First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry
The First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry known as the First City Troop, is a unit of the Pennsylvania Army National Guard. It is the oldest military unit in the United States still in active service and is among the most decorated units in the U. S. Army. Accordingly, the Troop operates under a number of principles of self-governance unique in the U. S. military, including the election of unit members and officers, voluntarily forgoing pay for military service to the country, continuing to practice horse cavalry skills and tactics, recruiting a high percentage of its members from veterans of prior active duty service across all branches, as well as older civilian mid-career professionals. It is the only U. S. military unit that owns its own armory building, built with private funds in Philadelphia's Rittenhouse Square neighborhood. As of November 2017, the troop had 46 active members, up from 35 in 2014; the First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry, or "First City Troop", was organized in 1774 as the Light Horse of the City of Philadelphia referred to as the Philadelphia Light Horse, one of the first patriotic military organizations established in the American Revolution.
Abraham Markoe was the founder and the first Captain of the Philadelphia Light Horse, known today as the First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry. Early members came from a number of local social organizations, including the Schuylkill Fishing Company, the Schuylkill Company of Fort St. Davids, the St. Andrew's Society of Philadelphia, the Society of the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, the Society of the Sons of St. George, the Gloucester Fox Hunting Club. Captain Samuel Morris was Captain Robert Wharton its last. During the Revolution, the troop fought in the battles of Trenton, Princeton and Germantown, it served as George Washington's personal bodyguard. The unit saved James Wilson at the "Battle of Fort Wilson" riot. During the American Civil War, the First City Troop was called into active duty several times, beginning with the 1861 Campaign that led to the First Battle of Bull Run. During the Gettysburg Campaign, the company, under the command of future U. S. Speaker of the House Samuel J. Randall, performed scouting duties leading into the Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, in late June before being redeployed to York County following a brief skirmish on June 26, 1863.
The company screened Columbia-Wrightsville Bridge against the Confederate forces of John Brown Gordon. John J. Pershing said that "no National Guard organization in the country did more in the First World War than" the First City Troop. Today, the First City Troop deploys overseas with the Pennsylvania National Guard in support of Army operations. Since 9/11, the unit has deployed to Bosnia, Iraq and Kuwait, with elements of the unit additionally deploying to Afghanistan, the Persian Gulf and Latin America. Membership is by election. Soldiers on the active roll continue to donate their drill pay back to the unit, in order to maintain a tradition of voluntary service; the troop draws its membership from Troop A, 1st Squadron, 104th Cavalry Regiment, 28th Infantry Division, Pennsylvania Army National Guard. Brooke, George, III. With the First City Troop on the Mexican Border. Philadelphia: 1917. Clark, William P. Official History of the Militia And the National Guard of the State of Pennsylvania from the Earliest Period of Record to the Present Time.
3 vols. Philadelphia: 1909-1912. First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry. By-Laws, Muster Roll, Papers Selected from the Archives of the First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry, 1840. First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry. History of the First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry. Philadelphia: Hallowell, 1875. Hendler, Charles J. compiler. Official History of the Militia and National Guard of the State of Pennsylvania. 4 vols. Philadelphia: 1936. Hudson, Richard L. 1980. "At Ease, Troopers: Fall Out for Caviar and Pickled Herring- That's the Order Often Heard at Elite Philadelphia Club, A Unit of the National Guard." Wall Street Journal. February 29, 1980. Page A1, A26. McBarron, H. Charles, Jr.. "First Troop Philadelphia Light Horse, 1809-1815". Military Collector and Historian. 3: 14–16. Risley, Clyde A.. "Light-Horse of the City of Philadelphia, 1776-1777." Military Collector and Historian, 23, pp. 121–122. "A Return of the First City Troop, 1799." Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 23, p. 127. Scharf, John Thomas.
History of Philadelphia, 1609-1884. Phila.: Lippincott. Meschter, G. Andrew. "The Gentlemen of Gloucester: A New Look at the First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry" Agamemnon Publishing, 2015. City guard Official website First City Troop in the Spanish–American War Initial roster Gentlemen of Gloucester
Abraham Lincoln was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, its bloodiest war and its greatest moral and political crisis, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, modernized the U. S. economy. Born in Kentucky, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in a poor family. Self-educated, he became Whig Party leader, state legislator and Congressman, he left government to resume his law practice, but angered by the success of Democrats in opening the prairie lands to slavery, reentered politics in 1854. He became a leader in the new Republican Party and gained national attention in 1858 for debating and losing to national Democratic leader Stephen A. Douglas in a Senate campaign, he ran for President in 1860, sweeping the North and winning. Southern pro-slavery elements took his win as proof that the North was rejecting the Constitutional rights of Southern states to practice slavery.
They began the process of seceding from the union. To secure its independence, the new Confederate States of America fired on Fort Sumter, one of the few U. S. forts in the South. Lincoln called up volunteers and militia to restore the Union; as the leader of the moderate faction of the Republican Party, Lincoln confronted Radical Republicans, who demanded harsher treatment of the South. Lincoln fought the factions by pitting them against each other, by distributing political patronage, by appealing to the American people, his Gettysburg Address became an iconic call for nationalism, equal rights and democracy. He suspended habeas corpus, he averted British intervention by defusing the Trent Affair. Lincoln supervised the war effort, including the selection of generals and the naval blockade that shut down the South's trade; as the war progressed, he maneuvered to end slavery, issuing the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. Lincoln managed his own re-election campaign, he sought to reconcile his damaged nation by avoiding retribution against the secessionists.
A few days after the Battle of Appomattox Court House, he was shot by John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate sympathizer, on April 14, 1865, died the following day. Abraham Lincoln is remembered as the United States' martyr hero, he is ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents. Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, as the second child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville, Kentucky, he was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk, to its namesake Hingham, Massachusetts, in 1638. Samuel's grandson and great-grandson began the family's westward migration, passing through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincoln's paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Kentucky, in the 1780s. Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786, his children, including eight-year-old Thomas, Abraham's father, witnessed the attack.
Thomas worked at odd jobs in Kentucky and in Tennessee, before settling with members of his family in Hardin County, Kentucky, in the early 1800s. Lincoln's mother, Nancy, is assumed to have been the daughter of Lucy Hanks, although no record documents this. Thomas and Nancy married on June 12, 1806, in Washington County, moved to Elizabethtown, Kentucky, they produced three children: Sarah, born on February 10, 1807. Thomas Lincoln leased farms in Kentucky. Thomas became embroiled in legal disputes, lost all but 200 acres of his land in court disputes over property titles. In 1816, the family moved to Indiana, where the survey process was more reliable and land titles were more secure. Indiana was a "free" territory, they settled in an "unbroken forest" in Hurricane Township, Perry County. In 1860, Lincoln noted that the family's move to Indiana was "partly on account of slavery", but due to land title difficulties. In Kentucky and Indiana, Thomas worked as a farmer and carpenter, he owned farms, town lots and livestock, paid taxes, sat on juries, appraised estates, served on country slave patrols, guarded prisoners.
Thomas and Nancy were members of a Separate Baptists church, which forbade alcohol and slavery. Overcoming financial challenges, Thomas obtained clear title to 80 acres of land in what became known as the Little Pigeon Creek Community. On October 5, 1818, Nancy Lincoln died of milk sickness, leaving 11-year-old Sarah in charge of a household that included her father, 9-year-old Abraham, Dennis Hanks, Nancy's 19-year-old orphaned cousin; those who knew Lincoln recalled that he was distraught over his sister's death on January 20, 1828, while giving birth to a stillborn son. On December 2, 1819, Thomas married Sarah "Sally" Bush Johnston, a widow from Elizabethtown, with three children of her own. Abraham became close to his stepmother, whom he referred t
A banknote is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand. Banknotes were issued by commercial banks, which were required to redeem the notes for legal tender when presented to the chief cashier of the originating bank; these commercial banknotes only traded at face value in the market served by the issuing bank. Commercial banknotes have been replaced by national banknotes issued by central banks. National banknotes are legal tender, meaning that medium of payment is allowed by law or recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation. Banks sought to ensure that they could always pay customers in coins when they presented banknotes for payment; this practice of "backing" notes with something of substance is the basis for the history of central banks backing their currencies in gold or silver. Today, most national currencies have no backing in precious metals or commodities and have value only by fiat. With the exception of non-circulating high-value or precious metal issues, coins are used for lower valued monetary units, while banknotes are used for higher values.
In China during the Han dynasty promissory notes were made of leather. Rome may have used a durable lightweight substance as promissory notes in 57 AD which have been found in London. However, Carthage was purported to have issued bank notes on parchment or leather before 146 BC. Hence Carthage may be the oldest user of lightweight promissory notes; the first known banknote was first developed in China during the Tang and Song dynasties, starting in the 7th century. Its roots were in merchant receipts of deposit during the Tang dynasty, as merchants and wholesalers desired to avoid the heavy bulk of copper coinage in large commercial transactions. During the Yuan dynasty, banknotes were adopted by the Mongol Empire. In Europe, the concept of banknotes was first introduced during the 13th century by travelers such as Marco Polo, with European banknotes appearing in 1661 in Sweden. Counterfeiting, the forgery of banknotes, is an inherent challenge in issuing currency, it is countered by anticounterfeiting measures in the printing of banknotes.
Fighting the counterfeiting of banknotes and cheques has been a principal driver of security printing methods development in recent centuries. Paper currency first developed in Tang dynasty China during the 7th century, although true paper money did not appear until the 11th century, during the Song dynasty; the usage of paper currency spread throughout the Mongol Empire or Yuan dynasty China. European explorers like Marco Polo introduced the concept in Europe during the 13th century. Napoleon issued paper banknotes in the early 1800s. Cash paper money originated as receipts for value held on account "value received", should not be conflated with promissory "sight bills" which were issued with a promise to convert at a date; the perception of banknotes as money has evolved over time. Money was based on precious metals. Banknotes were seen by some as an I. O. U. or promissory note: a promise to pay someone in precious metal on presentation, but were accepted - for convenience and security - in the City of London for example from the late 1600s onwards.
With the removal of precious metals from the monetary system, banknotes evolved into pure fiat money. Development of the banknote began in the Tang dynasty during the 7th century, with local issues of paper currency, although true paper money did not appear until the 11th century, during the Song dynasty, its roots were in merchant receipts of deposit during the Tang Dynasty, as merchants and wholesalers desired to avoid the heavy bulk of copper coinage in large commercial transactions. Before the use of paper, the Chinese used coins that were circular, with a rectangular hole in the middle. Several coins could be strung together on a rope. Merchants in China, if they became rich enough, found that their strings of coins were too heavy to carry around easily. To solve this problem, coins were left with a trustworthy person, the merchant was given a slip of paper recording how much money they had with that person. If they showed the paper to that person, they could regain their money; the Song Dynasty paper money called "jiaozi" originated from these promissory notes.
By 960 the Song dynasty, short of copper for striking coins, issued the first circulating notes. A note is a promise to redeem for some other object of value specie; the issue of credit notes is for a limited duration, at some discount to the promised amount later. The jiaozi did not replace coins during the Song Dynasty; the central government soon observed the economic advantages of printing paper money, issuing a monopoly right of several of the deposit shops to the issuance of these certificates of deposit. By the early 12th century, the amount of banknotes issued in a single year amounted to an annual rate of 26 million strings of cash coins. By the 1120s the central government stepped in and produced their own state-issued paper money. Before this point, the Song government was amassing large amounts of paper tribute, it was recorded that each year before 1101 AD, the prefecture of Xin'an alone would send 1,500,000 sheets of paper in seven different varieties to the capital at Kaifeng. In that year of 1101, the Emperor Huizong of Song decided to lessen the amount of paper taken in the tribute quota, because it was causing detrimental effects and creating heavy burdens on the people of the regio
Wells Fargo & Company is an American multinational financial services company headquartered in San Francisco, with central offices throughout the United States. It is the world's fourth-largest bank by market capitalization and the third largest bank in the US by total assets. Wells Fargo is ranked #26 on the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest US corporations by total revenue. In July 2015, Wells Fargo became the world's largest bank by market capitalization, edging past ICBC, before slipping behind JPMorgan Chase in September 2016, in the wake of a scandal involving the creation of over 2 million fake bank accounts by Wells Fargo employees. Wells Fargo fell behind Bank of America to third by bank deposits in 2017 and behind Citigroup to fourth by total assets in 2018; the firm's primary operating subsidiary is national bank Wells Fargo Bank, N. A. which designates its main office as Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Wells Fargo in its present form is a result of a merger between San Francisco–based Wells Fargo & Company and Minneapolis-based Norwest Corporation in 1998 and the subsequent 2008 acquisition of Charlotte-based Wachovia.
Following the mergers, the company transferred its headquarters to Wells Fargo's headquarters in San Francisco and merged its operating subsidiary with Wells Fargo's operating subsidiary in Sioux Falls. Along with JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, Citigroup, Wells Fargo is one of the "Big Four Banks" of the United States; as of June 2018, it had 13,000 ATMs. In 2018 the company had operations in 35 countries with over 70 million customers globally. In February 2014, Wells Fargo was named the world's most valuable bank brand for the second consecutive year in The Banker and Brand Finance study of the top 500 banking brands. In 2016, Wells Fargo ranked 7th on the Forbes Magazine Global 2000 list of largest public companies in the world and ranked 27th on the Fortune 500 list of the largest companies in the US. In 2015, the company was ranked the 22nd most admired company in the world, the 7th most respected company in the world; as of December 2018, the company had a Standard & Poors credit rating of A−. However, for a brief period in 2007, the company was the only AAA‑rated bank, reflecting the highest credit rating from two firms.
On February 2, 2018, the US Federal Reserve Bank barred Wells Fargo from growing its nearly US$2 trillion-asset base any further, based upon years of misconduct, until Wells Fargo fixes its internal problems to the satisfaction of the Federal Reserve. In April 2018, The Wall Street Journal reported that the US Department of Labor had launched a probe into whether Wells Fargo was pushing its customers into more expensive retirement plans as well as into retirement funds managed by Wells Fargo itself. Subsequently in May 2018, The Wall Street Journal reported that Wells Fargo's business banking group had improperly altered documents about business clients in 2017 and early 2018. In June 2018, Wells Fargo began retreating from retail banking in the Midwestern United States by announcing the sale of all its physical bank branch locations in Indiana and Ohio to Flagstar Bank; the company operates 12 museums, most known as a Wells Fargo History Museum, in its corporate buildings in Charlotte, North Carolina, Colorado, Des Moines, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Portland, Sacramento and San Francisco, California.
Displays include original stagecoaches, gold nuggets and mining artifacts, the Pony Express, telegraph equipment and historic bank artifacts. The company operates a museum about company history in the Pony Express Terminal in Old Sacramento State Historic Park in Sacramento, the company's second office, the Wells Fargo History Museum in Old Town San Diego State Historic Park in San Diego, California. Wells Fargo operates the Alaska Heritage Museum in Anchorage, which features a large collection of Alaskan Native artifacts, ivory carvings and baskets, fine art by Alaskan artists, displays about Wells Fargo history in the Alaskan Gold Rush era. 1852: Henry Wells and William G. Fargo, the two founders of American Express, formed Wells Fargo & Company to provide express and banking services to California. 1860: Wells Fargo gained control of Butterfield Overland Mail Company, leading to operation of the western portion of the Pony Express. 1866: "Grand consolidation" united Wells Fargo and Overland Mail stage lines under the Wells Fargo name.
1905: Wells Fargo separated its banking and express operations. 1918: As a wartime measure, the US Federal Government nationalized Wells Fargo's express franchise into a federal agency known as the US Railway Express Agency. The US Federal Government took control of the express company; the bank began rebuilding but with a focus on commercial markets. After the war, REA was privatized and continued service until 1975. 1923: Wells Fargo Nevada merged with the Union Trust Company to form the Wells Fargo Bank & Union Trust Company. 1929: Northwest Bancorporation was formed as a banking association. 1954: Wells Fargo & Union Trust shortened its name to Wells Fargo Bank. 1960: Wells Fargo merged with American Trust Company to form the Wells Fargo Bank American Trust Company. 1962: Wells Fargo American Trust again shortened its name to Wells Fargo Bank. 1968: Wells Fargo converted to a federal banking charter, becoming Wells Fargo Bank, N. A. 1969: Wells Fargo & Company holding company was formed, with Wells Fargo Bank as its main subsidiary.
1982: Northwest Bancorporation acquired consumer finance firm Dial Finance, renamed Norwest Financial Service the following year. 1983: Northwest B
The Gettysburg Campaign was a military invasion of Pennsylvania by the main Confederate army under General Robert E. Lee in summer 1863; the Union won a decisive victory at Gettysburg July 1–3, with heavy casualties on both sides. Lee managed to escape back to Virginia with most of his army, it was a turning point in the American Civil War, with Lee pushed back toward Richmond until his surrender in April 1865. After his victory in the Battle of Chancellorsville, Lee's Army of Northern Virginia moved north for a massive raid designed to obtain needed supplies, to undermine civilian morale in the North, to encourage anti-war elements; the Union Army of the Potomac was commanded by Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker and by Maj. Gen. George G. Meade. Lee's army slipped away from Federal contact at Fredericksburg, Virginia, on June 3, 1863; the largest predominantly cavalry battle of the war was fought at Brandy Station on June 9. The Confederates crossed the Blue Ridge Mountains and moved north through the Shenandoah Valley, capturing the Union garrison at Winchester, Virginia, in the Second Battle of Winchester, June 13–15.
Crossing the Potomac River, Lee's Second Corps advanced through Maryland and Pennsylvania, reaching the Susquehanna River and threatening the state capital of Harrisburg. However, the Army of the Potomac was in pursuit and had reached Frederick, before Lee realized his opponent had crossed the Potomac. Lee moved swiftly to concentrate his army around the crossroads town of Gettysburg; the Battle of Gettysburg was the largest of the war. Starting as a chance meeting engagement on July 1, the Confederates were successful in driving Union cavalry and two infantry corps from their defensive positions, through the town, onto Cemetery Hill. On July 2, with most of both armies now present, Lee launched fierce assaults on both flanks of the Union defensive line, which were repulsed with heavy losses on both sides. On July 3, Lee focused his attention on the Union center; the defeat of his massive infantry assault, Pickett's Charge, caused Lee to order a retreat that began the evening of July 4. The Confederate retreat to Virginia was plagued by bad weather, difficult roads, numerous skirmishes with Union cavalry.
However, Meade's army did not maneuver aggressively enough to prevent Lee from crossing the Potomac to safety on the night of July 13–14. Shortly after Lee's Army of Northern Virginia defeated Hooker's Army of the Potomac during the Chancellorsville Campaign, Lee decided upon a second invasion of the North; such a move would upset Union plans for the summer campaigning season, give Lee the ability to maneuver his army away from its defensive positions behind the Rappahannock River, allow the Confederates to live off the bounty of the rich northern farms while giving war-ravaged Virginia a much needed break. Lee's army could threaten Philadelphia and Washington, encourage the growing peace movement in the North. Lee had numerous misunderstandings. Lee misread Northern opinion by his reliance on anti-war Copperhead newspapers for northern public opinion. Reading them, he assumed the Yankees must be just as war weary as southerners, did not appreciate the determination of the Lincoln Administration.
Lee did know he was short of supplies for his own army, so he planned the campaign as a full-scale raid that would seize supplies. He wrote: If we can baffle them in their various designs this year & our people are true to our cause...our success will be certain.... Next year there will be a great change in public opinion at the North; the Republicans will be destroyed & I think the friends of peace will become so strong as that the next administration will go in on that basis. We have only therefore to resist manfully. Lee was overconfident of the equipment of his "invincible" veterans. I shall throw an overwhelming force on their advance, crush it, follow up the success, drive one corps back on another, by successive repulses and surprises, before they can concentrate, create a panic and destroy the army; the war will be over and we shall achieve the recognition of our independence. The Confederate government had a different strategy, it wanted Lee to reduce Union pressure threatening their garrison at Vicksburg, but he rejected its suggestions to send troops to provide direct aid, arguing for the value of a concentrated blow in the Northeast.
In essence, Lee's strategy was identical to the one he employed in the Maryland Campaign of 1862. Furthermore, after Chancellorsville he had supreme confidence in the men of his army, assuming they could handle any challenge he gave them. Lee's movement started on the first of June and within a short time was well on its way through Maryland, with Union forces moving north along parallel lines. Lee's cavalry, under General Jeb Stuart had the primary mission of gathering intelligence on where the enemy position was, but Stuart failed and instead raided some supply trains, he did not rejoin Lee. Stuart had taken all Lee's best cavalry, leaving the main army with two third-rate, ill-equipped, poorly led brigades that could not handle the reconnaissance challenge in hostile country. Lee's armies threatened Harrisburg, Washington and Philadelphia. Local militia units hurriedly formed to oppose Lee, but they were inconsequential in the face of a large, battle-hardened attack force. Gettysburg was a crossroads junction in wooded ar
The North American
The North American was an American newspaper published in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was founded in 1839, though it could claim a lineage back to 1771, published until 1925, when it was purchased by the owner of the rival Public Ledger; the North American, a daily newspaper in Philadelphia, was first published on March 26, 1839, by S. C. Brace and T. R. Newbold. At the end of the year, the paper absorbed Zachariah Poulson's Poulson's American Daily Advertiser, the direct descendant of John Dunlap's Pennsylvania Packet, the country's first successful daily paper, on January 1, 1840, publishing under a new name: The North American and Daily Advertiser; that year, the paper was acquired by C. G. Childs and J. Reese Fry, along with the Commercial Herald. In October 1845, the paper was acquired by George R. Graham, well known as the publisher of Graham's Magazine, Alexander Cummings, who went on to found the New York World; the "Daily Advertiser" suffix was dropped. Cummings soon departed over political differences, Morton McMichael joined Graham as publisher in January 1847.
At that point, it was an influential Whig newspaper. In July of that year and playwright Robert Montgomery Bird was brought in as a one-third owner, the paper was merged with the United States Gazette, another Whig paper in town; the paper was redubbed as United States Gazette. Graham left the paper in 1848, McMichael and Bird became the driving forces in making the paper a journalistic and financial success. After Bird died in 1854, McMichael continued as the sole owner until his death in 1879; the paper was a staunch supporter of Abraham Lincoln, as it developed to become a supporter of the Republican party. The "United States Gazette" suffix was dropped from the paper's name in 1876. McMichael's two sons assumed control of the paper in his final years, his son Clayton assuming chief editorial duties. In 1899, the paper was acquired by Thomas B. Wanamaker, son of John Wanamaker. In 1925, Cyrus Curtis, owner of the Public Ledger, acquired the North American from Thomas B. Wanamaker's estate as part of his bid to grow the Ledger by shutting down some of its competitors.
The Ledger adopted the official title Public Ledger and North American, until late 1927. North American Building