Minister without portfolio
A minister without portfolio is either a government minister with no specific responsibilities or a minister who does not head a particular ministry. The sinecure is common in countries ruled by coalition governments and a cabinet with decision-making authority wherein a minister without portfolio, while he or she may not head any particular office or ministry, still receives a ministerial salary and has the right to cast a vote in cabinet decisions. In some countries where the executive branch is not composed of a coalition of parties and, more in countries with purely presidential systems of government, such as the United States, the position of minister without portfolio is uncommon. Stanley Bruce was given the title of minister without portfolio when he took up his position in 1932 as the Commonwealth Minister in London, he was given the title by Lyon's Cabinet so that he could better represent the PM and his colleagues free from the limitations of a portfolio. In this case the title carried considerable responsibilities.
Bangladesh appoints ministers without portfolio during fresh appointments. Ministers are not appointed without portfolio as a coalition negotiation – all long run ministers end up with a portfolio. Suranjit Sengupta was a minister without portfolio in Sheikh Hasina's second government. Bozhidar Dimitrov While the minister without portfolio is seen by some as a mere sinecure appointment, it has been a role that numerous political notables have played over time, including former Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, who filled the role in a Pearson cabinet in the 1960s. Notable Conservatives who filled the role include R. B. Bennett, Arthur Meighen; the title of minister without portfolio has been used on. The practice has continued under the guise of ministers of state without responsibilities in the ministers' titles; the position has been filled on the federal or provincial level by experienced politicians near the end of their careers as a way of allowing them to counsel the government and take on projects without the burdens associated with administering a government department.
Three "control ministers" served as ministers without portfolio during World War I. After the Liberation of Denmark in May 1945, the first Danish cabinet included four ministers without portfolio. Among these were Danish ambassador to the U. S. Henrik Kauffmann, who had conducted his own foreign policy throughout the war and refused to follow orders from Copenhagen as long as Denmark remained occupied by a foreign power. Kauffmann served in this capacity from 12 May to 7 November 1945; the three other holders of this title had joined the cabinet a few days before -- Kr.. Juul Christensen and Frode Jakobsen. Lise Østergaard held a position as minister without portfolio with special attention to foreign policy issues in Anker Jørgensen's cabinet from 26 February 1977 to 28 February 1980. Anders Fogh Rasmussen appointed Bertel Haarder to Minister without Portfolio, but Minister for European Affairs. Haarder served in this capacity from 27 November 2001 to 18 February 2005; the reason for appointing a minister without a ministry was the Danish European Union Presidency of 2002.
Haarder was considered the most experienced Danish politician on European affairs. Jaan Tõnisson Karl Ast Juhan Kaarlimäe Johannes Sikkar Artur Terras Aksel Mark Arvo Horm Peeter Panksep Eduard Leetmaa Ivar Grünthal Renate Kaasik Verner Hans Puurand Jaan Timusk Ants Pallop Arvo Horm Ivar Paljak Olev Olesk Endel Lippmaa Artur Kuznetsov Klara Hallik Arvo Niitenberg Jüri Luik Peeter Olesk Eiki Nestor Arvo Niitenberg Ants Leemets Jaak Allik Endel Lippmaa Tiit Kubri Riivo Sinijärv Andra Veidemann Peep Aru Katrin Saks Toivo Asmer Eldar Efendijev Paul-Eerik Rummo Jaan Õunapuu Urve Palo Urmas Kruuse Anne Sulling Hermann Göring Rudolf Hess Arthur Seyss-Inquart Hjalmar Schacht Since 1949, a Federal Minister for Special Affairs is a member of the Federal Government that does not have charge of a Federal Ministry, although some have been Chief of the Federal Chancellor's Office. Zsolt Semjén Tamás Fellegi V. K. Krishna Menon - Nehru government Mamata Banerjee - Vajpayee government Natwar Singh - Manmohan Singh government Arun Jaitley - Narendra Modi Government Since the inception of the state, Indonesia had ministers without portfolio given the title Menteri Negara.
The number was not fixed depended on the behest of the President. Below is the list of Ministers without Portfolio in each Cabinet. Mohammad Amir Abdul Wahid Hasyim Sartono Alexander Andries Maramis Mohamma
First Lord of the Admiralty
The First Lord of the Admiralty, or formally the Office of the First Lord of the Admiralty, was the political head of the Royal Navy, the government's senior adviser on all naval affairs and responsible for the direction and control of Admiralty Department as well as general administration of the Naval Service of the United Kingdom, that encompassed the Royal Navy, the Royal Marines and other services. It was one of the earliest known permanent government posts. Apart from being the political head of the Royal Navy the post holder held the title of the President of the Board of Commissioners for Exercising the Office of Lord High Admiral; the office of First Lord of the Admiralty existed from 1628 until it was abolished when the Admiralty, Air Ministry, Ministry of Defence and War Office were all merged to form the new Ministry of Defence in 1964. In 1628, during the reign of Charles I, the Duke of Buckingham, Lord High Admiral of England, was assassinated and the office was placed in commission, under the control of a Board of Commissioners.
The first such First Lord of the Admiralty was Richard Weston, 1st Earl of Portland, appointed in 1628. The First Lord was not always a permanent member of the board until the Admiralty Department was established as an official government department in 1709 with the First Lord as its head. During most of the 17th century and the early 18th century, it was not invariable for the Admiralty to be in commission, so there are gaps in the list of First Lords, a small number of First Lords were for a time Lord High Admiral. After the Revolution, in 1690, a declaratory Act was passed, during the reign of Mary. Parliament passed the Admiralty Act, vesting in the Commissioners the powers held by the Lord High Admiral of England, and at this point became a permanent Cabinet position. The Admiralty Commission was dissolved in 1701, but was reconstituted in 1709 on the death of Prince George of Denmark, appointed Lord High Admiral; the office has been held in commission from that time onwards, except for a short period when the Duke of Clarence was Lord High Admiral.
The Board of the Admiralty comprised a number of “Lords Commissioners” headed by a First Lord. From the early 1800s the post was always held by a civilian. In 1832 First Lord Sir James Graham instituted reforms and amalgamated the Board of Admiralty and the Navy Board. By the provisions of the Admiralty Act of 1832, two Lords in committee could legalize any action of the Board. In 1868 Prime Minister, William Gladstone appointed Hugh Childers First Lord, who would introduce a new system at the Admiralty; however these changes restricted communication between the board members who were affected by these new regulations, the sittings of the Board were discontinued altogether. This situation described was further exacerbated by the disaster of HMS Captain in 1870, a poorly-designed new vessel for the navy; the responsibility and powers of the First Lord of the Admiralty were laid down by an Order in Council dated 14 January 1869, a Order made the First Lord responsible to the Sovereign and to Parliament for all the business of the Admiralty.
However, by describing the Lords of the Admiralty as the "assistants" of the First Lord, by defining their duties, this had, in fact disabled the collective power of the Board. In 1931, for the first time since 1709, the First Lord was not a member of the cabinet. In 1964, the office of First Lord of the Admiralty was abolished, the last holder being the second Earl Jellicoe, the son of Admiral of the Fleet Earl Jellicoe, the functions of the Sea Lords were transferred to the Admiralty Board, which forms part of the tri-service Defence Council of the United Kingdom. Between 1800 and 1912 included: From 1 April 1964 Elizabeth II assumed the title of Lord High Admiral. Ministerial responsibility for the Royal Navy was transferred to the newly created Secretary of State for Defence. Notes Admiralty and Marine Affairs Office, Admiralty Department, Board of Admiralty, Navy Board and Hurt Board, Transport Board, Victualling Board, Office of the Civil Lord of the Admiralty Office of the Senior Naval Lord, Office of the First Naval Lord, Office of the First Sea Lord, Office of the First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Staff, Office of the Private Secretary to the First Lord of the Admiralty, Office of the Naval Secretary, Office of the Secretary to the Admiralty, Office of the First Secretary to the Admiralty, Office of the Parliamentary Secretary to the Admiralty, Office of the Parliamentary and Financial Secretary to the Admiralty, Office of the Permanent Secretary to the Admiralty, The "Radical" First Lord, a major character, in Gilbert and Sullivan's comic opera H.
M. S. Pinafore, is Sir Joseph Henry Porter, KCB. W. S. Gilbert wrote to Arthur Sullivan he did not intend to portray the real-life First Lord, the bookseller and newsagent W. H. Smith, a Conservative, although some of the public, including Prime Minister Disraeli, identified Porter with him; the counterparts shared a known lack of naval background. It has been suggested the character was drawn on Smith's actual "Radical" predecessor of 1868–71, Hugh Childers; this article contains some text from: Vesey, Richard Sir, Naval Administration: The Constitution and Functions of the Bo
The Chatham ministry was a British government led by William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham that ruled between 1766 and 1768. Because of Pitt's former prominence before his title, it is sometimes referred to as the Pitt ministry. Unusually for a politician considered to be Prime Minister, Pitt was not First Lord of the Treasury during the administration, but instead held the post of Lord Privy Seal. Pitt, who moved to the Lords as Earl of Chatham upon his accession to the ministry, was determined to form a ministry of "men, not measures," that would give office to the most competent men without regard to faction. Thus, the ministry kept on Secretary of State Henry Seymour Conway from the previous, Rockingham Whig, and, after Chatham's brother-in-law Lord Temple refused the Treasury and decided to continue in opposition with his brother, former prime minister George Grenville, he promoted Conway's fellow Rockingham Whig the Duke of Grafton to that position. Chatham's own close associates Lord Camden and Lord Shelburne became Lord Chancellor and Southern Secretary of State and the ministry was filled out with other politicians of unclear factional allegiance – keeping on Lord Egmont at the Admiralty and Lord Granby at the Ordnance Board, moving the former Lord Chancellor, Lord Northington to the sinecure position of Lord President of the Council, appointing the slippery Charles Townshend to the Exchequer.
Chatham was ill with gout for long periods, his government struggled to fulfill its various goals. Its "men, not measures" philosophy began to come apart when Lord Egmont resigned the Admiralty due to his opposition to Chatham's foreign policy and was replaced by the Rockingham Whig Sir Charles Saunders, its major foreign policy objective – to secure Britain a major alliance partner in Europe that would end its diplomatic isolation – failed when Frederick the Great of Prussia rejected an offer to reform the Anglo-Prussian Alliance. Soon after, Chatham managed to alienate the heretofore cautiously friendly Rockingham faction by dismissing their ally Lord Edgcumbe, the Treasurer of the Household. Though both Grafton, moving away from the Rockinghams due to his strong admiration for Pitt, Conway remained in the ministry, Saunders and a large number of non-cabinet officeholders from the Rockingham faction resigned their positions. Though Saunders was replaced by the competent Admiral Sir Edward Hawke, most of the other positions were given to former supporters of the royal favorite Lord Bute, increasing the unpopularity of the ministry and strengthening the opposition.
At around the same time, with Chatham absent from the capital, the ministry was further riven by Chancellor Townshend's introduction of the idea of what was to become the Townshend Duties on the American colonies, which divided the ministry. In the midst of this crisis in early 1767 Chatham had a nervous breakdown and withdrew from the conduct of affairs. Grafton attempted to maintain the ministry in his absence, but with difficulty due to the alliance between the three opposition factions of the Rockingham Whigs, Bedford Whigs, Grenvillites and to conflicts within the ministry itself. After an unsuccessful attempt to bring his former allies in the Rockingham faction to support the government, Grafton instead turned to the Bedfords, leading to a major reconstruction of the ministry over the fall of 1767 and winter of 1768, with Bedford's followers Lord Gower and Lord Weymouth as Lord President and Northern Secretary, the like-minded Lord Hillsborough given the new office of Secretary of State for the Colonies – taking responsibility for the American colonies from the more conciliatory Shelburne, whose differences with the rest of the cabinet had led him to cease attendance at cabinet meetings.
The death of Charles Townshend had led to his replacement at the Exchequer by Lord North, who took leadership of the commons over from Conway, uncomfortable with the direction of the ministry. The adhesion of the Bedfords ultimate gave them a dominant role in the ministry, which they used to pursue a more hardline policy towards the American colonies than Chatham had intended, or than several of the remaining were comfortable with. In the fall of 1768, the Bedfords persuaded Grafton that it would be necessary to remove Shelburne from the ministry; this threatened dismissal roused Chatham. Although Chatham's close friend Camden remained in the government, it was clear that the ministry was now dominated by the Bedfords, the Duke of Grafton formally took over as Prime Minister – leading the Grafton ministry for over a year until January 1770. BibliographyBlack, Jeremy. William Pitt. Cambridge University Press. Winstanley, D. A. Lord Chatham and the Whig Opposition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1912
Daniel Finch, 8th Earl of Winchilsea
Daniel Finch, 8th Earl of Winchilsea and 3rd Earl of Nottingham, was a British politician. Styled Lord Finch until 1730, he was the eldest son of Daniel Finch, 2nd Earl of Nottingham, his second wife Anne Hatton, daughter of Christopher Hatton, 1st Viscount Hatton, his father was a prominent Tory politician, one of the few leading Tories to support the Hanoverian succession. He succeeded to his fathers titles and his estate at Burley-on-the-Hill, Rutland in 1730; as Lord Finch, he was elected. He remained its member until he succeeded to the Earldom in 1730 serving as comptroller of the royal household from 1725 to 1730. Winchilsea supported the creation of London's Foundling Hospital, a charity providing home and education for some of the capital's many abandoned children. Winchilsea was one of the original governors for this organisation, founded in 1739. Although his father had been a supporter of Walpole, Winchilsea became instead a supporter of Lord Carteret in the so-called "Patriot Opposition".
When Carteret became leading minister in 1742, Winchilsea joined as well, becoming First Lord of the Admiralty. On, he allied himself with Newcastle and the Old Whigs, served as Lord President in the Rockingham administration, he was made a Knight of the Garter in 1752. He first married Lady Frances Feilding, daughter of Basil Feilding, 4th Earl of Denbigh and Hester Firebrace, with whom he had a daughter, Lady Charlotte, he married Mary Palmer, daughter of Sir Thomas Palmer, 1st Baronet Palmer. They had four daughters: Ladies Heneage, Essex and Augusta, four more who died young, they died unmarried and there are no known descendants. He lived at Eastwell Park, he was buried at Eastwell. His titles, together with his estates at Burley-on-the-Hill and elsewhere, passed to his nephew George Finch, son of his brother, the diplomat William, he left his Kentish properties, such as Eastwell Park, to his other nephew George Finch-Hatton, son of his brother Edward
Whigs (British political party)
The Whigs were a political faction and a political party in the parliaments of England, Great Britain and the United Kingdom. Between the 1680s and 1850s, they contested power with the Tories; the Whigs' origin lay in constitutional opposition to absolute monarchy. The Whigs played a central role in the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and were the standing enemies of the Stuart kings and pretenders, who were Roman Catholic; the Whigs took full control of the government in 1715 and remained dominant until King George III, coming to the throne in 1760, allowed Tories back in. The Whig Supremacy was enabled by the Hanoverian succession of George I in 1714 and the failed Jacobite rising of 1715 by Tory rebels; the Whigs purged the Tories from all major positions in government, the army, the Church of England, the legal profession and local offices. The Party's hold on power was so strong and durable, historians call the period from 1714 to 1783 the age of the Whig Oligarchy; the first great leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government through the period 1721–1742 and whose protégé Henry Pelham led from 1743 to 1754.
Both parties began as loose groupings or tendencies, but became quite formal by 1784 with the ascension of Charles James Fox as the leader of a reconstituted Whig Party, arrayed against the governing party of the new Tories under William Pitt the Younger. Both parties were founded on rich politicians more than on popular votes, there were elections to the House of Commons, but a small number of men controlled most of the voters; the Whig Party evolved during the 18th century. The Whig tendency supported the great aristocratic families, the Protestant Hanoverian succession and toleration for nonconformist Protestants, while some Tories supported the exiled Stuart royal family's claim to the throne and all Tories supported the established Church of England and the gentry. On, the Whigs drew support from the emerging industrial interests and wealthy merchants, while the Tories drew support from the landed interests and the royal family. However, by the first half of the 19th century the Whig political programme came to encompass not only the supremacy of parliament over the monarch and support for free trade, but Catholic emancipation, the abolition of slavery and expansion of the franchise.
The 19th century Whig support for Catholic emancipation was a complete reversal of the party's historic anti-Catholic position at its late 17th century origin. The term "Whig" was short for "whiggamor", a term meaning "cattle driver" used to describe western Scots who came to Leith for corn. In the reign of Charles I the term was used during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms to refer derisively to a radical faction of the Scottish Covenanters who called themselves the "Kirk Party", it was applied to Scottish Presbyterian rebels who were against the King's Episcopalian order in Scotland. The term "Whig" entered English political discourse during the Exclusion Bill crisis of 1678–1681 when there was controversy about whether or not King Charles II's brother, should be allowed to succeed to the throne on Charles's death. "Whig" was a term of abuse applied to those who wanted to exclude James on the grounds that he was a Roman Catholic. The fervent Tory Samuel Johnson joked that "the first Whig was the Devil".
Under Lord Shaftesbury's leadership, the Whigs in the Parliament of England wished to exclude the Duke of York from the throne due to his Roman Catholicism, his favouring of monarchical absolutism, his connections to France. They believed the heir presumptive, if allowed to inherit the throne, would endanger the Protestant religion and property; the first Exclusion Bill was supported by a substantial majority on its second reading in May 1679. In response, King Charles prorogued Parliament and dissolved it, but the subsequent elections in August and September saw the Whigs' strength increase; this new parliament did not meet for thirteen months, because Charles wanted to give passions a chance to die down. When it met in October 1680, an Exclusion Bill was introduced and passed in the Commons without major resistance, but was rejected in the Lords. Charles dissolved Parliament in January 1681, but the Whigs did not suffer serious losses in the ensuing election; the next Parliament first met in March at Oxford, but Charles dissolved it after only a few days, when he made an appeal to the country against the Whigs and determined to rule without Parliament.
In February, Charles had made a deal with the French King Louis XIV, who promised to support him against the Whigs. Without Parliament, the Whigs crumbled due to government repression following the discovery of the Rye House Plot; the Whig peers, the Earl of Melville, the Earl of Leven, Lord Shaftesbury, Charles II's illegitimate son the Duke of Monmouth, being implicated, fled to and regrouped in the United Provinces. Algernon Sidney, Sir Thomas Armstrong and William Russell, Lord Russell, were executed for treason; the Earl of Essex committed suicide in the Tower of London over his arrest for treason, whilst Lord Grey of Werke escaped from the Tower. After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, Queen Mary II and King William III governed with both Whigs and Tories, despite the fact that many of the Tories still supported the deposed Roman Catholic James II. William saw that the Tories were friendlier to royal authority than the Whigs and he employed both groups in his government, his early ministry was Tory, but the government came to be dominated by the so-called Junto Whig
The Rockingham Whigs in 18th century British politics were a faction of the Whigs led by Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, from about 1762 until his death in 1782. The Rockingham Whigs held power from 1765 to 1766 and again in 1782, otherwise were in opposition to the various ministries of the period; the faction came into existence in 1762, following the dismissal of the Duke of Newcastle's government and the dismissal of many of Newcastle's supporters from their posts by his successor, Lord Bute, in the so-called "Massacre of the Pelhamite Innocents". For many years Newcastle and his late brother Henry Pelham had dominated parliament and government through their mastery of patronage and the "old corruption", to the point where King George II had proved incapable of dispensing with their services when he desired to; when the new king, George III, came to the throne in 1760, he was determined to reassert royal power and take the patronage mechanism away from Newcastle and his faction.
After their fall from power Newcastle and his remaining loyalists came together to oppose Bute and assert what they believed to be Whig principles dating back to the political conflicts of the previous century. The faction was dominated by wealthy aristocrats, because of Newcastle's advanced age, effective leadership soon came into the hands of the wealthy young aristocrat the Marquess of Rockingham, who soon gave his name to the group. Although the Rockingham Whigs were brought into power in 1765, following the fall of the ministry of George Grenville, this ministry was based on an always uneasy relationship with the crown, collapsed a year later. In fact, the faction showed less interest in holding office than in preventing a reassertion of royal power, they were prepared to unite with reformers of all kinds to preserve the constitutional settlement of 1689. But their aristocratic and oligarchic character prevented them from collaborating with "Country Party" reformers advocating radical or populistic measures.
They opposed the British position which led to the American Revolution and sought reconciliation after it. The writer and philosopher Edmund Burke, who served as Rockingham's private secretary, was one of the faction's leading spokesmen in the House of Commons, they did not favor Irish constitutional goals but when out of power they used Irish problems to embarrass the government. During Rockingham's government in 1765–66, his faction was hostile to the Irish Patriot Party, but during the administration of Lord North in 1770–82, it supported the Patriots' charges of mismanagement of Irish affairs. In power again in 1782, the Rockinghamites made concessions to the Patriots' demand for Irish legislative independence, they sought and failed to obtain a permanent solution that would have involved British control over external legislation and Irish control over internal affairs. They failed to implement British party models in Ireland. Rockinghamites Charles James Fox and Burke were involved in Irish issues, says Powell, the former opportunistically and the latter with a genuine interest in reform.
In 1782 they joined forces with other members of the Opposition to bring down the North government which had overseen the American War since the beginning, was blamed for the surrender of the British army at Yorktown. The new government was led by Rockingham and began to seek peace terms, laying the foundations for the Treaty of Paris agreed in 1783. Rockingham's unexpected death in July 1782 led to a split in the new government with some Rockingham Whigs remaining in office under the new government of Lord Shelburne, others going into opposition led by Charles James Fox and Edmund Burke. After Rockingham's death, the Duke of Portland became the head of the Rockingham Whig party. Elofson, W. M. "The Rockingham Whigs and the Country Tradition", Parliamentary History, 8: 90–115 O'Gorman, Frank, "Party and Burke: The Rockingham Whigs", Government & Opposition, 3: 92–110 Elofson, W. M. "The Rockingham Whigs in Transition: The East India Company Issue 1772–1773", English Historical Review, 104: 947–974, JSTOR 572789 Powell, Martyn J.
"British Party Politics and Imperial Control: The Rockingham Whigs and Ireland 1765–1782", Parliamentary History, 21: 325–50
Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton
Augustus Henry FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton, styled Earl of Euston between 1747 and 1757, was a British Whig statesman of the Georgian era. He is one of a handful of dukes, he became Prime Minister in 1768 at the age of 33, leading the supporters of William Pitt, was the youngest person to have held the office until the appointment of William Pitt the Younger 15 years later. However, he struggled to demonstrate an ability to counter increasing challenges to Britain's global dominance following the nation's victory in the Seven Years' War, he was attacked for allowing France to annex Corsica, stepped down in 1770, handing over power to Lord North. He was a son of Lord Augustus FitzRoy, a Captain in the Royal Navy, Elizabeth Cosby, daughter of Colonel William Cosby, who served as a colonial Governor of New York, his father was the third son of the 2nd Duke of Grafton and Lady Henrietta Somerset, which made FitzRoy a great-grandson of both the 1st Duke of Grafton and the Marquess of Worcester. He was notably the 1st Duchess of Cleveland.
His younger brother was the 1st Baron Southampton. From the death of his uncle in 1747, he was styled Earl of Euston as his grandfather's heir apparent. Lord Euston was educated at Newcome's School in Hackney and at Westminster School, made the Grand Tour, obtained a degree at Peterhouse, University of Cambridge. In 1756, he entered Parliament as MP for a pocket borough. However, a year his grandfather died and he succeeded as 3rd Duke of Grafton, which elevated him to the House of Lords, he first became known in politics as an opponent of Lord Bute, a favourite of King George III. Grafton aligned himself with the Duke of Newcastle against Lord Bute, whose term as Prime Minister was short-lived because it was felt that the peace terms to which he had agreed at the Treaty of Paris were not a sufficient return for Britain's performance in the Seven Years' War. In 1765, Grafton was appointed a Privy Counsellor. However, he retired the following year, Pitt formed a ministry in which Grafton was First Lord of the Treasury but not Prime Minister.
Chatham's illness, at the end of 1767, resulted in Grafton becoming the Government's effective leader, but political differences, the impact of the Corsican Crisis and the attacks of "Junius" led to his resignation in January 1770. In 1768, Grafton became Chancellor of Cambridge University, he became Lord Privy Seal in Lord North's ministry but resigned in 1775, being in favour of conciliatory action towards the American colonists. In the second Rockingham ministry of 1782, he was again Lord Privy Seal. In years he was a prominent Unitarian, being one of the early members of the inaugural Essex Street Chapel under Rev. Theophilus Lindsey when founded in 1774. Grafton had associated with a number of liberal Anglican theologians when at Cambridge, devoted much time to theological study and writing after leaving office as Prime Minister. In 1773 in the House of Lords he supported a bill to release Anglican clergy from subscribing to all the Thirty-nine Articles, he became an advocate of moral reformation of liturgical reform.
He was author of: Hints Submitted to the Serious Attention of the Clergy and Gentry, by a Layman. Serious Reflections of a Rational Christian from 1788–1797, he was a sponsor of Richard Watson's Consideration of the Expediency of Revising the Liturgy and Article of the Church of England and he funded the printing of 700 copies of Griesbach's edition of the Greek New Testament in 1796. The Duke had horse racing interests, his racing silks were sky blue, with a black cap. Grafton County, New Hampshire, in the United States, is named in his honour, as are the towns of Grafton, New South Wales, the town of Grafton, New York, the unincorporated community of Grafton and the township of Grafton, West Virginia; the Grafton Centre Shopping Mall in Cambridge is named after him, indeed lies on Fitzroy Street. Cape Grafton in Far North Queensland was named after him by Lieutenant James Cook during his first voyage of discovery. Grafton had the longest post-premiership of any prime minister in British history, totalling 41 years and 45 days.
On 29 January 1756, he married The Hon. Anne Liddell, daughter of Henry Liddell, 4th Baronet Ravensworth, they had three children: Lady Georgiana FitzRoy, who married John Smyth on 4 June 1778. George Henry FitzRoy, 4th Duke of Grafton General Lord Charles FitzRoy, who married, Frances Mundy on 20 June 1795, had one son, he married, Lady Frances Stewart on 10 March 1799 and had three children. His sons Sir Charles FitzRoy, governor of New South Wales, Robert FitzRoy, the hydrographer, were notable for their achievements. In 1764, the Duke had a public affair with the courtesan Nancy Parsons whom he kept at his town house and took to the opera; this brazen lack of convention offended society's standards. After the Duchess had become pregnant by her lover, the Earl of Upper Ossory and the Duke were divorced by Act of Parliament, passed 23 March 1769. Three mont