SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Fish disease and parasites

Like humans and other animals, fish suffer from diseases and parasites. Fish defences against disease are non-specific. Non-specific defences include skin and scales, as well as the mucus layer secreted by the epidermis that traps microorganisms and inhibits their growth. If pathogens breach these defences, fish can develop inflammatory responses that increase the flow of blood to infected areas and deliver white blood cells that attempt to destroy the pathogens. Specific defences are specialised responses to particular pathogens recognised by the fish's body, adaptative immune responses. In recent years, vaccines have become used in aquaculture and ornamental fish, for example vaccines for furunculosis in farmed salmon and koi herpes virus in koi; some commercially important fish diseases are ich and whirling disease. All fish carry parasites; this is at some cost to the fish. If the cost is sufficiently high the impacts can be characterised as a disease; however disease in fish is not understood well.

What is known about fish disease relates to aquaria fish, more to farmed fish. Disease is a prime agent affecting fish mortality when fish are young. Fish can limit the impacts of pathogens and parasites with behavioural or biochemical means, such fish have reproductive advantages. Interacting factors result in low grade infection becoming fatal diseases. In particular, things that causes stress, such as natural droughts or pollution or predators, can precipitate outbreak of disease. Disease can be problematic when pathogens and parasites carried by introduced species affect native species. An introduced species may find invading easier if potential predators and competitors have been decimated by disease. Pathogens which can cause fish diseases comprise: viral infections, such as esocid lymphosarcoma found in Esox species. Bacterial infections, such as Pseudomonas fluorescens leading to fin rot and fish dropsy fungal infections water mould infections, such as Saprolegnia sp. metazoan parasites, such as copepods unicellular parasites, such as Ichthyophthirius multifiliis leading to ich Certain parasites like Helminths for example Eustrongylides Parasites in fish are a common natural occurrence.

Parasites can provide information about host population ecology. In fisheries biology, for example, parasite communities can be used to distinguish distinct populations of the same fish species co-inhabiting a region. Additionally, parasites possess a variety of specialized traits and life-history strategies that enable them to colonize hosts. Understanding these aspects of parasite ecology, of interest in their own right, can illuminate parasite-avoidance strategies employed by hosts. Parasites need to avoid killing their hosts, since extinct hosts can mean extinct parasites. Evolutionary constraints may operate so parasites avoid killing their hosts, or the natural variability in host defensive strategies may suffice to keep host populations viable. Parasite infections can impair the courtship dance of male threespine sticklebacks; when that happens, the females reject them, suggesting a strong mechanism for the selection of parasite resistance."However, not all parasites want to keep their hosts alive, there are parasites with multistage life cycles who go to some trouble to kill their host.

For example, some tapeworms make some fish behave in such a way. The predatory bird is the next host for the parasite in the next stage of its life cycle; the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus turns infected threespine stickleback white, makes them more buoyant so that they splash along at the surface of the water, becoming easy to see and easy to catch for a passing bird. Parasites can be external; some internal fish parasites are spectacular, such as the philometrid nematode Philometra fasciati, parasitic in the ovary of female Blacktip grouper. Other internal parasites are found living inside fish gills, include encysted adult didymozoid trematodes, a few trichosomoidid nematodes of the genus Huffmanela, including Huffmanela ossicola which lives within the gill bone, the encysted parasitic turbellarian Paravortex. Various protists and Myxosporea are parasitic on gills, where they form cysts. Fish gills are the preferred habitat of many external parasites, attached to the gill but living out of it.

The most common are monogeneans and certain groups of parasitic copepods, which can be numerous. Other external parasites found on gills are leeches and, in seawater, larvae of gnathiid isopods. Isopod fish parasites are external and feed on blood; the larvae of the Gnathiidae family and adult cymothoidids have piercing and sucking mouthparts and clawed limbs adapted for clinging onto their hosts. Cymothoa exigua is a parasite of various marine fish, it causes the tongue of the fish to atrophy and takes its place in what is believed to be the first instance discovered of a parasite functionally replacing a host structure in animals. Other parasitic disorders, include Gyrodactylus salaris, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, velvet disease, Brooklynella hostilis, Hole in the head, Ceratomyxa shasta, Kudoa thyrsites, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, Cymothoa exigua, nematode, carp lice and salmon lice. Although parasites are considered to be harmful, the eradication of all parasites would not be beneficial.

Parasites account for more than half of life's diversity.

Douglas Education Center

Douglas Education Center is a private, for-profit, higher education career school located thirty miles south of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Douglas Education Center grants admissions to individuals who have earned a high school diploma or a GED high school equivalency. Douglas Education Center accepts applications year round. Douglas Education Center offers specialized business degrees and certificates in various fields. Below is a breakdown of the programs offered. In addition to programs in the health sciences and skilled trades, the center offers the following specialized programs: Creative Programs Tom Savini's Special Make-Up Effects Program: Formed in 2000, Tom Savini's Special Make-Up Effects Program is a sixteen-month Associate in Specialized Business Degree Program. Special effects artist. George A. Romero's Filmmaking Program: Founded in 2008 under the name The Factory Digital Filmmaking Program at Douglas, George A. Romero's Filmmaking Program is a sixteen-month Associate in Specialized Business Degree Program.

The program is a modern approach to learning the art of filmmaking. Facilities include a soundstage with green screen, infinity wall, rooms for make-up, wardrobe and props, editing suites, a sound mixing studio, a 50+ seat theater for film classes and collaborating among other programs at DEC. Students learn techniques from industry professionals including Robert Tinnell, a motion picture screenwriter and producer as well as the director of the program. Accreditation is evidence that an institution maintains an approved course of study, that it employs a competent faculty of instructors, that it has adequate facilities and equipment, that it is supported by an enrollment of students sufficient to give assurance of stability and permanency, that it enjoys a reputation of ethical and honorable dealings with the public. Douglas Education Center is accredited by the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools and is approved to award Associate in Specialized Business Degrees and Diplomas.

The Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools is listed as a nationally recognized accrediting agency by the United States Department of Education. Its accreditation of degree-granting institutions is recognized by the Council for Higher Education Association. Official website

Legislative Council of Fiji

The Legislative Council of Fiji was the colonial precursor to the present-day Parliament, which came into existence when Fiji became independent on 10 October 1970. After Fiji was ceded to the United Kingdom, on 10 October 1874, the first Governor, Sir Hercules Robinson, established an Executive Council with himself as President and comprising six other Europeans; this was a temporary measure to make policy decisions necessary to found and legitimise the new Colonial Government and to carry out the day-to-day affairs of the Government. With the arrival of Sir Arthur Gordon, on 1 September 1875, a permanent machinery for governing the new colony was established. In addition to the Executive Council, Gordon established a Legislative Council composed of nominated members, of whom six were official, including the Governor of Fiji, the Colonial Secretary, the Chief Justice of Fiji and the Attorney General of Fiji, thus all ten members of the Legislative Council were Europeans. The first step towards making the Council a popularly elected legislature was taken in 1904, when the council was reconstituted as a 19-member body consisting of the Governor, 10 official members appointed by the Governor, 6 elected members chosen by European males, 2 Fijian members appointed by the Governor from a list of 6 nominees submitted by the Great Council of Chiefs.

Persistent demands by Europeans led to an increase in their representation to seven in 1914. On 20 July 1916, the composition of the Legislative Council was increased to twelve nominated members of whom eleven were official members and one a British subject not holding any such office, seven elected European members and two Fijian members. On 29 January 1917, Badril Maharaj, representing the Indian community, took the twelfth nominated seat in the Legislative Council, he served in the Legislative Council until 1923, when he resigned in opposition to the poll tax but was re-nominated in 1926 and stayed on as a member until 1929. On 1 May 1929, the franchise was extended to Indian males twenty-one years of age and over who met the same income, residency and nationality qualifications as Europeans; the new Legislative Council consisted of the Governor as President, not more than thirteen official members, three nominated Fijian members, six elected Europeans and three elected Indians. Europeans and Indians were elected from separate communal rolls, while the Fijians were nominated from a panel of four to six names submitted by the Great Council of Chiefs.

The next major development took place in 1937, when the Legislative Council was enlarged to 32 members. Of these, 17 were official members appointed by the Governor. In addition, there were five non-official members from each of the three major ethnic groups. In 1954, Ratu Sir Lala Sukuna was appointed the first Speaker of the Legislative Council. In 1963, women were enfranchised and indigenous Fijians were empowered for the first time to vote directly for their representatives on the Legislative Council; the Legislative Council elected in 1963 had 37 members. There were 12 elected members, four from each of the Fijian and European groups chosen on a communal franchise; the Governor nominated two from each of the communities. There were to be 19 official members; the Legislative Councillors of each race were permitted to select two from their fellows to the Executive Council. Qualifications to register as a voter disallowed illiterate adults to vote, permitted some people to choose between ethnic rolls and made no provision for Rotumans, Pacific Islanders and Part-Chinese to vote.

The Legislative Council elected in 1966 had 36 members. 25 seats represented Communal constituencies (9 indigenous Fijians, 9 Indo-Fijians, 7 General electors, elected on closed electoral rolls by voters registered as members of their respective ethnic groups. A further 9 members were elected from cross-voting constituencies – seats allocated ethnically but elected by universal suffrage; the remaining 2 members were nominated by the Great Council of Chiefs. The president of the Legislative Council was H. Maurice Scott. Responsible government was not introduced until 1967. A four-member Executive Council had existed from 1904, but it was not a Cabinet in the modern sense: it was appointed by the colonial Governor and responsible to him alone; the first step towards adoption of the Westminster System of responsible government was taken in 1964 with the adoption of the Member system, whereby 3 members of the Legislative Council were appointed to the Executive Council and given portfolio responsibilities supervising government departments.

They were not "Ministers" in the modern sense, however, as they were still responsible only to the Governor and could not be dismissed by the Legislative Council. In 1967, however, a full ministerial system was adopted, with a Cabinet responsible to the Legislature. Ratu Kamisese Mara was appointed as the first Chief Minister; when Fiji became independent on 10 October 1970, the Legislative Council was replaced by the Fijian Parliament. A grandfather clause in the Constitution