remained loyal to Charles throughout his rule. Charles's Spanish dominions were the chief source of his power and wealth, they became important as his reign progressed. In the Americas, Charles sanctioned the conquest by Castilian conquistadores of the Aztec and Inca empires. Castilian control was extended across much of Central America; the resulting vast expansion of territory and the flows of South American silver to Castile had profound long term effects on Spain. Charles was only 56 when he abdicated, but after 40 years of active rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a monastery, where he died at the age of 58; the Holy Roman Empire passed to his younger brother Ferdinand, archduke of Austria, while the Spanish Empire, including the possessions in the Netherlands and Italy, was inherited by Charles's son Philip II of Spain.
The two empires would remain allies until the extinction of the male line of the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs in 1700. Charles was born in 1500 as the eldest son of Philip the Handsome and Joanna of Castile at the Prinsenhof in the Flemish city of Ghent, part of the Habsburg Netherlands; the culture and courtly life of the Burgundian Low Countries were an important influence in his early life. He was tutored by William de Croÿ, by Adrian of Utrecht. Charles became a member of the Order of the Golden Fleece in his infancy and became its grand master. Founded by the Burgundian Philip the Good in 1430, the order emphasised the ideals of the medieval knights and the desire for Christian unity to fight the infidel, it played an important part in the development of Charles' beliefs and he is seen in portraits without its insignia prominently displayed. It is said that Charles spoke several vernacular languages: he was f