First Contact? is a juvenile science fiction novel, the thirteenth in Hugh Walters' Chris Godfrey of U. N. E. X. A. Series, it was published in the UK by Faber in 1971, in the US by T. Nelson Books in 1973. Radio signals begin flooding Earth from the vicinity of Uranus and two ships, each with a crew of four are sent to investigate; the signals are traced to an alien spaceship on one of the moons of Uranus. The ships land and all but two enter the alien vessel to converse with the friendly humanoid alien, Vari. One of the two remaining crewmen determines to destroy it. First Contact? Page including a review by Theodore Sturgeon
Star Trek: First Contact
Star Trek: First Contact is a 1996 American science fiction film directed by Jonathan Frakes, based on the franchise of the same name created by Gene Roddenberry. It is the eighth film in the Star Trek film series, as well as the second to star the cast of the series Star Trek: The Next Generation. In the film, the crew of the USS Enterprise-E travel back in time from the 24th century to the mid 21st-century in order to stop the cybernetic Borg from conquering Earth by changing their past. After the release of the seventh film, Star Trek Generations, Paramount Pictures tasked writers Brannon Braga and Ronald D. Moore with developing the next film in the series. Braga and Moore wanted to feature the Borg in the plot, while producer Rick Berman wanted a story involving time travel; the writers combined the two ideas. After two better-known directors turned down the job, cast member Jonathan Frakes was chosen to direct to make sure the task fell to someone who understood Star Trek; the film's script required the creation of new starship designs, including a new USS Enterprise.
Production designer Herman Zimmerman and illustrator John Eaves collaborated to make a sleeker ship than its predecessor. Principal photography began with weeks of location shooting in Arizona and California, before production moved to new sets for the ship-based scenes; the Borg were redesigned to appear as though they were converted into machine beings from the inside-out. Effects company Industrial Light & Magic rushed to complete the film's special effects in less than five months. Traditional optical effects techniques were supplemented with computer-generated imagery. Jerry Goldsmith and his son Joel Goldsmith collaborated to produce the film's score. First Contact was the highest-grossing film on its opening weekend, it made $92 million in the United States and Canada with an additional $54 million in other territories, combining a worldwide total of $146 million. Critical reception was positive; the Borg and the special effects were lauded. Scholarly analysis of the film has focused on Captain Jean-Luc Picard's parallels to Herman Melville's Ahab and the nature of the Borg.
First Contact won three Saturn Awards. It is the 24th century. Captain Jean Luc Picard awakens from a nightmare in which he relived his assimilation by the cybernetic Borg six years earlier, he is contacted by Admiral Hayes. Picard's orders are for his ship, USS Enterprise, to patrol the Neutral Zone in case of Romulan aggression. Learning the fleet is losing the battle, the Enterprise crew disobeys orders and heads for Earth, where a single Borg Cube ship holds its own against a group of Starfleet vessels. Enterprise arrives in time to assist its captain, the Klingon Worf. Picard takes control of the fleet and directs the surviving ships to concentrate their firepower on a unimportant point on the Borg ship; the Cube is destroyed after launching a smaller sphere ship towards the planet. Enterprise pursues the sphere into a temporal vortex; as the sphere disappears, Enterprise discovers Earth has been altered – it is now populated by Borg. Realizing the Borg have used time travel to change the past, Enterprise follows the sphere through the vortex.
Enterprise arrives hundreds of years in its past on April 4, 2063, the day before humanity's first encounter with alien life after Zefram Cochrane's historic warp drive flight. After destroying the Borg sphere, an away team transports down to Cochrane's ship, Phoenix, in Montana. Picard has Cochrane's assistant; the captain returns to the ship and leaves Commander William T. Riker on Earth to make sure Phoenix's flight proceeds as planned. While in the future Cochrane is seen as a hero, the real man is reluctant to assume the role the Enterprise crew describe. A group of Borg invade Enterprise's lower decks and begin to assimilate its crew and modify the ship. Picard and a team attempt to reach engineering to disable the Borg with a corrosive gas, but are forced back. A frightened Sloane corners Picard with a weapon; the two escape the Borg-infested area of the ship by creating a diversion in the holodeck. Picard and the ship's navigator, Lieutenant Hawk, travel outside the ship in space suits to stop the Borg from calling reinforcements by using the deflector dish.
As the Borg continue to assimilate more decks, Worf suggests destroying the ship, but Picard angrily calls him a coward. Sloane makes him realize he is acting irrationally. Picard orders an activation of the ship's self-destruct orders the crew to head for the escape pods while he stays behind to rescue Data; as Cochrane and engineer Geordi La Forge prepare to activate the warp drive on Phoenix, Picard discovers that the Borg Queen has grafted human skin onto Data, giving him the sensation of touch he has long desired to obtain the
First Contact (album)
First Contact is the debut studio album by American house producer Roger Sanchez, released in July 2001 by Defected Records. After establishing himself as a popular DJ and remixer throughout the 1990s, Sanchez decided he wanted to create more of his own music and record a studio album, feeling he had "a bit of a story to tell with." Conceiving the album to be a personal "reflection of his life", Sanchez recorded First Contact over a four-year period. Music critics have described the record as a disco house album which displays a disparate array of influences and styles, including garage and electro. Numerous guest vocalists, including Cooly's Hot Box, N'Dea Davenport and Sharleen Spiteri, contribute vocals to the record. Midway through the album's production, Sanchez released "I Never Knew" as its first single, a moderate hit. Upon the record's completion, he released the second single "Another Chance", which became a number 1 hit in the United Kingdom and a Pan-European club success. "You Can't Change Me" and "Nothin' 2 Prove" were released as singles.
First Contact was a moderate commercial success in the UK, reaching number 34. The album received general acclaim from most music critics, who felt that it merged different influences successfully. Throughout the 1990s, disc jockey Roger Sanchez had been brought to a worldwide audience via his career as a remixer, but according to Dave Simpson of The Guardian, " wasn't satisfied. Like many DJs, he wanted to be an artist, and he wanted to be the best. If remixing had taught him one thing, it was how to make records." Sanchez conceived the idea of making an album when he found himself producing enough of his own material. He said of making First Contact: "I think for me what happened was that rather than saying'Oh, I want to do an album', it got to the point that after years of just doing one off singles and remixes, I started producing a couple of my own tracks and I just felt I had a bit of a story to tell with my life." Although Sanchez had released several DJ mix albums and compilation albums in the 1990s and 2000s, including his then-recent Ministry of Sound mix Sessions Eleven: The R-Senal Sessions, First Contact was the DJ's first studio album.
With First Contact, Sanchez said he wanted to create a "very personal" album that gave listeners "a little bit of background about where I'm from and where my mind is at, plus some of my own experiences so people could relate to it and vibe with it." When Sanchez was asked by the NME why he had not made albums before, he replied: "I don't think the world was waiting for a Roger Sanchez album." He started work on the album in 1997, despite having not written any songs since those he released as underground singles in his earlier days as a DJ. Upon its completion in 2001, the album had drastically changed from its previous form a year and a half earlier: "I just thinned it out, focused it and concentrated it more. I'm happy with the outcome." The DJ felt the final album "reflects and expands on the sounds that have shaped his life."Sanchez constructed the album's tracks "like a house." He explained: "the track is a construction. The skeleton frames, the beams are the bassline, you build it up around that.
I start with the drums, although I've started to subvert that, to challenge myself more, start with, say, a melody. I treat every track as a problem that I have to solve." Production of the song "Another Chance" was an issue as Sanchez felt it needed vocals, so he sampled the 1982 song "I Won't Hold You Back" by rock band Toto after he found the Toto IV album lying in the studio. Despite never taking'blatant' samples, he made an exception for the Toto track as "lyrically it just made the track and hit something I'd gone through." Tom Ewing of Freaky Trigger described the production of "Another Chance" as Sanchez "hearing something in the winsome intro of an old Toto hit, cutting it loose, letting this tiny scrap of song spin through seven minutes of house music." Upon completion, First Contact was mastered by John Davies at London. First Contact, described by Sanchez as "a reflection of my life", is a lush and soulful house and disco house album, mixing smooth garage styles into a harder sound influenced by "fresh new beats" emerging from the United Kingdom and Europe.
The album explores different styles and influences, including garage and Latin music. Finding the album to be "conceptual in spirit" in a similar fashion to Erick Morillo's Subliminal Sessions and Romanthony's R. Hide in Plain Site, Christian Ward of the NME described the album as a celebration of "the filter-disco 4/4 funk that stretches back though Static Revenger, Braxe’n’Bangalter and Paul Johnson, to DJ Sneak." However, the album does divert from the "4/4 furrow", notably on "Computabank" and "The Partee". Numerous guest vocalists provide warm vocals to Sanchez's music throughout the album. A brief skit opens the album, in which Sanchez is heard logging on to his computer, which invites him "to select a track"; this is followed by "Computabank", influenced by 1980s electronica acts like Depeche Mode and Kraftwerk, incorporating styles of electro and industrial music. Julie C of Resident Advisor said the song gives listeners a taste of the style of electronica music "now filtering through their air waves", adopted by Daft Punk.
The emotional second track "Another Chance" features two hooks, namely the repeating vocal, sampled from Toto's "I Won't Hold You Back", the double drum-hit "that kicks the track up a notch each time it comes." Ewing said of the song: "'Another Chance' has an elliptical relationship with ‘song’, considers it an ingredient at best. There’s no progress here, just
First contact (science fiction)
First contact is a common science fiction theme about the first meeting between humans and extraterrestrial life, or of any sentient race's first encounter with another one, given they are from different planets or natural satellites. The theme allows authors to explore such topics such as xenophobia, transcendentalism, basic linguistics by adapting the anthropological topic of first contact to extraterrestrial cultures. Murray Leinster's 1945 novelette "First Contact" established the term "first contact" in science fiction, although the theme had appeared in e.g. H. G. Wells's The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds and The First Men in the Moon. Of many variations of the trope, one may recognize the subclasses of the actual interstellar meeting of two civilizations and the "message from space" one. 1930s: 1938: The War of the Worlds1940s: 1940s: In Fredric Brown's Puppet Show, an obvious and self-proclaimed alien negotiating with humans is something else entirely.1950s: 1950s: A classic series of stories using this theme is the "interstellar trader" series by Andre Norton.1960's: 1960s: A for Andromeda 1960s: The god-like Firstborn from Arthur C. Clarke's Time Odyssey series.
1960s: The Star Trek television franchise explored the theme in depth and introduced the concept of the Federation's Prime Directive - a law forbidding first contact with any races not sufficiently advanced for such an encounter. The movie Star Trek: First Contact depicts humanity's first contact with an alien culture, the Vulcan race, in Bozeman, Montana on 5 April 2063 after their attention is attracted by scientist Zefram Cochrane performing humanity's first warp flight. A Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "First Contact" explored the scenario from the opposite viewpoint when a Human, William Riker, is injured on an alien world while disguised as an inhabitant of the planet's civilization. 1961: Solaris A major theme of a number of works of Stanislaw Lem, most famous being Solaris, is the inherent impossibility of meaningful communication with alien races. 1968: His Master's Voice 1970s: 1972: The novel The Gods Themselves by Isaac Asimov explores the potential unity of all races, the possibility of conflict inherent in all first contacts: as members of different races understand each other, their disparate ways may endanger both their worlds the fabric of their respective universes.
This gap between individuals and their respective societies is characteristic of the First Contact plot of E. T. Other explorations of the theme in popular culture include encounters with predatory or semi-sentient races as in Alien and Independence Day. 1974: Larry Niven and Jerry Pournelle's The Mote in God's Eye was written to be, in Niven's words, "the epitome of first contact novels". Here it is humanity that plays the role of visiting aliens, as the religious, political, military and biological implications of first contact are explored. 1978: Life on Another Planet 1977: Close Encounters of the Third Kind The theme of first contact, ranging from friendly collaboration to menace or conflict, has been visualized a number of films and television series. Among the more famous are Steven Spielberg's film Close Encounters of the Third Kind and the television series V. 1979: Alien 1980's: More modern treatments, using radio rather than spaceships, include The Hercules Text by Jack McDevitt, by Fred Hoyle, Life on Another Planet by Will Eisner, Contact by Carl Sagan.
1980s: By contrast, in the works of Iain M. Banks, the Contact division of the galactic civilization calling itself the Culture manipulates less advanced civilizations, steering them towards peaceful progress those that may become aggressive or dangerous, under the pretext of maintaining the balance of galactic power. Novels such as The Player of Games and Look to Windward delve into the psychology of first inter-species contact in considerable depth. In the novel Excession, Banks coins the phrase Outside Context Problem in relation to first contact. 1980s: Gary Larson used a humorous version of the theme in his The Far Side comics, such as showing an alien falling down the steps of a flying saucer, thereby ruining a dramatic entrance. 1982: E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial 1982: Nor Crystal Tears Also written from the alien's point of view is the novel Nor Crystal Tears by Alan Dean Foster. 1983: V 1985: Contact by Carl Sagan. 1985: Schismatrix 1986: The Hercules Text by Jack McDevitt. 1987: Fiasco 1987: The Forge of God1990s: 1990's: Examples of the mutual inscrutability and the unbridgeable gaps between races which—by their natures—are just too different to bond or to accept each other, include Stephen Baxter's Xeelee Sequence concept of the dark matter photino birds, the god-like Firstborn from Arthur C. Clarke's Time Odyssey series, Stanisław Lem's planet Solaris and the events of the novel Fiasco.
In other cases, such as Greg Bear's The Forge of God and Anvil of Stars, or Bruce Sterling's Schismatrix, aliens are presented as falling into a diverse spectrum, some relating with humans, others too alien for meaningful communication. 1993: Anvil of Stars 1996: Independence Day 2000s: 2007: Halo: Contact Harvest In the novel Halo: Contact Harvest, humanity's firs
Potential cultural impact of extraterrestrial contact
The cultural impact of extraterrestrial contact is the corpus of changes to terrestrial science, religion and ecosystems resulting from contact with an extraterrestrial civilization. This concept is related to the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, which attempts to locate intelligent life as opposed to analyzing the implications of contact with that life; the potential changes from extraterrestrial contact could vary in magnitude and type, based on the extraterrestrial civilization's level of technological advancement, degree of benevolence or malevolence, level of mutual comprehension between itself and humanity. The medium through which humanity is contacted, be it electromagnetic radiation, direct physical interaction, extraterrestrial artefact, or otherwise, may influence the results of contact. Incorporating these factors, various systems have been created to assess the implications of extraterrestrial contact; the implications of extraterrestrial contact with a technologically superior civilization, have been likened to the meeting of two vastly different human cultures on Earth, a historical precedent being the Columbian Exchange.
Such meetings have led to the destruction of the civilization receiving contact, therefore destruction of human civilization is a possible outcome. Extraterrestrial contact is analogous to the numerous encounters between non-human native and invasive species occupying the same ecological niche. However, the absence of verified public contact to date means tragic consequences are still speculative. To detect extraterrestrial civilizations with radio telescopes, one must identify an artificial, coherent signal against a background of various natural phenomena that produce radio waves. Telescopes capable of this include the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, the Allen Telescope Array in Hat Creek and the new Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical Telescope in China. Various programs to detect extraterrestrial intelligence have had government funding in the past. Project Cyclops was commissioned by NASA in the 1970s to investigate the most effective way to search for signals from intelligent extraterrestrial sources, but the report's recommendations were set aside in favor of the much more modest approach of Messaging to Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence, the sending of messages that intelligent extraterrestrial beings might intercept.
NASA drastically reduced funding for SETI programs, which have since turned to private donations to continue their search. With the discovery in the late 20th and early 21st centuries of numerous extrasolar planets, some of which may be habitable, governments have once more become interested in funding new programs. In 2006 the European Space Agency launched COROT, the first spacecraft dedicated to the search for exoplanets, in 2009 NASA launched the Kepler space observatory for the same purpose. By February 2013 Kepler had detected 105 of the 4,023 confirmed exoplanets, one of them, Kepler-22b, is habitable. After it was discovered, the SETI Institute resumed the search for an intelligent extraterrestrial civilization, focusing on Kepler's candidate planets, with funding from the United States Air Force. Newly discovered planets ones that are habitable, have enabled SETI and METI programs to refocus projects for communication with extraterrestrial intelligence. In 2009 A Message From Earth was sent toward the Gliese 581 planetary system, which contains two habitable planets, the confirmed Gliese 581d and the more habitable but unconfirmed Gliese 581g.
In the SETILive project, which began in 2012, human volunteers analyze data from the Allen Telescope Array to search for possible alien signals that computers might miss because of terrestrial radio interference. The data for the study is obtained by observing Kepler target stars with the radio telescope. In addition to radio-based methods, some projects, such as SEVENDIP at the University of California, are using other regions of the electromagnetic spectrum to search for extraterrestrial signals. Various other projects are not searching for coherent signals, but want to rather use electromagnetic radiation to find other evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence, such as megascale astroengineering projects. Several signals, such as the Wow! signal, have been detected in the history of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, but none have yet been confirmed as being of intelligent origin. The implications of extraterrestrial contact depend on the method of discovery, the nature of the extraterrestrial beings, their location relative to the Earth.
Considering these factors, the Rio Scale has been devised in order to provide a more quantitative picture of the results of extraterrestrial contact. More the scale gauges whether communication was conducted through radio, the information content of any messages, whether discovery arose from a deliberately beamed message or by the detection of occurrences such as radiation leakage from astroengineering installations; the question of whether or not a purported extraterrestrial signal has been confirmed as authentic, with what degree of confidence, will influence the impact of the contact. The Rio Scale was modified in 2011 to include a consideration of whether contact was achieved through an interstellar message or through a physical extraterrestrial artifact, with a suggestion that the definition of artifact be expanded to inc
In astronomy, a transit is a phenomenon when a celestial body passes directly between a larger body and the observer. As viewed from a particular vantage point, the transiting body appears to move across the face of the larger body, covering a small portion of it; the word "transit" refers to cases where the nearer object appears smaller than the more distant object. Cases where the nearer object appears larger and hides the more distant object are known as occultations. However, the probability of a seeing a transiting planet is low because it is dependent on the alignment of the three objects in a nearly straight line. Many parameters can be determined by about a planet and its host star based on the transit One example of a transit involves the motion of a planet between a terrestrial observer and the Sun; this can happen only with inferior planets, namely Venus. However, because a transit is dependent on the point of observation, the Earth itself transits the Sun if observed from Mars. In the solar transit of the Moon captured during calibration of the STEREO B spacecraft's ultraviolet imaging, the Moon appears much smaller than it does when seen from Earth, because the spacecraft–Moon separation was several times greater than the Earth–Moon distance.
The term can be used to describe the motion of a satellite across its parent planet, for instance one of the Galilean satellites across Jupiter, as seen from Earth. Although rare, cases where four bodies are lined up do happen. One of these events occurred on 27 June 1586, when Mercury transited the Sun as seen from Venus at the same time as a transit of Mercury from Saturn and a transit of Venus from Saturn. No missions were planned to coincide with the transit of Earth visible from Mars on 11 May 1984 and the Viking missions had been terminated a year previously; the next opportunity to observe such an alignment will be in 2084. On December 21, 2012, the Cassini–Huygens probe, in orbit around Saturn, observed the planet Venus transiting the Sun. On 3 June 2014, the Mars rover Curiosity observed the planet Mercury transiting the Sun, marking the first time a planetary transit has been observed from a celestial body besides Earth. In rare cases, one planet can pass in front of another. If the nearer planet appears smaller than the more distant one, the event is called a mutual planetary transit.
Exoplanet Detection The transit method can be used to discover exoplanets. As a planet eclipses/transits its host star it will block a portion of the light from the star. If the planet transits in-between the star and the observer the change in light can be measured to construct a light curve. Light curves are measured with a charged-coupled device; the light curve of a star can disclose several physical characteristics of the planet and star, such as, density. Multiple transit events must be measure to determine the characteristics which tend to occur at regular intervals if the others only one planet. Multiple planets orbiting the same host star can cause Transit Time Variations. TTV is cause by the gravitational forces of all orbiting bodies acting upon each other; the probability of seeing a transit from Earth is low, however. The probability is given by the following equation. P t r a n s i t = / a Where Rplanet is the radius of the star and planet, respectfully; the semi major axis length represented by a.
Because of low probability large selections of the sky must be observed in order to see a transit. Hot Jupiters are more to be seen because of their larger radius and short semi major. In order to find earth size planets red dwarf stars are observed because of their small radius. Though transiting has a low probability it has proven itself to be a good technique in discovering exoplanets. In recent years, the discovery of extrasolar planets has excited interest in the possibility of detecting their transits across their own stellar primaries. HD 209458b was the first such transiting planet; the transit of celestial objects is one of the few key phenomena used today for the study of exoplanetary systems. Today, transit photometry is the leading form of exoplanet discovery; as exoplanets move in front of its host stars there is a dimming in the luminosity of its host star that can be measured. Larger planets make the dip in easier to detect. Followup observations are done to ensure it is a planet through other methods of detecting exoplanets.
There are 2345 planets confirmed with Kepler light curves for stellar host. During a transit there are four "contacts", when the circumference of the small circle touches the circumference of the large circle at a single point. Measuring the precise time of each point of contact was one of the most accurate ways to determine the positions of astronomical bodies; the contacts happen in the following order: First contact: the smaller body is outside the larger body, moving inward Second contact: the smaller body is inside the larger body, moving further inward Third contact: the smaller body is inside the larger body, moving outward Fourth contact: the smaller body is outside the larger body, moving outward A fifth named point is that of greatest transit, when the apparent ce
First Contact (novelette)
"First Contact" is a 1945 science fiction novelette by American writer Murray Leinster, credited as one of the first instances of a universal translator in science fiction. It won a retro Hugo Award for Best Novelette in 1996. Two technologically equal species are making first contact in deep space. Both desire the technology and trade the other can provide, but neither can risk the fate of the home planet based on unfounded trust, it was among the stories selected in 1970 by the Science Fiction Writers of America as one of the best science fiction short stories published before the creation of the Nebula Awards. As such, it was published in The Science Fiction Hall of Fame Volume One, 1929-1964. Space travel is routine between planets in the Solar System. Ships function much like naval warships or research vessels. There are technologies such as "overdrive" which allows a ship to travel much faster than light in normal space, artificial gravity within a ship. Atomic power is used everywhere in a space suit propulsion unit.
Ships are equipped with "blasters", not for use as weapons, but for destroying space debris which would otherwise collide with the ship. The exploration ship Llanvabon is approaching the Crab Nebula when it detects another ship on its radar; the two ships' radars are, in fact, interfering with each other, so each sees a wildly distorted image of the other ship. After the problem is resolved and the two crews, one human, one alien, establish communication, both realize they have a problem. Neither can leave without ensuring; the aliens see in the infrared portion of the spectrum. Instead of using sound to communicate among themselves they use microwaves emitted from an organ in their heads; as one human points out, "From our point of view, they have telepathy. Of course from their point of view, so do we." The crews discover. This is true of young Tommy Dort and his counterpart on the other ship, to whom he has assigned the name Buck. Although they are only able to communicate through an artificial code, they are able to establish a rapport.
However, Buck is pessimistic about the eventual outcome. He sends Tommy a message, "You are a good guy. Too bad we must kill each other." The deadlock persists. Neither ship dares to leave for fear. Neither captain is ready to gamble by attacking the other ship. Tommy realizes the way out of the impasse, he and his Captain arrange an exchange of personnel between the ships. Tommy and the Captain go aboard the alien ship as two aliens board the Llanvabon, they present an ultimatum: they will detonate the atomic power packs in their suits if the aliens refuse to go along with their plan, for each crew to take the other's ship back to their home planet. Each will disable all the tracking equipment on their own ship before the exchange, indeed they will have to be thorough to prevent the new crew from tracking them. At this point the aliens begin behaving strangely, twitching or lying down and kicking the floor. In fact this is their equivalent of laughter, their own people have just given the humans the same ultimatum, the same plan.
The story ends with each crew taking over the other's ship. Before leaving their own ship they are able to remove everything which might point back to their home world; each stands to benefit from the new technology on the other's ship. Each keeps the other race's fiction library to gain insight into their thinking, they agree to repeat the encounter at the same location some time in the future. Tommy is confident, he believes this because, as he tells the Captain, he and Buck spent a good deal of time swapping dirty jokes. This story was performed as a radio play on Dimension X on September 8, 1951 and on X Minus One on October 6, 1955, condensed somewhat and with a different ending; the story was performed on Exploring Tomorrow on January 15, 1958. In 2000, Leinster's heirs sued Paramount Pictures over the film Star Trek: First Contact, claiming that as the owners of the rights to Leinster's short story "First Contact", it infringed their trademark in the term; the U. S. District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia granted Paramount's motion for summary judgment and dismissed the suit.
The court found that regardless of whether Leinster's story first coined the phrase, it had since become a generic and therefore unprotectable term that described the genre of science fiction in which humans first encounter alien species. If the title was instead "descriptive"—a category of terms higher than "generic" that may be protectable—there was no evidence that the title had the required association in the public's mind such that its use would be understood as referring to Leinster's story; the Second Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the lower court's dismissal without comment. First Contact title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database