National Union Committee
The National Union Committee was a nationalist reformist political organization formed in Bahrain in 1954. The committee was formed by reformists in response to clashes between Sunni and Shia members of the population. The original committee was made up of four Sunni representatives and four Shii representatives, in March 1956, British Foreign Secretary Selwyn Lloyd was visiting Bahrain. Crowds of protesters lined the streets to shout slogans and threw sand at stones at the Foreign Secretarys entourage. A number of members, including a stewardess, were left injured. Abdulrahman al Bakir, the secretary of the NUC, was among the leaders of the demonstrations and he was asked to leave the country after the incident for an extended stay abroad, and departed to Egypt. Al Bakir returned to Bahrain September 1956, in October 1956, the NUC called for strikes and demonstrations against the Israeli-Anglo-French attack on Egypt in the Suez Campaign. This led to days of violence in Bahrain, in November, the ruler Shaikh Salman ibn Hamad Al Khalifa, ordered the arrest of the NUC leaders, accusing Al Bakir, Al Shamlan and Aliwat of attempting to take his life.
A specially set up court in Budaiya made up of three judges tried the men and found them guilty and they were sentenced to 14 years at a prison located outside of Bahrain, in Saint Helena. In June 1961 the three prisoners were released from Saint Helena after a successful habeas corpus action, and were paid financial compensation from the British government, debates in British House of Commons Miriam Joyce. The Bahraini three on St. Helena, 1956-1961 in The Middle East Journal and Political Protest in Bahrain in Domes. Contentious politics in Bahrain, From ethnic to national and vice versa and state in Bahrain, The transformation of social and political authority in an Arab state. ISBN 0-8133-0123-8 Charles Belgrave, Personal Column, Abdulrahman al-Baker, Mina al-bahrayn ila al-manfaa, sant halaneh, al-Hayat Library Publications, The Ruling Family of Al Khalifah, A. de L
Universal Publishers (United States)
Universal Publishers is the parent publishing company of three non-fiction book imprints specializing in textbook and academic titles. It originally began in 1997 as Dissertation. com, one of the first companies to use print on-demand and PDF e-book technologies to publish academic theses and Ph. D. dissertations for sale online. The company was founded by Jeffrey R. Young, while he was in school as a way to make academic dissertations widely available to other students. The BrownWalker Press imprint was launched in 2001 to publish academic textbooks, scholarly monographs, universal Publishers has over 1000 nonfiction and how-to titles currently available in print and electronically, and releases about 50 new titles each year. In addition to worldwide distribution through Ingram Content Group, it has an independent distribution relationship for some of its titles in India with Overseas Press
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earths surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation and it consists of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other organic compounds. The name petroleum covers both naturally occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock, Petroleum has mostly been recovered by oil drilling. Drilling is carried out studies of structural geology, sedimentary basin analysis. Petroleum is used in manufacturing a variety of materials. Concern over the depletion of the earths finite reserves of oil, the burning of fossil fuels plays the major role in the current episode of global warming. The word petroleum comes from Greek, πέτρα for rocks and Greek, the term was found in 10th-century Old English sources.
It was used in the treatise De Natura Fossilium, published in 1546 by the German mineralogist Georg Bauer, Petroleum, in one form or another, has been used since ancient times, and is now important across society, including in economy and technology. Great quantities of it were found on the banks of the river Issus, ancient Persian tablets indicate the medicinal and lighting uses of petroleum in the upper levels of their society. By 347 AD, oil was produced from bamboo-drilled wells in China, early British explorers to Myanmar documented a flourishing oil extraction industry based in Yenangyaung that, in 1795, had hundreds of hand-dug wells under production. The mythological origins of the oil fields at Yenangyaung, and its hereditary monopoly control by 24 families, Pechelbronn is said to be the first European site where petroleum has been explored and used. The still active Erdpechquelle, a spring where petroleum appears mixed with water has been used since 1498, Oil sands have been mined since the 18th century.
In Wietze in lower Saxony, natural asphalt/bitumen has been explored since the 18th century, both in Pechelbronn as in Wietze, the coal industry dominated the petroleum technologies. In 1848 Young set up a small business refining the crude oil, Young eventually succeeded, by distilling cannel coal at a low heat, in creating a fluid resembling petroleum, which when treated in the same way as the seep oil gave similar products. The production of oils and solid paraffin wax from coal formed the subject of his patent dated 17 October 1850. In 1850 Young & Meldrum and Edward William Binney entered into partnership under the title of E. W. Binney & Co. at Bathgate in West Lothian, the worlds first oil refinery was built in 1856 by Ignacy Łukasiewicz. The demand for petroleum as a fuel for lighting in North America, edwin Drakes 1859 well near Titusville, Pennsylvania, is popularly considered the first modern well
Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation. One of the companies of Standard Oil, it is headquartered in San Ramon, California. It was one of the Seven Sisters that dominated the petroleum industry from the mid-1940s to the 1970s. Chevrons downstream operations manufacture and sell products such as fuels, additives, the companys most significant areas of operations are the west coast of North America, the U. S. Gulf Coast, Southeast Asia, South Korea and South Africa. In 2010, Chevron sold an average 3.1 million barrels per day of refined products like gasoline, Chevrons alternative energy operations include geothermal, wind power, fuel cells, and hydrogen. In 2011–2013, the company planned to spend at least $2 billion on research, Chevron has claimed to be the worlds largest producer of geothermal energy. In October 2011, Chevron launched a 29-MW thermal solar-to-steam facility in the Coalinga Field to produce the steam for enhanced oil recovery, the project is the largest of its kind in the world.
Chevron is one of the first two brands to be Top Tier certified. The other is Tulsa, Oklahoma based QuikTrip, one of Chevrons early predecessors, Star Oil, discovered oil at the Pico Canyon Oilfield in the Santa Susana Mountains north of Los Angeles in 1876. The 25 barrels of oil per day well marked the discovery of the Newhall Field, in September 1879, Charles N. Felton, Lloyd Tevis, George Loomis and others created the Pacific Coast Oil Company, which acquired the assets of Star Oil with $1 million in funding. Pacific Coast Oil became the largest oil interest in California, by time it was acquired by Standard Oil for $761,000 in 1900. Pacific Coast operated independently and retained its name until 1906, when it was merged with a Standard Oil subsidiary, another predecessor, Texas Fuel Company, was founded in 1901 in Beaumont, Texas as an oil equipment vendor by Buckskin Joe. The founders nickname came from being harsh and aggressive, Texas Fuel worked closely with Chevron. In 1936 it formed a joint venture with California Standard named Caltex, to drill, the Texas Fuel Company was renamed the Texas Company, and renamed Texaco.
In 1911, the government broke Standard Oil into several pieces under the Sherman Antitrust Act. One of those pieces, Standard Oil Co. went on to become Chevron and it became part of the Seven Sisters, which dominated the world oil industry in the early 20th century. In 1926, the changed its name to Standard Oil Co. of California. Today Chevron is the owner of the Standard Oil trademark in 16 states in the western and southeastern U. S, to maintain ownership of the mark, the company owns and operates one Standard-branded Chevron station in each state of the area
Islam in Bahrain
Islam is the state religion in Bahrain. Bahrains 2010 census indicated that 70. 2% of the population is Muslim, although the country is majority-Shiite, the al-Khalifa monarchy is Sunni. Prior to Islam, the inhabitants of Qatar and Bahrain practiced Arabian paganism, Islam swept the entire Arabian region in the 7th century. The Ismaili Shia sect known at the Qarmatians seized Bahrain in 899 CE, making it their stronghold, the Qarmatians were eventually defeated by their Ismaili counterparts, the Abbasids in 976 and afterwards their power waned. The defeat of the Qarmatian state saw the gradual wane of their brand of Ismaili Islam. Instead, under a process encouraged by Sunni rulers over the four hundred years. According to historian Juan Cole, Sunnis favoured the quietist Twelver branch of Shiism over the Qarmatians, in the 13th Century, there arose what was termed the Bahrain School, which integrated themes of philosophy and mysticism into orthodox Twelver practise. The school produced theologians such as Sheikh Kamal al-Din Ibn Sa’adah al Bahrani, Sheikh Jamal al-Din ‘Ali --- ibn Sulayman al-Bahrani, and perhaps most famously Sheikh Maitham Al Bahrani.
There are no figures, but it is estimated that 60-70% of the Bahrainis follow the Shia Jafari school. There is a population of the South Asian Sunni Muslim residents who follow the Hanafi school. The country observes the Muslim feasts of Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Fitr, the Prophet Muhammads birthday, political liberalisation under King Hamad has seen Islamist parties contest Bahrains elections and become a dominant force in parliament. In the 2006 election Wefaq received the backing of the Islamic Scholars Council which helped it seventeen of the eighteen seats it contested. In the 2010 election, they increased their representation by one seat, winning all the constituencies they contested, to take 18 of the 40 available parliamentary seats
A pearl is a hard object produced within the soft tissue of a living shelled mollusk or another animal, such as a conulariid. Just like the shell of a clam, a pearl is composed of calcium carbonate. in minute crystalline form, the ideal pearl is perfectly round and smooth, but many other shapes, known as baroque pearls, can occur. The finest quality natural pearls have been valued as gemstones. Because of this, pearl has become a metaphor for something rare, the most valuable pearls occur spontaneously in the wild, but are extremely rare. These wild pearls are referred to as natural pearls, cultured or farmed pearls from pearl oysters and freshwater mussels make up the majority of those currently sold. Imitation pearls are widely sold in inexpensive jewelry, but the quality of their iridescence is usually very poor and is easily distinguished from that of genuine pearls. Pearls have been harvested and cultivated primarily for use in jewelry and they have been crushed and used in cosmetics and paint formulations.
Whether wild or cultured, gem-quality pearls are almost always nacreous and iridescent, almost all species of shelled mollusks are capable of producing pearls of lesser shine or less spherical shape. The English word pearl comes from the French perle, originally from the Latin perna meaning leg, nacreous pearls, the best-known and most commercially significant, are primarily produced by two groups of molluskan bivalves or clams. A nacreous pearl is made from layers of nacre, by the same living process as is used in the secretion of the mother of pearl which lines the shell, natural pearls, formed without human intervention, are very rare. Cultured pearls are formed in pearl farms, using human intervention as well as natural processes, saltwater pearls can grow in several species of marine pearl oysters in the family Pteriidae. Freshwater pearls grow within certain species of mussels in the order Unionida. The unique luster of pearls depends upon the reflection, the thinner and more numerous the layers in the pearl, the finer the luster.
The iridescence that pearls display is caused by the overlapping of successive layers, in addition, pearls can be dyed yellow, blue, pink, purple, or black. The very best pearls have a metallic mirror-like luster, because pearls are made primarily of calcium carbonate, they can be dissolved in vinegar. Calcium carbonate is susceptible to even a weak acid solution because the crystals of calcium carbonate react with the acid in the vinegar to form calcium acetate. Freshwater and saltwater pearls may sometimes look quite similar, but they come from different sources, Freshwater pearls form in various species of freshwater mussels, family Unionidae, which live in lakes, rivers and other bodies of fresh water. These freshwater pearl mussels occur not only in hotter climates, most freshwater cultured pearls sold today come from China
Eastern Arabia was historically known as Bahrain until the 18th century. This region stretched from the south of Basra along the Persian Gulf coast and included the regions of Bahrain, Kuwait, Al-Hasa, United Arab Emirates, Southern Iraq, the entire coastal strip of Eastern Arabia was known as “Bahrain” for ten centuries. Until very recently, the whole of Eastern Arabia, from southern Iraq to the mountains of Oman, was a place where people moved around, the people of Eastern Arabia shared a culture based on the sea, they are seafaring peoples. The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are solely Eastern Arabia, the modern-day states of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar and UAE are the archetypal Gulf Arab states. Saudi Arabia is often considered a Gulf Arab state although most Saudis do not live in Eastern Arabia, in Arabic, Bahrayn is the dual form of bahr, so al-Bahrayn means the Two Seas. However, which two seas were originally intended remains in dispute, the term appears five times in the Quran, but does not refer to the modern island—originally known to the Arabs as “Awal”—but rather to the oases of al-Katif and Hadjar.
It is unclear when the term began to refer exclusively to the Awal islands, in addition to wells, there are places in the sea north of Bahrain where fresh water bubbles up in the middle of the salt water, noted by visitors since antiquity. The term Gulf Arab solely refers, geographically, to inhabitants of eastern Arabia, the term Khaleejis is often misused to identify all the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula. The inhabitants of Eastern Arabias Gulf coast share similar cultures and music such as fijiri, sawt. The most noticeable trait of Eastern Arabias Gulf Arabs is their orientation. Maritime-focused life in the small Gulf Arab states has resulted in a society where livelihoods have traditionally been earned in marine industries. The Arabs of Eastern Arabia speak a dialect known as Gulf Arabic, most Saudis do not speak Gulf Arabic because most Saudis do not live in Eastern Arabia. There are approximately 2 million Gulf Arabic speakers in Saudi Arabia, before the GCC was formed in 1981, the term “Khaleeji” was solely used to refer to the inhabitants of Eastern Arabia.
In pre-Islamic times, the population of Eastern Arabia consisted of partially Christianized Arabs, Arab Zoroastrians, some sedentary dialects of Eastern Arabia exhibit Akkadian and Syriac features. The sedentary people of pre-Islamic Bahrain were Aramaic speakers and to some degree Persian speakers, Dilmun appears first in Sumerian cuneiform clay tablets dated to the end of fourth millennium BC, found in the temple of goddess Inanna, in the city of Uruk. The adjective Dilmun is used to describe a type of axe and one specific official, Dilmun was mentioned in two letters dated to the reign of Burna-Buriash II recovered from Nippur, during the Kassite dynasty of Babylon. These letters were from an official, Ilī-ippašra, in Dilmun to his friend Enlil-kidinni in Mesopotamia. The names referred to are Akkadian and these letters and other documents, hint at an administrative relationship between Dilmun and Babylon at that time
History of Bahrain
Bahrain is an island country in the Persian Gulf. The history of Bahrain dates back to ancient history, Bahrain was the central location of the ancient Dilmun civilization. Bahrains strategic location in the Persian Gulf has brought rule and influence from mostly the Persians, Assyrians, Portuguese, the Arabs, and the British. Whilst the country had closest economic relations with Indians or South Asians for the longest time, Bahrain was the central site of the ancient Dilmun civilization. Dilmun appears first in Sumerian cuneiform clay tablets dated to the end of fourth millennium BC, found in the temple of goddess Inanna, in the city of Uruk. The adjective Dilmun is used to describe a type of axe and one specific official, Dilmun was mentioned in two letters dated to the reign of Burna-Buriash II recovered from Nippur, during the Kassite dynasty of Babylon. These letters were from an official, Ilī-ippašra, in Dilmun to his friend Enlil-kidinni in Mesopotamia. The names referred to are Akkadian and these letters and other documents, hint at an administrative relationship between Dilmun and Babylon at that time.
Assyrian inscriptions recorded tribute from Dilmun, there are other Assyrian inscriptions during the first millennium BC indicating Assyrian sovereignty over Dilmun. Dilmun was later on controlled by the Kassite dynasty in Mesopotamia, one of the early sites discovered in Bahrain indicate that Sennacherib, king of Assyria, attacked northeast Persian Gulf and captured Bahrain. He most recent reference to Dilmun came during the Neo-Babylonian dynasty, Neo-Babylonian administrative records, dated 567 BC, stated that Dilmun was controlled by the king of Babylon. The name of Dilmun fell from use after the collapse of Neo-Babylon in 538 BC, there is both literary and archaeological evidence of extensive trade between Ancient Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley civilization. Impressions of clay seals from the Indus Valley city of Harappa were evidently used to seal bundles of merchandise, a number of these Indus Valley seals have turned up at Ur and other Mesopotamian sites. Instances of all of these goods have been found.
The importance of trade is shown by the fact that the weights and measures used at Dilmun were in fact identical to those used by the Indus. The ships of Dilmun, from the land, brought him wood as a tribute. Mesopotamian trade documents, lists of goods, and official inscriptions mentioning Meluhha supplement Harappan seals, literary references to Meluhhan trade date from the Akkadian, the Third Dynasty of Ur, and Isin-Larsa Periods, but the trade probably started in the Early Dynastic Period. Some Meluhhan vessels may have sailed directly to Mesopotamian ports, but by the Isin-Larsa Period, the Bahrain National Museum assesses that its Golden Age lasted ca
Rowman & Littlefield
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949. Under several imprints, the company offers scholarly books and journals for the academic market, Rowman & Littlefield is the worlds largest publisher in museum studies. The company owns two book distributing businesses, National Book Network based in Lanham, and NBN International based in Plymouth, UK. The current company took shape when University Press of America acquired Rowman & Littlefield in 1988, a publishing phenomenon that begins and ends with Scarecrow Press
State of Bahrain
The State of Bahrain was the name of Bahrain between 1971 and 2002. On 15 August 1971, Bahrain declared independence and signed a new treaty of friendship with the United Kingdom, Bahrain joined the United Nations and the Arab League in the year. The oil boom of the 1970s benefited Bahrain greatly, although the subsequent downturn hurt the economy, the coup would have installed a Shīa cleric exiled in Iran, Hujjatu l-Islām Hādī al-Mudarrisī, as supreme leader heading a theocratic government. In December 1994, a group of youths threw stones at female runners during a marathon for running bare-legged. The resulting clash with police soon grew into civil unrest, a popular uprising occurred between 1994 and 2000 in which leftists and Islamists joined forces. The event resulted in approximately forty deaths and ended after Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifa became the Emir of Bahrain in 1999, a referendum on 14–15 February 2001 massively supported the National Action Charter. He instituted elections for parliament, gave women the right to vote, as part of the adoption of the National Action Charter on 14 February 2002, Bahrain changed its formal name from the State of Bahrain to the Kingdom of Bahrain.
Based on its new constitution, Bahraini men elected its first National Assembly in 1973, the Assembly refused to ratify the government-sponsored law, which allowed, among other things, the arrest and detention of people for up to three years, without a trial. The legislative stalemate over this act created a crisis, and on 25 August 1975. The emir ratified the State Security Law by decree, in that same year, the emir established the State Security Court, whose judgments were not subject to appeal. Full text of the 1973 constitution The constitution of 1973 was written shortly after Bahrains independence from Britain in 1971. In 1972, the ruler Shaikh Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa issued a decree providing for the election of a Constituent Assembly that would be responsible for drafting and ratifying the constitution, the electorate of the constituent assembly was native-born male citizens aged twenty years or older. The constituent assembly consisted of elected delegates, plus the twelve members of the Council of Ministers.
The constitution was enacted by amiri decree in December 1973, only one parliamentary election was ever held under the 1973 Constitution before it was abrogated by the emir Shaikh Isa in 1975. The country was governed under emergency laws from 1975 to 2002
Bahrain, officially the Kingdom of Bahrain, is a small Arab monarchy in the Persian Gulf. Bahrains population is 1,234,567, including 666,172 non-nationals and it is 780 km2 in size, making it the third smallest nation in Asia after the Maldives and Singapore. Bahrain is the site of the ancient Dilmun civilisation and it has been famed since antiquity for its pearl fisheries, which were considered the best in the world into the 19th century. Bahrain was one of the earliest areas to convert to Islam, following a period of Arab rule, Bahrain was occupied by the Portuguese in 1521, who in turn were expelled in 1602 by Shah Abbas I of the Safavid dynasty under the Persian Empire. In 1783, the Bani Utbah clan captured Bahrain from Nasr Al-Madhkur and it has since been ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family, in the late 1800s, following successive treaties with the British, Bahrain became a protectorate of the United Kingdom. Formerly a state, Bahrain was declared a Kingdom in 2002, in 2011, the country experienced protests inspired by the regional Arab Spring.
Bahrain had the first post-oil economy in the Persian Gulf, since the late 20th century, Bahrain has invested in the banking and tourism sectors. Many large financial institutions have a presence in Manama, the countrys capital, Bahrain has a high Human Development Index and was recognised by the World Bank as a high income economy. In Arabic, Bahrayn is the form of bahr, so al-Bahrayn means the two seas, although which two seas were originally intended remains in dispute. The term appears five times in the Quran, but does not refer to the modern island—originally known to the Arabs as Awal— but rather to all of Eastern Arabia. Today, Bahrains two seas are generally taken to be the bay east and west of the island. In addition to wells, there are areas of the sea north of Bahrain where fresh water bubbles up in the middle of the water as noted by visitors since antiquity. An alternate theory with regard to Bahrains toponymy is offered by the al-Ahsa region, another supposition by al-Jawahari suggests that the more formal name Bahri would have been misunderstood and so was opted against.
Until the late Middle Ages, Bahrain referred to the region of Eastern Arabia that included Southern Iraq, Kuwait, Al-Hasa, the region stretched from Basra in Iraq to the Strait of Hormuz in Oman. This was Iqlīm al-Bahrayns Bahrayn Province, the exact date at which the term Bahrain began to refer solely to the Awal archipelago is unknown. The entire coastal strip of Eastern Arabia was known as Bahrain for a millennium, the island and kingdom were commonly spelled Bahrein into the 1950s. Bahrain was home to the Dilmun civilization, an important Bronze Age trade centre linking Mesopotamia, Bahrain was ruled by the Assyrians and Babylonians. From the 6th to 3rd century BC, Bahrain was part of the Persian Empire ruled by the Achaemenian dynasty, by about 250 BC, Parthia brought the Persian Gulf under its control and extended its influence as far as Oman