Indigenous music of Canada
Aboriginal music of Canada encompasses a wide variety of musical genres created by Canadas Aboriginal people. Each of the Aboriginal communities had their own musical traditions. Chanting – singing is popular and most use a variety of musical instruments. Traditionally, First Nation band governments, being resourceful and creative, First Nation bands made gourds and animal horns into rattles, many rattles were elaborately carved and beautifully painted. In woodland areas, they made horns of birchbark and drumsticks of carved antlers, drums were generally made of carved wood and animal hides. Drums and rattles are percussion instruments used by First Nations people. These musical instruments provide the background for songs, and songs are the background for dances, many traditional First Nations people consider song and dance to be sacred. For many years after Europeans came to Canada, First Nations people were forbidden to practice their ceremonies and that is one reason why little information about First Nations music and musical instruments is available.
The closest word, includes music, the sound of speech, today, a revival of pride in First Nations art and music is taking and beauty of traditional First Nations art and musical instruments. Drums are closely associated with First Nations people, some people say, Drumming is the heartbeat of Mother Earth. First Nations made a variety of drums. There are tambourine-shaped hand drums, war drums, water drums and their size and shape depends on the First Nations particular culture and what the drummer wants to do with them. In many First Nations cultures, the circle is important and it is the shape of the sun and moon, and of the path they trace across the sky. Many First Nations objects, such as tipis and wigwams, are circular in shape, First Nations people are recovering the knowledge, history often arranged with the dwellings placed in a circle. To this day, many First Nations people hold meetings sitting in a circle, meetings often begin with a prayer, with the people standing in a circle holding hands.
Hand carved wooden flutes and whistles are less common than drums, chippewa men played flutes to serenade girlfriends and to soothe themselves and others during hard times. The Cree and Maliseet made and used whistles, archaeologists have found evidence that both wooden whistles and flutes were used by the Beothuk, an extinct tribe who lived in Newfoundland until the early days of European settlement. The human voice is the instrument of all First Nations
The Numbered Treaties are a series of eleven treaties signed between the Aboriginal peoples in Canada and the reigning monarch of Canada from 1871 to 1921. These treaties provided the Dominion of Canada large tracts of land in exchange for promises made to the Aboriginal people of the area and these terms were dependent on individual negotiations and so specific terms differed with each treaty. These Treaties came in two waves—Numbers 1 through 7 from 1871-1877 and Numbers 9 through 11 from 1899-1921, in the first wave, the treaties were key in advancing European settlement across the Prairie regions as well as the development of the Canadian Pacific Railway. However, the Numbered Treaties are criticized and are an issue within the fight for First Nation rights. The 1982 Constitution Act gave protection of First Nations and treaty rights under Section 35 and it states and treaty rights are hereby recognized and affirmed. This phrase however was never fully defined, as a result, First Nations must attest their rights in court as the case in R v Sparrow.
Through centuries of interaction First Nations view the Numbered Treaties as sacred, Treaty Days are celebrated in Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The relationship between The Canadian Crown and Aboriginal peoples stretches back to first contact between European colonialists and North American Aboriginal peoples, over centuries of interaction, treaties were established concerning interaction between the monarch and Aboriginal peoples. Both the Royal Proclamation of 1763 and the British North American Act of 1867 established guidelines that would be used to create the numbered treaties. The Royal Proclamation occurred in 1763, and is considered to be the foundation of treaty-making in Canada and this proclamation established a line between the Appalachian Mountain from Nova Scotia and the southern region of Georgia, and prevented settlement beyond that specific area by white colonists. The Royal Proclamation was created as a result of the assertion of British jurisdiction over First Nation territory, as a result of these uprisings, the intention of the Royal Proclamation was to prevent future disputes.
The Royal Proclamation stated that the only government that was able to purchase land from First Nations People was the British Crown. One of the stipulations of this agreement was that First Nation People were to be informed, when the British North American Act was created, a division of power was established between the Dominion Government and its provinces that separated First Nation Peoples and settlers. The federal government retained responsibility for providing care, property rights. Both the Royal Proclamation and the British North America Acts impacted the procedures of governmental and they set the stage for future negotiations that would occur, including the numbered treaties that would begin in 1871. Each treaty delineates a tract of land which was thought to be the territory of the First Nations People signing that particular treaty. For Canada it was a step before settlement and development could occur further westward. No two treaties were alike, as they were dependent upon specific geographic and social conditions within the territory being addressed, after confederation, the newly formed Dominion of Canada looked to expand its borders from sea to sea
Inuit are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland and Alaska. Inuit is a noun, the singular is Inuk. The Inuit languages are part of the Eskimo-Aleut family, Inuit Sign Language is a critically endangered language isolate spoken in Nunavut. In the United States and Canada, the term Eskimo was commonly used to describe the Inuit and Alaskas Yupik, Inuit is not accepted as a term for the Yupik, and Eskimo is the only term that includes Yupik, Iñupiat and Inuit. However, aboriginal peoples in Canada and Greenlandic Inuit view Eskimo as pejorative, in Canada, sections 25 and 35 of the Constitution Act of 1982 classified the Inuit as a distinctive group of Aboriginal Canadians who are not included under either the First Nations or the Métis. These areas are known in Inuktitut as the Inuit Nunangat, in the United States, the Iñupiat live primarily on the Alaska North Slope and on Little Diomede Island. The Greenlandic Inuit are descendants of migrations from Canada.
In the 21st century they are citizens of Denmark, although not of the European Union, Inuit are the descendants of what anthropologists call the Thule culture, who emerged from western Alaska around 1000 CE. They had split from the related Aleut group about 4,000 years ago and from northeastern Siberian migrants, possibly related to the Chukchi language group and they spread eastwards across the Arctic. They displaced the related Dorset culture, the last major Paleo-Eskimo culture, Inuit legends speak of the Tuniit as giants, people who were taller and stronger than the Inuit. Less frequently, the legends refer to the Dorset as dwarfs, researchers believe that the Dorset culture lacked the dogs, larger weapons and other technologies of the Inuit society, which gave the latter an advantage. By 1300, Inuit migrants had reached west Greenland, where they settled, faced with population pressures from the Thule and other surrounding groups, such as the Algonquian and Siouan to the south, the Tuniit gradually receded.
They were thought to have become extinct as a people by about 1400 or 1500. But, in the mid-1950s, researcher Henry B. Collins determined that, based on the ruins found at Native Point, the Sadlermiut population survived up until winter 1902–03, when exposure to new infectious diseases brought by contact with Europeans led to their extinction as a people. In the early 21st century, mitochondrial DNA research has supported the theory of continuity between the Tuniit and the Sadlermiut peoples and it provided evidence that a population displacement did not occur within the Aleutian Islands between the Dorset and Thule transition. In contrast to other Tuniit populations, the Aleut and Sadlermiut benefited from both geographical isolation and their ability to adopt certain Thule technologies, in Canada and Greenland, Inuit circulated almost exclusively north of the Arctic tree line, the effective southern border of Inuit society. The most southern officially recognized Inuit community in the world is Rigolet in Nunatsiavut, south of Nunatsiavut, the descendants of the southern Labrador Inuit in NunatuKavut continued their traditional transhumant semi-nomadic way of life until the mid-1900s.
The Nunatukavummuit people usually moved among islands and bays on a seasonal basis and they did not establish stationary communities
The First Nations are the predominant Aboriginal peoples of Canada south of the Arctic. Those in the Arctic area are distinct and known as Inuit, the Métis, another distinct ethnicity, developed after European contact and relations primarily between First Nations people and Europeans. There are currently 634 recognized First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada, roughly half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. Under the Employment Equity Act, First Nations are a group, along with women, visible minorities. First Nations are not defined as a minority under the Act or by the criteria of Statistics Canada. Within Canada, First Nations has come into general use—replacing the deprecated term Indians—for the indigenous peoples of the Americas, individuals using the term outside Canada include supporters of the Cascadian independence movement, as well as U. S. tribes within the Pacific Northwest. The singular, commonly used on culturally politicized reserves, is the term First Nations person, North American indigenous peoples have cultures spanning thousands of years.
Some of their oral traditions accurately describe historical events, such as the Cascadia earthquake of 1700, written records began with the arrival of European explorers and colonists during the Age of Discovery, beginning in the late 15th century. European accounts by trappers, traders and missionaries give important evidence of early contact culture, in addition and anthropological research, as well as linguistics, have helped scholars piece together understanding of ancient cultures and historic peoples. Combined with development, this relatively non-combative history has allowed First Nations peoples to have an influence on the national culture. Collectively, First Nations, and Métis peoples constitute Aboriginal peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, First Nations came into common usage in the 1980s to replace the term Indian band in referring to groups of Indians with common government and language. Elder Sol Sanderson says that he coined the term in the early 1980s, others say that the term came into common usage in the 1970s to avoid using the word Indian, which some Canadians considered offensive.
No legal definition of the term exists, some Aboriginal peoples in Canada have adopted the term First Nation to replace the word band in the formal name of their community. While the word Indian is still a term, its use is erratic. Some First Nations people consider the term offensive, while others prefer it to Aboriginal person/persons/people, the term is a misnomer given to indigenous peoples of North America by European explorers who erroneously thought they had landed on the Indian subcontinent. The use of the term Native Americans, which the United States government and it refers more specifically to the Aboriginal peoples residing within the boundaries of the United States. The parallel term Native Canadian is not commonly used, but Natives and autochthones are, under the Royal Proclamation of 1763, known as the Indian Magna Carta, the Crown referred to indigenous peoples in British territory as tribes or nations. The term First Nations is capitalized, unlike alternative terms and nations may have slightly different meanings
Idle No More
Idle No More is an ongoing protest movement, founded in December 2012 by four women, three First Nations women and one non-Native ally. It has consisted of a number of actions worldwide, inspired in part by the liquid diet hunger strike of Attawapiskat Chief Theresa Spence. The popular movement has included round dances in public places and blockades of rail lines, after the May 2,2011 Canadian Federal election, the Conservative federal government, led by Stephen Harper, proposed a number of omnibus bills introducing sweeping legislative changes. Of particular concern is the removal of the term absolute surrender in Section 208, a number of these measures drew fire from environmental and First Nations groups. In particular, Bill C-45 overhauled the Navigable Waters Protection Act of 1882, under the new NPA, the approval process would only be required for development around one of a vastly circumscribed list of waterways set by the Minister of Transportation. Many of the newly deregulated waterways passed through traditional First Nations land, many bills affecting First Nations people have failed to be passed.
Numerous attempts to introduce bills have failed due to their low priority for past federal governments, in 1996 Bill C-79, the Indian Act Optional Modification Act died on the order paper. In 2002, Bill C-7, the First Nations Governance Act, in 2008, there was Bill C-47, the Family Homes on Reserves and Matrimonial Interests or Rights Act, to redress inequity in the treatment of women. That one died on the paper three times and is returned before Parliament, now called Bill S-2. The cancellation of the Kelowna Accords by the current federal government was seen as a betrayal by natives, further background to this is the feeling that the federal government has repeatedly acted in bad faith with Aboriginal peoples interests, and have violated treaties when it suited them. The feeling that the tactics of negotiating with the federal government have become meaningless has caused support for new tactics. The Conservative government bills beginning with Bill C-45 threaten Treaties and this Indigenous Vision of Sovereignty, the movement promotes environmental protection and indigenous sovereignty.
Creating chapters across Turtle Island under the umbrella of the main INM, encouraging knowledge sharing about indigenous sovereignty and environmental protections. The press release notes that As a grassroots movement, clearly no political organization speaks for Idle No More. Furthermore, this is not just an Aboriginal Canadian movement and these pipeline projects will be stretching beyond borders carving through critical ecosystems and landscapes in the states. ”. With the magnitude and power of this project, these impacts will not end soon. These pipelines will stretch across borders and come into our own backyards here in the states, Idle No Mores vision has been linked by some commentators in the press with longstanding leftist political theories of indigenism. During the protests of late 2012 and early 2013, the framework of Idle No More has been frequently articulated in the Canadian press by Pamela Palmater
Inuit religion is the shared spiritual beliefs and practices of Inuit, an indigenous people from Alaska and Greenland. Their religion shares many similarities with religions of other North Polar peoples, traditional Inuit religious practices include animism and shamanism, in which spiritual healers mediate with spirits. Today many Inuit follow Christianity, but traditional Inuit spirituality continues as part of a living, oral tradition, Inuit who balance indigenous and Christian theology practice religious syncretism. Inuit cosmology provides a narrative about the world and the place of people within it, rachel Attituq Qitsualik writes, The Inuit cosmos is ruled by no one. There are no mother and father figures. There are no gods and solar creators. There are no eternal punishments in the hereafter, as there are no punishments for children or adults in the here, traditional stories and taboos of the Inuit are often precautions against dangers posed by their harsh Arctic environment. Knud Rasmussen asked his guide and friend Aua, an angakkuq, about Inuit religious beliefs among the Iglulingmiut and was told, We dont believe.
Authors Inge Kleivan and Birgitte Sonne debate possible conclusions of Auas words, because the angakkuq was under the influence of Christian missionaries and their study analyses beliefs of several Inuit groups, concluding that fear was not diffuse. First were unipkaaqs, myths and folktales which took place in the indefinite past. Among the Canadian Inuit, a healer is known as an angakkuq or Inuvialuk. Aua described the ability of an apprentice angakkuq to see himself as a skeleton, the Inuit at Amitsoq Lake had seasonal and other prohibitions for sewing certain items. Boot soles, for example, could only be sewn far away from settlements in designated places, children at Amitsoq once had a game called tunangusartut in which they imitated the adults behavior towards the spirits, even reciting the same verbal formulae as angakkuit. According to Rasmussen, this game was not considered offensive because a spirit can understand the joke, the homelands of the Netsilik Inuit have extremely long winters and stormy springs.
While other Inuit cultures feature protective guardian powers, the Netsilik have traditional beliefs that lifes hardships stemmed from the use of such measures. Unlike the Iglulik Inuit, the Netsilik used a number of amulets. Even dogs could have amulets. In one recorded instance, a boy had 80 amulets. One particular man had 17 names taken from his ancestors and intended to protect him, tattooing among Netsilik women provided power and could affect which world they went to after their deaths
Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast
The term Pacific Northwest is largely used in the American context. Prior to the contact with Westerners, warfare between nations, and the enslaving of captives was a common to many of the groups. At one point the region had the highest population density of a region inhabited by Aboriginal peoples in Canada, the Pacific Northwest Coast at one time had the most densely populated areas of indigenous people ever recorded in Canada. The land and waters provided rich natural resources through cedar and salmon, within the Pacific Northwest, many different nations developed, each with their own distinct history and society. Some cultures in this region were similar and share certain elements, such as the importance of salmon to their cultures. Prior to contact, and for a time after colonization, some of these groups regularly conducted war against each other through raids. Through warfare they gathered captives for slavery, the Tlingit are one of the furthest north indigenous nations in the Pacific Northwest Coast.
Their autonym is Lingít, meaning Human being, the Russian name for them, was derived from an Aleut term for the labret, and the related German name, may be encountered in older historical literature. The Tlingit are a matrilineal society and they developed a complex hunter-gatherer culture in the temperate rainforest of the Alaska Panhandle and adjoining inland areas of present-day British Columbia and Yukon. The Tsetsaut were an Athabaskan people whose territory was at the head of the Portland Canal, decimated by raiding and disease, their survivors were absorbed into the Nisgaa. The latter people now hold their territories as they are now extinct. The Haida people are known as skilled artisans of wood, metal. They have shown much perseverance and resolve in the area of forest conservation, the vast forests of cedar and spruce where the Haida make their home are on pre-glacial land, which is believed to be almost 14,000 years old. Haida communities located in Prince of Wales Island and Haida Gwaii share a border with other indigenous peoples, such as the Tlingit.
The Haida were famous for their raiding and slaving, reaching as far as Mexico. There are about 10,000 Tsimshian, of which about 1,300 live in Alaska, succession in Tsimshian society is matrilineal, and ones place in society was determined by ones clan or phratry. Four main Tsimshian clans form the basic phratry, the Laxsgiik and Ganhada form one half. Gispwudwada and Laxgibuu form the other half, prior to European contact, marriage in Tsimshian society could not take place within a half-group, for example between a Wolf and a Killer Whale