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First Order (Star Wars)

The First Order is a fictional autocratic military dictatorship in the Star Wars franchise, introduced in the 2015 film Star Wars: The Force Awakens. Formed following the fall of the Galactic Empire after the events of Return of the Jedi, the First Order is a primary antagonistic faction in the sequel trilogy. Aside from the films, the First Order appears in various related Star Wars media. In The Force Awakens, the First Order is commanded by Supreme Leader Snoke and seeks to destroy the New Republic, the Resistance, Luke Skywalker. Snoke's apprentice, Kylo Ren, is the master of the Knights of Ren, a mysterious group of elite warriors who work with the First Order. In the 2017 sequel The Last Jedi, Ren becomes the new Supreme Leader. In the 2019 film The Rise of Skywalker, the First Order allies with the Final Order, an armada of Star Destroyers built by Palpatine, revealed to have been secretly controlling the First Order via his puppet ruler, prior to the latter being usurped by Ren. According to Star Wars: The Force Awakens: The Visual Dictionary and the novel Star Wars: Aftermath by Chuck Wendig, after the Galactic Empire was defeated in Return of the Jedi at the climactic Battle of Endor in 4 ABY, thousands of worlds rose up to join the Rebel Alliance and destroy the disorganized Imperials, who fell victim to warlordism.

The Alliance formally reorganized itself as the New Republic, retook the Core Worlds, including the galactic capital Coruscant. One year after Endor, the remaining Imperial Fleet made a final, massive attempt at a counter-offensive which came to a climax at the planet Jakku, the biggest battle in the war since Endor; the Imperial counter-offensive was decisively defeated. The remaining Imperial forces were pushed back to a handful of sectors on the fringe of the Outer Rim, containing only a small fraction of the galaxy's population and industrial base; these sectors were a fortified final redoubt, the New Republic deemed that they posed too small a threat to justify the high cost in life that liberating them would require. The New Republic forced the Empire to settle for the Galactic Concordance, a humiliating armistice agreement which imposed strict disarmament plans and punishing reparations on the remaining Imperials. Over time, elements of the Imperial Remnant reorganized themselves, becoming a entrenched and isolationist hermit kingdom, which spent the next three decades instigating a "cold war" against the New Republic rebuilding its military strength and secretly re-arming in violation of its armistice agreements.

The vestigial Empire secretly expanded from its original few sectors, aggressively pushing into the Unknown Regions to seize new undeveloped worlds in order to supplement their resource base, as well as build new shipyards and industrial infrastructure far from the eyes of the New Republic. The 2016 novel Star Wars: Bloodline explained how this faction reorganized into the "First Order", that this final transition only occurred about six years before The Force Awakens. By that time, the New Republic Senate had become divided into two parties: the Populists led by Leia Organa, who wanted to decentralize authority, the Centrists, who wanted power to remain concentrated in a strong central government. Many of the Centrists were former Imperials who admired the old Empire for bringing order to the galaxy, who feared that without strong central control the New Republic would become as weak and ineffectual as the Old Republic. Many Centrist worlds seceded from the New Republic to reunite with the holdout Imperial remnants on the fringe of the galaxy, formally combined into a new government called "the First Order".

First Order conspirators publicly revealed that Leia was in fact the daughter of Darth Vader harming her political standing among the remaining Populists. The vast majority of the New Republic's worlds remained intact, but with the exodus of the Centrists its Senate became dominated by the remaining Populists, who favored decentralization and demilitarization, not confrontation. After these events, most in the remaining Senate were happy to see the Centrists go, feeling that the new First Order still controlled far too few sectors of the galaxy to pose a serious threat to galactic peace. In their view, it was easier to just let the Centrist worlds peacefully leave of their own volition and rejoin the Imperial worlds rather than fight a war to keep them by force; the new "First Order" came to be ruled by the mysterious Force-wielder known as Supreme Leader Snoke, secretly created by the resurrected Emperor Palpatine to control the First Order. Through Snoke, Palpatine seduced Leia's own son Ben Solo to the dark side of the Force, who renamed himself "Kylo Ren".

On his turn to the dark side, Ben/Kylo slaughtered most of his uncle Luke Skywalker's other Jedi apprentices and destroyed his new academy. Blaming himself, Luke fled into self-imposed exile to search for the ancient first Jedi Temple. Kylo Ren, took on a position as Snoke's right hand within the First Order's military. With her political standing weakened, the New Republic Senate gridlocked and unwilling to recognize the First Order's military buildup, Leia Organa decides to withdraw and form her own small private army, known as the Resistance, to fight the First Order within its own borders, she is joined by other members of the former Rebel Alliance such as Admiral Ackbar. Publicly the New Republic continues to disavow direct association with the Resistance to maintain plausible deniability, though the majority of the Senate does not want to intervene against the First Order, several Senators priv

Yanda Pyissi

Yanda Pyissi was a minister in the service of King Narathihapate of the Pagan Dynasty of Burma. He was a general in the Royal Burmese Army under the command of his elder brother Ananda Pyissi. Together they unsuccessfully fought against the first two Mongol invasions. Ava kings from Mohnyin Thado to Narapati II, all Konbaung kings were descended from him, he was born Ot-Hla Nge c. early 1240s to a senior official family in Pagan. His father was Yazathingyan a minister at the Pagan court, his mother may have been Saw Khin Htut, a daughter of King Kyaswa of Pagan, he had an elder brother Ot-Hla Gyi, two younger sisters Saw San and Saw Soe. The family grew up in Pagan where his father rose to be the chief minister by 1248, he and his elder brother both followed his father's footsteps, by the late 1250s had entered the royal service. The first mention of Ot-Hla Nge in the Burmese chronicles came in 1258 when he was sent by the young king Narathihapate to the front to Missagiri where the army had been trying to put down a rebellion, with an order to execute Thray Pyissapate, the commander of the operation, for his failure to defeat the rebellion.

For Thray Pyissapate, Ot-Hla Nge was intercepted midway by his father, on his way back from Martaban, having put down a rebellion there. In 1259–60, both brothers accompanied their father commander-in-chief, on the second Missagiri campaign; the campaign ended Missagiri's two-year-old rebellion, Yazathingyan sent Ot-Hla Nge to Pagan to inform the king of the news of victory. He rushed back to Pagan but he was promptly arrested by the capital guards on the order of the king; the impetuous young king, anxiously waiting for news from the front believed Ot-Hla Nge had fled the battlefield, returned with the bad news. But Ot-Hla Nge carried the news of the victory, his life was spared, but their father died on the return trip. Both brothers both vied to succeed their father's title Yazathingyan; the king refused but allowed them to serve at his court with the titles of Ananda Pyissi and Yanda Pyissi, respectively. Now known as Yanda Pyissi, he did not seem escape his brother's shadow. Ananda Pyissi rose to be a minister, by as early as 1261, the chief minister by 1271.

By the 1270s, Yanda Pyissi had joined as one of the ministers of the Pagan court, headed by Ananda Pyissi. Starting from 1271, the court faced repeated demands of the Mongol Empire to submit, which the Burmese king rejected. In 1275, the Yunnan government recommended war to the emperor, who agreed to the recommendation by 1277. Yanda Pyissi twice went to the front in northern Pagan territories in 1277 and 1283–84. In both campaigns, he was the deputy of his brother, the commander-in-chief of the Royal Burmese armed forces. Both campaigns ended in failure. By 1285, the Mongol forces had occupied as far south as Tagaung; the 1283–84 campaign was the last known record of Yanda Pyissi. Chronicles say that Ananda Pyissi died in action in early 1284 at Tagaung, incorrect according to a 1285 stone inscription, which states that Burmese generals Ananda Pyissi and Maha Bo negotiated for peace with the victorious Mongol forces in 1285, it appears that Maha Bo had become Ananda Pyissi's deputy in place of Yanda Pyissi, who may have died in action.

If it was Yanda Pyissi that died in the battle of Tagaung Yanda Pyissi died in early February 1284. According to the Alaungpaya Ayedawbon chronicle, Yanda Pyissi through his daughter Khin Hpone was an ancestor of Ava kings from Mohnyin Thado to Narapati II and all Konbaung kings. Kala, U. Maha Yazawin. 1–3. Yangon: Ya-Pyei Publishing. Letwe Nawrahta & Twinthin Taikwun. Hla Thamein. Alaungpaya Ayedawbon. Ministry of Culture, Union of Burma. Luce, G. H.. Shin Ditha Pramok. Myanma Swezon Kyan. 5. Heartford, Heartfordshire: Sarpay Beikman. Maha Sithu. Myint Swe. D. and Thein Hlaing. Yazawin Thit. 1–3. Yangon: Ya-Pyei Publishing. CS1 maint: uses editors parameter Royal Historical Commission of Burma. Hmannan Yazawin. 1–3. Yangon: Ministry of Information, Myanmar. Taw, Sein Ko. Inscriptions of Pagan and Ava: Translation, with Notes. Archaeological Survey of India. Than Tun. Studies in Burmese History. 1. Yangon: Maha Dagon

Friedrich August Rosen

Friedrich August Rosen was a German Orientalist, brother of Georg Rosen and a close friend of Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy. He studied in Leipzig, from 1824 in Berlin under Franz Bopp, he was professor of oriental literature at the University of London and became secretary of the Royal Asiatic Society in 1831. His Rigvedae specimen, excerpts from the Rigveda based on manuscripts brought back from India by Colebrooke, were enthusiastically received by European academia as the first authentic evidence of the archaic Vedic Sanskrit language, his most important work was an edition of the entire Rigveda, left incomplete at his premature death shortly after his 32nd birthday. His translation of the first book of the Rigveda appeared posthumously in 1838; the remaining books remained unedited for another five decades, until the editio princeps of Max Müller in 1890-92. Rosen produced the first English translation of the Kitab al-Jabr wa-l-Muqabala of al-Khwārizmī, in 1831. "Radices linguae sanscritae".

Rigvedae specimen the Algebra of Mohammed ben Musa Rigveda-Sanhita, "liber primus, sanscrite et latine" Meyers Konversationslexikon Rosen, Friedrich in Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie