Manuel de Sarratea
Manuel de Sarratea, was an Argentine diplomat and soldier. He was the son of Martin de Sarratea, of the richest merchant of Buenos-Aires and Tomasa Josefa de Altolaguirre, his sister Martina de Sarrateas married Santiago de Liniers, vice-roy del Rio de la Plata. Sarratea was educated in Madrid, he returned to the country to work as a diplomat. He participated in the May Revolution of 1810 and per advice from Belgrano he was named ambassador in Río de Janeiro; when the Primera Junta was dissolved, he returned and took part on the following government body, the so-called First Triumvirate. One of the Triumvirate's political accomplishments was a treaty signed with vicerroy Francisco Javier de Elío, where the Banda Oriental (present-day Uruguay was ceded to the crown. In 1812, after the change of government in Montevideo, the treaty was broken and the war against the royalists in the city was resumed. Most of the Criollo soldiers had abandoned the territory, following José Artigas. Sarratea took charge of the army in the Banda Oriental, making his primary mission to get back the troops from Artigas.
He attempted to convince him and when this failed he attempted to bribe him without success. He declared Artigas a traitor but this measure was rejected by the rest of the Triumvirate; the Triumvirate was dominated by minister Rivadavia, until its fall in October 1812. Sarratea continued to be in charge of the Banda Oriental army until the first part of the following year, when he was replaced by José Rondeau. Only when the ex-Triumvir Sarratea left, did Artigas and his men return to the siege of Montevideo. Sarratea remained inactive for more than two years, until Director Gervasio Posadas sent him on a diplomatic mission to Madrid and London. Arriving in Spain he offered the restored king, Ferdinand VII, the submission of the United Provinces to the Spanish crown under a certain autonomy. Instead he was treated as the representative of a group of rebels and had to leave and go to England. Sarratea returned to Buenos Aires in mid-1816, was named government minister of foreign relations for the Supreme Director, Juan Martín de Pueyrredón.
He resigned for health reasons and made contacts within the porteño political opposition, so he was expelled and exiled to Montevideo by order of the same Director. After the battle of Cepeda he joined the federalist army commanded by Estanislao López and Francisco Ramírez, they sent him as their representative to the Buenos Aires Cabildo, whom he convinced to name him provincial governor. He assumed the governorship on February 18, 1820 and soon after he signed the Treay of Pilar with the federalist chiefs, through which the Buenos Aires province agreed to be recognized as equal to the other United Provinces. AS one of the secret clauses of the treaty, he promised the delivery of armament to the federalist caudillos; when the Buenos Aires military found he was to deliver armament, they raised against him, deposed him on March 6, replacing him with general Balcarce. He lasted only one week as governor, when general Ramírez threatened with attacking the city if they did not deliver the promised armament.
Sarratea assumed government again on May 11, gave Ramírez some military units under the command of colonel Mansilla. Sarratea could not contain the permanent state of anarchy in the province, nor gain the obedience and trust of the military, so he was forced to resign at the end of May, he joined Ramírez's army in his campaign against Artigas, defeating him was his greatest personal success. On he took part in the preparations for the war Ramirez would fight against Buenos Aires, Santa Fé and Córdoba, which ended in disaster. Sarratea recused himself from politics for a time. On August 31, 1825, Juan Gregorio de Las Heras, named Sarratea as Encargado de Negocios de las Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata cerca de Gran Bretaña. President Rivadavia sent him in 1826 to be the United Provinces representative in London again. There he supported the British policy of separating the Banda Oriental from the rest of the provinces, accomplished in 1828. Governor Manuel Dorrego kept him as ambassador, Juan Manuel de Rosas named him ambassador to Brazil and France.
Decreto del mombramiento como Encargado de Negocios en 1825
Manuel Dorrego was an Argentine statesman and soldier. He was governor of Buenos Aires in 1820, again from 1827 to 1828. Dorrego was born in Buenos Aires on 11 June 1787 to José Antonio do Rego, a Portuguese merchant, to María de la Ascensión Salas, he enrolled in the Real Colegio de San Carlos in 1803, moved to the Real Universidad de San Felipe in the Captaincy General of Chile to continue his studies. He supported the early steps of the Chilean War of Independence in 1810, which led to the removal of the Spanish colonial authorities and the establishment of the first Chilean Government Junta, he moved to the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, joined the Army of the North, under the command of Manuel Belgrano. He fought in the battles of Salta, being injured in both, he was sanctioned by Belgrano for promoting a duel. As a result, he did not take part in the battles of Vilcapugio and Ayohuma, two defeats of the Army of the North, Belgrano regretted the absence of Dorrego from them. Dorrego opposed the Luso-Brazilian invasion of the Banda Oriental, encouraged by Juan Martín de Pueyrredón to counter the influence of José Gervasio Artigas.
He was exiled by Pueyrredón, stayed some time in Baltimore. He studied federalism in the United States, thought that each state of a country should have some autonomy, rejecting the strong centralization into a single government sought by Pueyrredón. During this times he wrote the Cartas apologéticas, criticizing the support of Pueyrredón to the Luso-Brazilian invasion, he returned to Buenos Aires following the departure of Pueyrredón. He was appointed as interim governor, fought against the armies of Alvear and Estanislao López. Still, he was resisted in the city, the stable appointment as governor was given to Martín Rodríguez instead, he was banished again, moved to Upper Peru. He met Simón Bolívar in Quito, supported his ideas of unifying all the continent into a giant federation. Dorrego returned to Buenos Aires a short time afterwards and worked in the legislature of Buenos Aires in the 1826 Constituent Assembly, he supported a federal system of government and criticized the qualified suffrage.
However, the 1826 Constitution promoted qualified suffrage. Dorrego opposed the government of the unitarian Bernardino Rivadavia, appointed as the first president of Argentina, voiced his criticism in the newspaper "El Tribuno". Resisted by all the provinces, Rivadavia resigned as president, vice president Vicente López y Planes resigned as well. No longer having a national head of state, the legislature appointed Dorrego as governor of the Buenos Aires province, he took measures to support the poor, promote a federal organization of the country, ended the Argentine–Brazilian War. The Argentine troops were discontented with Dorrego because he accepted the conditions imposed by the British diplomacy despite their military victories in the conflict. Encouraged by the Unitarian party, Juan Lavalle led a coup against Dorrego on 1 December 1828. Dorrego organized his forces in the countryside, he was defeated, executed by Lavalle. Lavalle closed the legislature and began a period of political violence against the Federals, but he was defeated and forced to resign by Juan Manuel de Rosas, who restored the institutions that existed before Lavalle's coup.
Argentine Civil War Manuel Dorrego national institute Galasso, Norberto. Historia de la Argentina, vol. I&II. Buenos Aires: Colihue. ISBN 978-950-563-478-1
The Primera Junta or First Assembly is the most common name given to the first independent government of Argentina. It was created on 25 May 1810, as a result of the events of the May Revolution; the Junta had representatives from only Buenos Aires. When it was expanded, as expected, with the addition of the representatives from the other cities of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, it became popularly known instead as the Junta Grande; the Junta operated at El Fuerte, used since 1776 as a residence by the Viceroys. This Junta—officially named the Junta Provisional Gubernativa de las Provincias del Río de la Plata a nombre del Señor Don Fernando VII —allegedly meant to govern in the name of the King of Spain, while he was imprisoned by Napoleon Bonaparte. Juntas were a form of transitional or emergency government, which attempted to maintain Spanish sovereignty, that emerged during the Napoleonic invasion in Spanish cities that had not succumbed to the French; the most important for Spanish America was the Junta of Seville, which claimed sovereignty over the overseas possessions, given the fact that the province of Seville had enjoyed exclusive rights to the American trade.
Its claims had been rejected by Spanish Americans, its authority was superseded by a Supreme Central Junta of Spain, which included American representation. When the Supreme Central Junta abolished itself in 1810, the politically active inhabitants of Buenos Aires saw no better moment than this to establish a local government, they had been influenced by the recent democratic and republican philosophical wave, were concerned about the commercial monopoly exerted by the Spanish crown, suffocating the local economy. Buenos Aires province had mitigated this problem through contraband. Local politicians, such as former council member and legal advisor to the viceroy, Juan José Castelli, who wanted a change towards self-government and free commerce, cited traditional Spanish political theory and argued that the King being imprisoned, sovereignty had returned to the people; the people were to assume the government until the King returned, just as the subjects in Spain had done two years earlier with the establishment of juntas.
The Viceroy and his supporters countered that the colonies belonged to Spain and did not have a political relationship with only the King. Therefore, they should follow any governmental body established in Spain as the legal authority, namely the Supreme Central Junta of Spain and its successor, the Council of Regency; the meeting of a Buenos Aires cabildo abierto during 22 May 1810, came under strong pressure from the militias and a crowd that formed in front of the cabildo hall on the Plaza Mayor, up to 25 May. The crowd favored the stance of the local politicians, the cabildo ended up creating the Primera Junta, the first form of local government in the territory that would become Argentina. Spain would never recover its dominion over that territory. From the beginning of the new government, two factions manifested their differences, a more radical one, whose visible leader was the Junta's Secretary, Mariano Moreno, the conservative wing that supported the Junta's President, Cornelio Saavedra.
In general the principles of the May Revolution were popular sovereignty, the principle of representation and federalization, division of powers, the maintenance of the mandates, publication of the government's actions President Cornelio SaavedraSecretaries: Mariano Moreno Juan José PasoCommittee member Manuel Alberti Miguel de Azcuénaga Manuel Belgrano Juan José Castelli Domingo Matheu Juan Larrea Despite the replacement of Cisneros, the Royal Audience and the Cabildo stood with the authorities that existed before the revolution, who opposed the Junta since its first day. The Audience refused at first to swear allegiance to the Junta, when they did, prosecutor Caspe did so with clear gestures of contempt. Caspe would be ambushed near his home, in retaliation for this; the Cabildo imposed a time limit on the Junta: if the General Congress was not formed in six months, the Cabildo would reassume government. The Junta answered the same day; the Audience requested that the Junta submitted to the Regency Counsel, but the Junta refused, on the grounds that Cisneros did not so submit and the Audience did not request him to.
The Audience itself swore allegiance to the Counsel shortly after, they were all banished in response. Together with the ex-viceroy Cisneros, they were forced to take the ship Dart that left them at the Canary Islands. From the early days of the Primera Junta there was a strong rivalry between Moreno. According to Ignacio Núñez, the Morenists accused Saavedra of plotting to restore the tyranny of the viceroys in his office, while the Saavedrists accused Moreno of usurping government roles that were not intended for him. Matheu would point in his memories that the Morenists were upset because they perceived that Saavedra enjoyed receiving honors and distinctions that they had chosen to avoid; the Junta was received with mixed reactions from the other cities of the viceroyalty. Santa Fe, Entre Ríos, Misiones and Mendoza supported the change, others did not. Upper Peru, which benefited from the system of mita to exploit the mines in
Juan Manuel de Rosas
Juan Manuel de Rosas, nicknamed "Restorer of the Laws", was a politician and army officer who ruled Buenos Aires Province and the Argentine Confederation. Although born into a wealthy family, Rosas independently amassed a personal fortune, acquiring large tracts of land in the process. Rosas enlisted his workers in a private militia, as was common for rural proprietors, took part in the disputes that led to numerous civil wars in his country. Victorious in warfare influential, with vast landholdings and a loyal private army, Rosas became a caudillo, as provincial warlords in the region were known, he reached the rank of brigadier general, the highest in the Argentine Army, became the undisputed leader of the Federalist Party. In December 1829, Rosas became governor of the province of Buenos Aires and established a dictatorship backed by state terrorism. In 1831, he signed the Federal Pact, recognising provincial autonomy and creating the Argentine Confederation; when his term of office ended in 1832, Rosas departed to the frontier to wage war on the indigenous peoples.
After his supporters launched a coup in Buenos Aires, Rosas was asked to return and once again took office as governor. Rosas reestablished his dictatorship and formed the repressive Mazorca, an armed parapolice that killed thousands of citizens. Elections became a farce, the legislature and judiciary became docile instruments of his will. Rosas created a cult of personality and his regime became totalitarian in nature, with all aspects of society rigidly controlled. Rosas faced many threats to his power during early 1840s, he fought a war against the Peru–Bolivian Confederation, endured a blockade by France, faced a revolt in his own province and battled a major rebellion that lasted for years and spread to several Argentine provinces. Rosas persevered and extended his influence in the provinces, exercising effective control over them through direct and indirect means. By 1848, he had extended his power beyond the borders of Buenos Aires and was ruler of all of Argentina. Rosas attempted to annex the neighbouring nations of Uruguay and Paraguay.
France and Great Britain jointly retaliated against Argentine expansionism, blockading Buenos Aires for most of the late 1840s, but were unable to halt Rosas, whose prestige was enhanced by his string of successes. When the Empire of Brazil began aiding Uruguay in its struggle against Argentina, Rosas declared war in August 1851, starting the Platine War; this short conflict ended with Rosas absconding to Britain. His last years were spent in exile living as a tenant farmer until his death in 1877. Rosas garnered an enduring public perception among Argentines as a brutal tyrant. Since the 1930s, an authoritarian, anti-Semitic, racist political movement in Argentina called Revisionism has tried to improve Rosas's reputation and establish a new dictatorship in the model of his regime. In 1989, his remains were repatriated by the government in an attempt to promote national unity, seeking forgiveness for him and for the 1970s military dictatorship. Rosas remains a controversial figure in Argentina in the 21st century.
Juan Manuel José Domingo Ortiz de Rosas was born on 30 March 1793 at his family's town house in Buenos Aires, the capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. He was the first child of Agustina López de Osornio. León Ortiz was the son of an immigrant from the Spanish Province of Burgos. A military officer with an undistinguished career, León Ortiz had married into a wealthy Criollo family; the young Juan Manuel de Rosas's character was influenced by his mother Agustina, a strong-willed and domineering woman who derived these character traits from her father Clemente López de Osornio, a landowner who died defending his estate from an Indian attack in 1783. As was common practice at the time, Rosas was schooled at home until the age of 8, enrolled in what was regarded the best private school in Buenos Aires. Though befitting the son of a wealthy landowner, his education was unremarkable. According to historian John Lynch, Rosas' education "was supplemented by his own efforts in the years that followed.
Rosas was not unread, though the time, the place, his own bias limited the choice of authors. He appears to have had a sympathetic, if superficial, acquaintance with minor political thinkers of French absolutism."In 1806, a British expeditionary force invaded Buenos Aires. A 13-year-old Rosas served distributing ammunition to troops in a force organised by Viceroy Santiago Liniers to counter the invasion; the British returned a year later. Rosas was assigned to the Caballería de los Migueletes, although he was barred from active duty during this time due to illness. After the British invasions had been repelled and his family moved from Buenos Aires to their estancia, his work there further shaped his character and outlook as part of the Platine region's social establishment. In the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, owners of large landholdings provided food and protection for families living in areas under their control, their private defense forces consisted of laborers who were drafted as soldiers.
Most of these peons, as such workers were called, were gauchos. The landed aristocracy of Spanish descent considered the illiterate, mixed-race gauchos, who comprised the majority of the population, to be ungovernable and untrustworthy; the gauchos were tolerated because there was no other labor force available, but were treated with contempt by the landowners. Rosas got along well with the gauchos in his service, despite his harsh and authorit
Juan Martín de Pueyrredón
Juan Martín de Pueyrredón y O'Dogan was an Argentine general and politician of the early 19th century. He was appointed Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata after the Argentine Declaration of Independence. Pueyrredón was born in Buenos Aires, the fifth of eight sons of Juan Martín de Pueyrredón y Labroucherie, his wife, María Rita Damasia O'Doggan y Soria. Pueyrredon's father was a French merchant who established himself in Cádiz with his brother, in Buenos Aires, where he married his wife, of partial Irish descent, he was educated at the Royal College until the death of his father in 1791. María became the head of the family, assisted by Anselmo Sáenz Valiente in business, withdrew Juan Martín from his studies at the age of 14, he moved to live with a relative in Cádiz, Spain to learn about commerce. His first business took him to France, he returned to Buenos Aires to deal with his father's will, married his cousin Dolores Pueyrredón, daughter of Diego de Pueyrredón y Labrucherie and Maman Mairoluo, in Spain in 1803.
They returned to Buenos Aires. Pueyrredón thought of returning to Spain with her, hoping to restore her health by visiting her family, but she miscarried again and her health worsened, until she died in May 1805. Buenos Aires was invaded by British forces in 1806, during the first of two British invasions of the Río de la Plata. Pueyrredón was among the criollos who did not believe that the British would help them to become independent from Spain, he got an interview with governor Pascual Ruiz Huidobro. Huidobro authorized him to organize a resistance, so he returned to Buenos Aires and secretly prepared an army at the Perdriel ranch; the British, discovered it and defeated the half-prepared army. Pueyrredón escaped to Colonia del Sacramento and joined Santiago de Liniers, whose army would defeat the British. In 1807 he was sent as representative of Buenos Aires to Spain again, but returned in 1809 via Brazil to Buenos Aires, where he subsequently participated in the independentist movement. After the May Revolution of 1810, which gave birth to the first local government junta, he was appointed governor of Córdoba, in 1812 he became the leader of the independent forces and a member of the short-lived First Triumvirate.
From 1812 to 1815, he was exiled in San Luis. In 1816, Pueyrredón was elected Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, he supported José de San Martín's military campaign in Chile, founded the first national bank of Argentina and the national mint. After the declaration of a Unitarian constitution, revolts forced him to resign as Supreme Director in 1819 and go into exile in Montevideo, he subsequently played a small role in politics, most notably serving in 1829 as a mediator between Juan Manuel de Rosas and Juan Lavalle. He died in retirement on his ranch in Buenos Aires. During his time in San Luis, Pueyrredón had an illegitimate daughter, with Juana Sánchez. In 1815, at the age of 39, he married his 14-year-old second wife María Calixta Tellechea y Caviedes; the Pueyrredóns' only child Prilidiano was born in Buenos Aires on January 24, 1823. He became a civil engineer and artist, has been called the first Argentine painter. From 1835-49, Pueyrredón and his family lived in Europe.
The Honor Bound series of historical fiction by W. E. B. Griffin gives Pueyrredón Maria Elena Pueyrredón de Frade, she is a maternal ancestor of Argentinian Coronel Jorge Guillermo Frade, of the main protagonist of the series, Cletus Howell Frade, USMCR. Luna, Félix. Grandes protagonistas de la historia argentina: Juan Martín de Pueyrredón. Buenos Aires: Editorial Planeta. ISBN 950-49-0469-6. Biography by José M. Carcione. Short biography at Biografías y Vidas. Juan Martín de Pueyrredón at Find a Grave
Juan Pedro Aguirre
Juan Pedro Julián Aguirre y López de Anaya was an Argentine revolutionary and politician. Aguirre was born in Buenos Aires, he fought in the wars against the British troops of 1806/07. In 1820, he served as interim Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, was the last official to hold that title. In 1824, he was minister of economics, in 1826, he became the first president of the newly established national bank. List of heads of state of Argentina
The May Revolution was a week-long series of events that took place from May 18 to 25, 1810, in Buenos Aires, capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. This Spanish colony included the territories of present-day Argentina, Paraguay and parts of Brazil; the result was the removal of Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros and the establishment of a local government, the Primera Junta, on May 25. It was the first successful revolution in the South American Independence process; the May Revolution was a direct reaction to Spain's Peninsular War. In 1808, King Ferdinand VII of Spain abdicated in favor of Napoleon, who granted the throne to his brother, Joseph Bonaparte. A Supreme Central Junta led resistance to Joseph's government and the French occupation of Spain, but suffered a series of reversals that resulted in the Spanish loss of the northern half of the country. On February 1, 1810, French troops gained control of most of Andalusia; the Supreme Junta retreated to Cadiz and dissolved itself, the Council of Regency of Spain and the Indies replaced it.
News of these events arrived in Buenos Aires on May 18, brought by British ships. Viceroy Cisneros tried to maintain the political status quo, but a group of criollo lawyers and military officials organized an open cabildo on May 22 to decide the future of the Viceroyalty. Delegates denied recognition to the Council of Regency in Spain and established a junta to govern in place of Cisneros, since the government that had appointed him Viceroy no longer existed. To maintain a sense of continuity, Cisneros was appointed president of the Junta. However, this caused much popular unrest, so he resigned under pressure on May 25; the newly formed government, the Primera Junta, included only representatives from Buenos Aires and invited other cities of the Viceroyalty to send delegates to join them. This resulted in the outbreak of war between the regions that accepted the outcome of the events at Buenos Aires and those that did not; the May Revolution began the Argentine War of Independence, although no formal declaration of independence was issued at the time and the Primera Junta continued to govern in the name of the deposed king, Ferdinand VII.
As similar events occurred in many other cities of the continent, the May Revolution is considered one of the early events of the Spanish American wars of independence. Historians today debate whether the revolutionaries were loyal to the Spanish crown or whether the declaration of fidelity to the king was a necessary ruse to conceal the true objective—to achieve independence—from a population, not yet ready to accept such a radical change. A formal declaration of independence was issued at the Congress of Tucumán on July 9, 1816; the United States' declaration of independence from Great Britain in 1776 led criollos to believe that revolution and independence from Spain were feasible. Between 1775 and 1783, the American patriots of the Thirteen Colonies waged the American Revolutionary War against both the local loyalists and the Kingdom of Great Britain establishing a popular government in the place of the British monarchy; the fact that Spain aided the colonies in their struggle against Britain weakened the idea that it would be a crime to end one's allegiance to the parent state.
The ideals of the French Revolution of 1789 spread across Europe and the Americas as well. The overthrow and execution of King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette ended centuries of monarchy and removed the privileges of the nobility. Liberal ideals in the political and economic fields developed and spread through the Atlantic Revolutions across most of the Western world; the concept of the divine right of kings was questioned by the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, by the oft-quoted statement that "all men are created equal" in the United States Declaration of Independence and by the Spanish church. However, the spread of such ideas was forbidden in the Spanish territories, as was the sale of related books or their unauthorized possession. Spain instituted those bans when it declared war on France after the execution of Louis XVI and retained them after the peace treaty of 1796. News of the events of 1789 and copies of the publications of the French Revolution spread around Spain despite efforts to keep them at bay.
Many enlightened criollos came into contact with liberal authors and their works during their university studies, either in Europe or at the University of Chuquisaca. Books from the United States found their way into the Spanish colonies through Caracas, owing to the proximity of Venezuela to the United States and the West Indies; the Industrial Revolution started in Britain, with the use of plateways and steam power. This led to dramatic increases in the productive capabilities of Britain, created a need for new markets to sell its products; the Napoleonic Wars with France made this a difficult task, after Napoleon imposed the Continental System, which forbade his allies and conquests to trade with Britain. Thus Britain needed to be able to trade with the Spanish colonies, but could not do so because the colonies were restricted to trade only with their parent state. To achieve their economic objectives, Britain tried to invade Rio de la Plata and conquer key cities in Spanish America; when that failed, they chose to promote the Spanish-American aspirations of emancipation from Spain.
The mutiny of Aranjuez in 1808 led King Charles IV of Spain to abdicate in favor of his son, Ferdinand VII. Charles IV requested.