London Borough of Tower Hamlets
Tower Hamlets is located in East London and covers much of the traditional East End. The Borough was formed in 1965 from the merger of the former Metropolitan Boroughs of Stepney and Bethnal Green; the new authority's unusual name comes from an alternative title for the Tower Division. The borough lies adjacent to the east side of the City of London and on the north bank of the River Thames, it includes much of the redeveloped Docklands region of London, including West India Docks and Canary Wharf. Many of the tallest buildings in London occupy the centre of the Isle of Dogs in the south of the borough. A part of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park is in Tower Hamlets; the borough has a population of 272,890, which includes one of the highest Muslim populations in the country and has an established British Bangladeshi business and residential community. Tower Hamlets has the highest proportion of Muslims in England outnumbering Christians, has more than forty mosques and Islamic centres, including the East London Mosque, Britain's biggest mosque.
Brick Lane's restaurants, neighbouring street market and shops provide the largest range of Bengali cuisine, woodwork and clothes in Europe. A 2017 study by Trust for London and the New Policy Institute found that Tower Hamlets has the highest rate of poverty, child poverty and pay inequality of any London borough, it found that it has the lowest GCSE attainment gap though, meaning that the gap in performance between disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged pupils is lower than in any other London Borough. The local authority is Tower Hamlets London Borough Council; as of January 2019, the councillors are: 2 Conservative and 1 Liberal Democrat. Tower Hamlets is located east of north of the River Thames in East London; the London Borough of Hackney lies to the north of the borough while the River Lea forms the boundary with the London Borough of Newham in the east. On the other side of the Thames is The London Borough of Southwark to the southwest, The London Borough of Lewisham to the South, The Royal Borough of Greenwich to the southeast.
The River Lea forms the boundary between those parts of London in Middlesex, with those in Essex. The Isle of Dogs is formed from the lock entrances to the former West India Docks and the largest current meander of the River Thames and the southern part of the borough forms a part of the historic flood plain of the River Thames; the Regent's Canal enters the borough from Hackney to meet the River Thames at Limehouse Basin. A stretch of the Hertford Union Canal leads from the Regent's canal, at a basin in the north of Mile End to join the River Lea at Old Ford. A further canal, Limehouse Cut, London's oldest, leads from locks at Bromley-by-Bow to Limehouse Basin. Most of the canal tow-paths are open to both cyclists. Victoria Park was formed by Act of Parliament, administered by the LCC and its successor authority the GLC. Since the latter authority's abolition, the park has been administered by Tower Hamlets. Part of the borough is within the boundary of the Thames Gateway development area. Districts included in the borough: The earliest apparent use of the name "Tower Hamlets" was in the sixteenth century, when the Constable of the Tower of London commanded the Tower Hamlet Militia as the Lord Lieutenant of Tower Hamlets.
The Hamlets of the Tower paid taxes for the militia in 1646. The London Borough of Tower Hamlets forms the core of the East End, it lies east of north of the River Thames. Use of the term "East End" in a pejorative sense began in the late 19th century, as the expansion of the population of London led to extreme overcrowding throughout the area and a concentration of poor people and immigrants in the districts that made it up; these problems were exacerbated with the construction of St Katharine Docks and the central London railway termini that caused the clearance of former slums and rookeries, with many of the displaced people moving into the area. Over the course of a century, the East End became synonymous with poverty, overcrowding and criminality; the East End developed during the 19th century. It was an area characterised by villages clustered around the City walls or along the main roads, surrounded by farmland, with marshes and small communities by the River, serving the needs of shipping and the Royal Navy.
Until the arrival of formal docks, shipping was required to land goods in the Pool of London, but industries related to construction and victualling of ships flourished in the area from Tudor times. The area attracted large numbers of rural people looking for employment. Successive waves of foreign immigration began with Huguenot refugees creating a new extramural suburb in Spitalfields in the 17th century, they were followed by Ashkenazi Jews and, in the 20th century, Bangladeshis. Many of these immigrants worked in the clothing industry; the abundance of semi- and unskilled labour led to low wages and poor conditions throughout the East End. This brought the attentions of social reformers during the mid-18th century and led to the formation of unions and workers associations at the end of the century; the radicalism of the East End contributed to the formation of the Labour Party and demands for the enfranchisement of women. Official attempts to address the overcrowded housing began at the beginning of the 20th century under the London County Council.
World War II devastated much of the East End, with its docks, ra
Stepney is a district in East London in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets that grew out of a medieval village around St Dunstan's church and the 15th-century ribbon development of Mile End Road called Stepney Green. The area built up in the 19th century to accommodate immigrant workers and displaced London poor, developed a reputation for poverty, overcrowding and political dissent, it was damaged during the Blitz, with over a third of housing destroyed. Some Georgian architecture and Victorian era terraced housing survive in patches: for example Arbour Square, the eastern side of Stepney Green, the streets around Matlock Street; as with most of the East End of London, Stepney was sparsely populated marshland until the 19th century, when the development of London's docks and railways, combined with slum clearance, pushed the displaced poor and various immigrants looking for work into cheap housing being built in the area. The first community developed around the church of St Dunstan's, founded in 923.
Its name was recorded around 1000 AD as Stybbanhyð, "Stybba's landing-place". The Domesday Book survey of 1086 gives the name as Stibanhede and says that the land was held by the Bishop of London and was 32 hides large used for ploughing, woodland for 500 pigs, 4 mills. There were over 100 serfs, split between villeins who ploughed the land, cottars who assisted the villeins in return for a hut or cottage. Bishop William held this land in demesne, in the manor of Stepney, on the day on which King Edward was alive and dead. In the same vill Ranulph Flambard holds 3½ hides of the bishop; the Manor of Stepney was held by the Bishop of London in compensation for his duties in maintaining and garrisoning the Tower of London. Further ecclesiastic holdings came about from the need to enclose the marshes and create flood defences along the Thames. Edward VI passed the land to the Wentworth family, thence to their descendants, the Earls of Cleveland; the ecclesiastic system of copyhold, whereby land was leased to tenants for terms as short as seven years, prevailed throughout the manor.
This limited scope for improvement of the land and new building until the estate was broken up in the 19th century. In the early 20th century, Stepney was one of the most Jewish neighbourhoods in England; the Siege of Sidney Street took place in Stepney in 1911. As with the whole of Greater London, the Lord-Lieutenant Ken Olisa is the Her Majesty's representative for Stepney but has no political role or hold an office in any political party and is purely an honorary titular position. Stepney is in the constituency of Bethnal Green and Bow, represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2010 by Rushanara Ali of the Labour Party. London overall has a directly elected executive Mayor of London Sadiq Khan and the City and East seat in the London Assembly is held by Labour Party Unmesh Desai. Tower Hamlets London Borough Council is the local authority and has a directly elected executive mayor, the Mayor of Tower Hamlets John Biggs, Stepney has local councillors from three wards, St Dunstan's, Bethnal Green and Stepney Green.
Stepney formed a large ancient parish in the Ossulstone hundred of Middlesex. The parish included the hamlets of Mile End Old Town, Mile End New Town, Ratcliff. At its early extent it additionally included Whitechapel, Stratford Bow, Spitalfields, Bethnal Green and Poplar. Over time the parish was broken up with these settlements forming new independent parishes, leaving a residual parish of 830 acres comprising Mile End Old Town, Mile End New Town and Ratcliff; the Metropolitan Borough of Stepney was formed in 1900 dissolved in 1965 when it was absorbed into the newly created London Borough of Tower Hamlets which administers the area. Stepney is located 3.6 miles east north-east of Charing Cross. It is bounded by Shadwell between the London and Southend Railway between Limehouse station and the immediate area around the north-side of Shadwell DLR station, it reaches the north bank of the River Thames in a part of Stepney known as Free Trade Wharf; the various side streets that make up the boundary between the E1/14 postcode is considered to be the division with Limehouse in the south, part of the Great Eastern Main Line with Bethnal Green and the southern leg of Bancroft Road forms an borderline with Mile End due to both a hospital of the same name and Queen Mary University.
The western boundary with Whitechapel is Sidney Street. The Stepney Community Trust, a community led charity with a long history of local action, was set up in 1982 as the St Mary's Centre to respond to the severe levels of housing and social deprivation existing in the area; the name was changed to Stepney Community Trust. Stepney City Farm provides a number of community services, such as guided tours and other activities; the Stepney Historical Trust was set up in 1989 to advance the public's education in the history of Stepney and the surrounding areas. It is based in the London Dockers Athletic and Social Club and has installed a series of plaques on sites of historic interest. Jewish Care was created in 1990, through the merger of two previous charities to ensure they can care for the community needs in the most cost-effective way in order to maintain their vision of high quality care in Stepney and is
London Borough of Hackney
The London Borough of Hackney is a London Borough in Inner London, United Kingdom. The historical and administrative heart of Hackney is Mare Street, which lies 5 miles north-east of Charing Cross; the borough is named after its principal district. Southern and eastern parts of the borough are popularly regarded as being part of east London, with the north-west belonging to north London; the London Plan issued by the Greater London Authority assigns whole boroughs to sub-regions for statutory monitoring and resource allocation purposes. The most recent iteration of this plan assigns Hackney to the ‘East’ sub-region, while the 2008 and 2004 versions assigned the borough to ‘North’ and ‘East’ sub-regions respectively; the modern borough was formed 1965 by the merger of the Metropolitan Borough of Hackney with the much smaller Metropolitan Boroughs of Stoke Newington and Shoreditch. Hackney is bounded by Islington to the west, Haringey to the north, Waltham Forest to the north-east, Newham to the east, Tower Hamlets to the south-east and the City of London to the south-west.
Hackney was one of the host boroughs of the London Olympics in 2012, with several of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park venues falling within its boundaries. In the 13th century the name appears as Hackenaye or Hacquenye, but no certain derivation is advanced; the Concise Oxford Dictionary of Place Names discusses the origin of the name. The first surviving records of the place name are as Hakeneye; the ‘ey’ suffix certainly refers to an island. This was once a much wilder place than today; the Dictionary suggests that the ‘Hack’ element may derive from: The Old English ‘Haecc’ meaning a hatch – an entrance to a woodland or common. Or alternatively from ‘Haca’ meaning a hook, in this context, a bend of the river. Given the island context, the ‘hatch’ option is unlikely to be correct, so the favoured'Haka's Island' or the'Island on the bend' seem more likely; the place name will have referred to just the island or both the island and the manor of the same name based around it. Subsequently, the name Hackney was applied to the whole ancient parish of Hackney.
In the Iron Age and until after the Roman period, the River Lea was considered to separate the territories of the Catuvellauni to the west of the river from the Trinovantes to the east. The Romans built the Roman road, Ermine Street, which runs through the modern borough under the names Shoreditch High Street and Kingsland Road amongst others. In the Anglo-Saxon period, the River Lea separated the core territories of the East Saxons from the Middle Saxons they controlled; this continuity of this natural boundary from pre-Roman period may be a result of the differing Saxon groups taking control of pre-defined territories. After both areas were brought under the control of Alfred the Great, the river became the boundary between the historic counties of Middlesex and Essex. In the Tudor period, the lands of religious orders were put up for sale, thus Hackney became a retreat for the nobility around Hackney Homerton. Henry VIII's Palace was by Lea Bridge roundabout today. Sutton House, on Homerton High Street, is the oldest surviving dwelling in Hackney built in 1535 as Bryck Place for Sir Ralph Sadleir, a diplomat.
The village of Hackney flourished from the Tudor to late Georgian periods as a rural retreat. The first documented "hackney coach"—the forerunner of the more generic "hackney carriage"—operated in London in 1621. Current opinion is that the name "hackney," to refer to a London taxi, is derived from the village name. Construction of the railway in the 1850s ended Hackney's rural reputation by connecting it to other parts of the city and stimulating development. London's first Tudor theatres were built at Shoreditch; the Gunpowder Plot was first exposed nearby in Hoxton. In 1727 Daniel Defoe said of the villages of Hackney All these, except the Wyck-house, are within a few years so encreas'd in buildings, so inhabited, that there is no comparison to be made between their present and past state: Every separate hamlet is encreas'd, some of them more than treble as big as formerly; this town is so remarkable for the retreat of wealthy citizens, that there is at this time near a hundred coaches kept in it.
The parish church of St John-at-Hackney was built in 1789, replacing the nearby former 16th-century parish church dedicated to St Augustine. Notable residents from the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries included Robert Aske, William Cecil, Samuel Courtauld, Samuel Hoare, Joseph Priestley and Thomas Sutton. Many grand houses stood in Stamford Hill. Alfred Hitchcock made many of his first films in Hoxton at the Gainsborough Studios in Poole Stre
Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park
Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, in London, United Kingdom, is a sporting complex spanning Stratford, Bow and Leyton. It was built for the 2012 Summer Olympics and the Paralympics, situated to the east of the city adjacent to the Stratford City development, it contains the athletes' Olympic Village and several of the sporting venues including the London Stadium and London Aquatics Centre, besides the London Olympics Media Centre. The park is overlooked by the ArcelorMittal Orbit, an observation tower and Britain's largest piece of public art, it was called Olympic Park during the Games but was renamed to commemorate the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II. The park occupies an area straddling four east London boroughs. Part of the park reopened in July 2013, while a large majority of the rest reopened in April 2014; the site covers parts of Stratford, Bow and Hackney Wick in east London, overlooking the A12 road. The site was a mixture of greenfield and brownfield land, including parts of Hackney Marshes.
The Royal Mail gave the park and Stratford City the postcode E20, which had only appeared in the television soap opera EastEnders for the fictional suburb of Walford. On 2 August 2011, it was announced the five neighbourhoods of housing and amenities are: Chobham Manor in the London Borough of Newham East Wick in the London Borough of Hackney Sweetwater in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets Pudding Mill in the London Borough of Newham Marshgate Wharf in the London Borough of NewhamThese names have relevant history in the area. All four of the East London boroughs covering the park as such have a neighbourhood except for Waltham Forest; the park was designed by the EDAW Consortium, working with WS Atkins. Detailed landscape architecture was by LDA Design in conjunction with Hargreaves Associates. LDA design contracted Wallace Whittle to carry out various aspects of the M+E Building services design; the NHBC carried out the Sustainability assessments. The park was illuminated with a lighting scheme designed by Sutton Vane Associates.
London's Olympic and Paralympic bid proposed that there would be four indoor arenas in the park in addition to the main venues, but the revised master plan published in 2006 reduced this to three, with the volleyball events moved to the Earls Court Exhibition Centre. The fencing arena was cancelled, with the fencing events taking place at ExCeL London; the remaining indoor arenas are the Basketball Arena and the Copper Box, in addition to the Water Polo Arena, the Aquatics Centre, the Velopark. The final design of the park was approved by the Olympic Delivery Authority and its planning-decisions committee; the Legacy List is the independent charity for Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, set up in 2011 to support the legacy of the Games. Their mission is to make creative connections between people and the Park by developing and supporting high quality art and skill building initiatives, to engage and inspire current and future generations. During its construction over 80,000 workers were engaged on the project.
The construction of the Olympic Park was managed by CLM Delivery Partner, comprising CH2M Hill, Laing O'Rourke and Mace. CLM managed the "white" space between the venue construction zones, including managing the internal road network. To enable the major phase of construction to begin, the 52 electricity pylons, up to 65 metres high, that dominated the landscape in and around the park were removed and the power transferred through new underground tunnels constructed by Murphy, known as the PLUG project – Powerlines Undergrounding. Following site clearance, the soil across the Park site was cleaned down to a human health layer, by soil washing. London Aquatics Centre Copper Box Arena Lee Valley Hockey and Tennis Centre Lee Valley VeloPark London Stadium ArcelorMittal Orbit East Village, London London Olympics Media Centre International Quarter London Northern ParklandsIn addition, at the time of the Olympic and Paralympic games: Eton Manor Riverbank Arena Water Polo Arena Basketball Arena Park Live Rowan Moore, writing in The Guardian when the QE Park opened, commented that: "There is a frenzy of wacky light fittings, of playground installations, of seats, tree species, sculptural lumps of granite, kiosks and coloured surfaces...
It suffers from an Olympic syndrome, where everyone wants to be a Mo or a Jessica and make their mark. No one, except the admirable Oudolf, wants to do the quiet stuff. Not the student housing developers Unite, who have built an astoundingly ugly block of 1,001 units between the Athletes' Village and Westfield shopping centre that looms aggressively in every vista. Great care was taken to make the Athletes' Village aesthetically orderly, to the point where it began to resemble Ceausescu's Bucharest: this eruption makes such efforts futile." Robert Holden and Tom Turner, in a review of the Olympic Park's landscape architecture state that'Our fundamental point is that "the landscape planning is much better than the landscape design". The landscape planning includes the opening up of the River Lea in the northern section of the park, the habitat-creation strategy and the park's excellent links with its hinterland; the landscape design is dominated by vast pedestrian concourses which will be busy during events but will resemble unused airport runways on every other occasion.
There is some good garden-type planting but it has not been used to make "gardens": it is used more like strips of planti
London Fire Brigade
The London Fire Brigade is the statutory fire and rescue service for London. It was formed by the Metropolitan Fire Brigade Act of 1865, under the leadership of superintendent Eyre Massey Shaw; the LFB is the busiest of all the fire services in the United Kingdom. It is the second largest in size, after the national Scottish Fire and Rescue Service, has the largest number of wholetime firefighters, it has 5,992 staff, including 5,096 operational firefighters and officers based at 102 fire stations. The LFB is led by the Commissioner for Fire and Emergency Planning, with the post being held by Dany Cotton since January 2017; the brigade and Commissioner are overseen by the Greater London Authority, which in April 2018 took over these responsibilities from the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In the 2015-16 financial year the LFB received 171,488 emergency calls; these consisted of: 48,696 false alarms of fire and 30,066 other calls for service. As well as firefighting, the LFB responds to road traffic collisions, trapped-in-lift releases, other incidents such as those involving hazardous materials or major transport accidents.
It conducts emergency planning and performs fire safety inspections and education. It does not provide an ambulance service as this function is performed by the London Ambulance Service as an independent NHS trust, although all LFB firefighters are trained in first aid and all of its fire engines carry first aid equipment. Since 2016, the LFB has provided first aid for some life-threatening medical emergencies. Following a multitude of ad-hoc firefighting arrangements and the Great Fire of London, various insurance companies established firefighting units to tackle fires that occurred in buildings that their respective companies insured; as demands grew on the primitive firefighting units they began to coordinate and co-operate with each other until, on 1 January 1833, the London Fire Engine Establishment was formed under the leadership of James Braidwood, who had founded the first professional, municipal fire brigade in Edinburgh. He introduced a uniform that, for the first time, included personal protection from the hazards of firefighting.
With 80 firefighters and 13 fire stations, the unit was still a private enterprise, funded by the insurance companies and as such was responsible for saving material goods from fire. Several large fires, most notably at the Palace of Westminster in 1834 and the 1861 Tooley Street fire, spurred the insurance companies to lobby the British government to provide the brigade at public expense and management. After due consideration, in 1865 the Metropolitan Fire Brigade Act was passed, creating the Metropolitan Fire Brigade under the leadership of Eyre Massey Shaw, a former head of police and fire services in Belfast. In 1904 it was renamed as the London Fire Brigade; the LFB moved into a new headquarters built by Higgs and Hill on the Albert Embankment in Lambeth in 1937, where it remained until 2007. During the Second World War the country's brigades were amalgamated into a single National Fire Service; the separate London Fire Brigade for the County of London was re-established in 1948. With the formation of Greater London in 1965, this absorbed most of the Middlesex Fire Brigade, the borough brigades for West Ham, East Ham and Croydon and parts of the Essex, Hertfordshire and Kent brigades.
In 1986 the Greater London Council was disbanded and a new statutory authority, the London Fire and Civil Defence Authority, was formed to take responsibility for the LFB. The LFCDA was replaced in 2000 by the London Emergency Planning Authority. At the same time, the Greater London Authority was established to administer the LFEPA and coordinate emergency planning for London. Consisting of the Mayor of London and other elected members, the GLA takes responsibility for the Metropolitan Police Service, Transport for London and other functions. In 2007 the LFB moved to a site in Union Street, Southwark. In the same year, the Department for Communities and Local Government announced that LFB Commissioner Ken Knight had been appointed as the first Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser to the government. Knight was succeeded as Commissioner at that time by Ron Dobson, who served for ten years. Dany Cotton took over in 2017. Dany Cotton is the current commissioner, having taken up the role in January 2017, she holds the Queen's Fire Service Medal.
Ron Dobson was the prior commissioner and served in the LFB from 1979. 1833 to 1861: James Braidwood 1861 to 1891: Capt. Eyre Massey Shaw 1891 to 1896: James Sexton Simmonds 1896 to 1903: Capt. Lionel de Latour Wells 1903 to 1909: RAdm. James de Courcy Hamilton 1909 to 1918: Lt. Cdr. Sir Sampson Sladen 1918 to 1933: Arthur Reginald Dyer, KPM 1933 to 1938: Maj. Cyril Morris, MC 1938 to 1941: Cdr. Sir Aylmer Firebrace, CBE 1939 to 1941: Maj. Frank Jackson, CBE 1941 to 1948: all fire brigades nationalised 1948 to 1962: Sir Frederick Delve, CBE 1962 to 1970: Leslie Leete, CBE 1970 to 1976: Joseph Milner 1976 to 1980: Peter Darby 1980 to 1987: Ronald Bullers 1987 to 1991: Gerald Clarkson 1991 to 2003: Brian Robinson, CBE 2003 to 2007: Sir Ken Knight, CBE 2007 to 2016: Ron Dobson, CBE 2017 to present: Dany Cotton Historically, the London Fire Brigade was organised into two divisions: Northern and Southern, divided in most places by the River Thames
In geography and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped together to the largest of cities with surrounding urbanized areas. Settlements may include hamlets, villages and cities. A settlement may have known historical properties such as the date or era in which it was first settled, or first settled by particular people. In the field of geospatial predictive modeling, settlements are "a city, village or other agglomeration of buildings where people live and work". A settlement conventionally includes its constructed facilities such as roads, field systems, boundary banks and ditches, ponds and woods, wind and water mills, manor houses and churches; the oldest remains that have been found of constructed dwellings are remains of huts that were made of mud and branches around 17,000 BC at the Ohalo site near the edge of the Sea of Galilee. The Natufians built houses in the Levant, around 10,000 BC.
Remains of settlements such as villages become much more common after the invention of agriculture. Landscape history studies the form of settlements – for example whether they are dispersed or nucleated. Urban morphology can thus be considered a special type of cultural-historical landscape studies. Settlements can be ordered by centrality or other factors to define a settlement hierarchy. A settlement hierarchy can be used for classifying settlement all over the world, although a settlement called a'town' in one country might be a'village' in other countries. Geoscience Australia defines a populated place as "a named settlement with a population of 200 or more persons"; the Committee for Geographical Names in Australasia used the term localities for rural areas, while the Australian Bureau of Statistics uses the term "urban centres/localities" for urban areas. The Agency for Statistics in Bosnia and Herzegovina uses the term "populated place" for rural, "municipality" and "town" for urban areas.
The Bulgarian Government publishes a National Register of Populated places. The Canadian government uses the term "populated place" in the Atlas of Canada, but does not define it. Statistics Canada uses the term localities for historical named locations; the Croatian Bureau of Statistics records population in units called settlements. The Census Commission of India has a special definition of census towns; the Central Statistics Office of the Republic of Ireland has a special definition of census towns. There are various types of inhabited localities in Russia. Statistics Sweden uses the term localities for various densely populated places; the common English-language translation is urban areas. The UK Department for Communities and Local Government uses the term "urban settlement" to denote an urban area when analysing census information; the Registrar General for Scotland defines settlements as groups of one or more contiguous localities, which are determined according to population density and postcode areas.
The Scottish settlements are used as one of several factors defining urban areas. The United States Geological Survey has a Geographic Names Information System that defines three classes of human settlement: Populated place − place or area with clustered or scattered buildings and a permanent human population. A populated place is not incorporated and by definition has no legal boundaries. However, a populated place may have a corresponding "civil" record, the legal boundaries of which may or may not coincide with the perceived populated place. Census − a statistical area delineated locally for the tabulation of Census Bureau data. Civil − a political division formed for administrative purposes."Populated places may be defined in the context of censuses and be different from general-purpose administrative entities, such as "place" as defined by the U. S. Census Bureau or census-designated places. In the field of geospatial predictive modeling, settlements are "a city, village, or other agglomeration of buildings where people live and work".
The Global Human Settlement Layer framework produces global spatial information about the human presence on the planet over time. This in the form of built up population density maps and settlement maps; this information is generated with evidence-based analytics and knowledge using new spatial data mining technologies. The framework uses heterogeneous data including global archives of fine-scale satellite imagery, census data, volunteered geographic information; the data is processed automatically and generates analytics and knowledge reporting objectively and systematically about the presence of population and built-up infrastructures. The GHSL operates in an free data and methods access policy; the term "Abandoned populated places" is a Feature Designation Name in databases sourced by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and GeoNames. Populated places can be abandoned. Sometimes the structures are still accessible, such as in a ghost town, these may become tourist attractions; some places that have the appearance of a ghost town, may still be defined as populated places by government entities.
A town may become a ghost town because the economic activity that supported it has failed, because of a government action, such as the building of a dam that floods t
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm