Genetically modified organism
A genetically modified organism is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. The exact definition of a genetically modified organism and what constitutes genetic engineering varies, with the most common being an organism altered in a way that "does not occur by mating and/or natural recombination". A wide variety of organisms have been genetically modified, from animals to plants and microorganisms. Genes have been transferred within the same species, across species and across kingdoms. New genes can be introduced. Creating a genetically modified organism is a multi-step process. Genetic engineers must isolate the gene they wish to insert into the host organism and combine it with other genetic elements, including a promoter and terminator region and a selectable marker. A number of techniques are available for inserting the isolated gene into the host genome. Recent advancements using genome editing techniques, notably CRISPR, have made the production of GMO's much simpler.
Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen made the first genetically modified organism in 1973, a bacteria resistant to the antibiotic kanamycin. The first genetically modified animal, a mouse, was created in 1974 by Rudolf Jaenisch, the first plant was produced in 1983. In 1994 the Flavr Savr tomato was released, the first commercialized genetically modified food; the first genetically modified animal to be commercialized was the GloFish and the first genetically modified animal to be approved for food use was the AquAdvantage salmon in 2015. Bacteria are the easiest organisms to engineer and have been used for research, food production, industrial protein purification and art. There is potential to use them for purposes or as medicine. Fungi have been engineered with much the same goals. Viruses play an important role as vectors for inserting genetic information into other organisms; this use is relevant to human gene therapy. There are proposals to remove the virulent genes from viruses to create vaccines.
Plants have been engineered for scientific research, to create new colors in plants, deliver vaccines and to create enhanced crops. Genetically modified crops are publicly the most controversial GMOs; the majority are engineered for insect resistance. Golden rice has been engineered with three genes. Other prospects for GM crops are as bioreactors for the production of biopharmaceuticals, biofuels or medicines. Animals are much harder to transform and the vast majority are still at the research stage. Mammals are the best model organisms for humans, making ones genetically engineered to resemble serious human diseases important to the discovery and development of treatments. Human proteins expressed in mammals are more to be similar to their natural counterparts than those expressed in plants or microorganisms. Livestock are modified with the intention of improving economically important traits such as growth-rate, quality of meat, milk composition, disease resistance and survival. Genetically modified fish are used as pets and as a food source.
Genetic engineering has been proposed as a way to control mosquitos, a vector for many deadly diseases. Although human gene therapy is still new, it has been used to treat genetic disorders such as severe combined immunodeficiency, Leber's congenital amaurosis. Many objections have been raised over the development of GMO's their commercialization. Many of these involve GM crops and whether food produced from them is safe and what impact growing them will have on the environment. Other concerns are the objectivity and rigor of regulatory authorities, contamination of non-genetically modified food, control of the food supply, patenting of life and the use of intellectual property rights. Although there is a scientific consensus that available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food, GM food safety is a leading issue with critics. Gene flow, impact on non-target organisms and escape are the major environmental concerns. Countries have adopted regulatory measures to deal with these concerns.
There are differences in the regulation for the release of GMOs between countries, with some of the most marked differences occurring between the US and Europe. One of the key issues concerning regulators is whether GM food should be labeled and the status of gene edited organisms. What constitutes a genetically modified organism is not always clear and can vary widely. At its broadest it can include anything. Taking a less broad view it can encompass every organism that has had its genes altered by humans, which would include all crops and livestock. In 1993 the Encyclopedia Britannica defined genetic engineering as "any of a wide range of techniques... among them artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, sperm banks and gene manipulation." The European Union included a broad definition in early reviews mentioning GMOs being produced by "selective breeding and other means of artificial selection." They excluded traditional breeding, in vitro fertilization, induction of polyploidy and cell fusion techniques that do not use recombinant nucleic acids or a genetically modified organism in the process.
A narrower definition provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Health Organization and the European Commission says that the organisms must be altered in a way that does "not occur by mating and/or natur
Alaminos the City of Alaminos, or known as Alaminos City is a city in the province of Pangasinan, is known for being the home of the Hundred Islands National Park, composed of 124 islands and is located off the coast of Barangay Lucap. Alaminos is classified as a 4th class city. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 89,708 people; the city was named after former Governor-General of the Philippines. The Communist Party of the Philippines was founded by Jose Maria Sison in the remote barangay of Dulacac on December 26, 1968. Alaminos was badly hit in May 2009 by Typhoon Emong which damaged a lot of houses in the city, including the roof of the main church. Due to this, several organizations had requested donations and aid to help in restoring the town back to its former self; the Alaminos Airport is being built near the city to service the local area. Alaminos City is politically subdivided into 39 barangays; the Galila Hundred Islands Festival is held from March 16 to March 21 every year.
Galila means “come” in the vernacular, the festival includes the 100 Islands Adventure Race. The Paraw Festival is a festival held in Alaminos City; the paraw is a double outrigger sail boat native to the Visayas region of the Philippines. It is similar to a proa. Marikina, Metro Manila Official Website of City Government of Alaminos City Profile at the National Competitiveness Council of the Philippines Alaminos at the Pangasinan Government Website Local Governance Performance Management System Philippine Standard Geographic Code Philippine Census Information Pangasinan.org: Alaminos Family and School Reunion Archives
Trawling is a method of fishing that involves pulling a fishing net through the water behind one or more boats. The net, used for trawling is called a trawl; the boats that are used for trawling are called draggers. Trawlers vary in size from small open boats with as little as 30 hp engines to large factory trawlers with over 10,000 hp. Trawling can be carried out by two trawlers fishing cooperatively. Trawling can be contrasted with trolling, where baited fishing lines instead of trawls are drawn through the water. Trolling is used both for recreational and commercial fishing whereas trawling is used for commercial fishing. Trawling is commonly used as a scientific sampling, or survey, method. Trawling can be divided into bottom trawling and midwater trawling, depending on how high the trawl is in the water column. Bottom trawling is towing the trawl close to the sea floor. Midwater trawling is towing the trawl through free water above the bottom of the ocean or benthic zone. Midwater trawling is known as pelagic trawling.
Midwater trawling catches pelagic fish such as anchovies, shrimp and mackerel, whereas bottom trawling targets both bottom-living fish and semi-pelagic fish such as cod and rockfish. The gear itself can vary a great deal. Pelagic trawls are much larger than bottom trawls, with large mesh openings in the net, little or no ground gear, little or no chaffing gear. Additionally, pelagic trawl doors have different shapes than bottom trawl doors, although doors that can be used with both nets do exist; when two boats are used, the horizontal spread of the net is provided by the boats, with one or in the case of pelagic trawling two warps attached to each boat. However, single-boat trawling is more common. Here, the horizontal spread of the net is provided by trawl doors. Trawl doors are available in various sizes and shapes and may be specialized to keep in contact with the sea bottom or to remain elevated in the water. In all cases, doors act as wings, using a hydrodynamic shape to provide horizontal spread.
As with all wings, the towing vessel must go at a certain speed for the doors to remain standing and functional. This speed varies, but is in the range of 2.5–4.0 knots. The vertical opening of a trawl net is created using flotation on the upper edge and weight on the lower edge of the net mouth; the configuration of the footrope varies based on the expected bottom shape. The more uneven the bottom, the more robust the footrope configuration must be to prevent net damage; this is used to catch shrimp, cod and many others. Trawls are funnel-shaped nets that have a closed-off tail where the fish are collected and is open on the top end as the mouth. Trawl nets can be modified, such as changing mesh size, to help with marine research of ocean bottoms. Although trawling today is regulated in some nations, it remains the target of many protests by environmentalists. Environmental concerns related to trawling refer to two areas: the lack of selectivity and the physical damage which the trawl does to the seabed.
Since the practice of trawling started, there have been concerns over trawling's lack of selectivity. Trawls may be non-selective, sweeping both marketable and undesirable fish and fish of both legal and illegal size. Any part of the catch which cannot be used is considered by-catch, some of, killed accidentally by the trawling process. By-catch includes valued species such as dolphins, sea turtles, sharks, may include sublegal or immature individuals of the targeted species. Many studies have documented large volumes of by-catch. For example, researchers conducting a three-year study in the Clarence River found that an estimated 177 tons of by-catch were discarded each year. Size selectivity is controlled by the mesh size of the "cod-end"—the part of the trawl where fish are retained. Fishermen complain that mesh sizes which allow undersized fish to escape allow some catchable fish to escape. There are a number of "fixes", such as tying a rope around the "cod-end" to prevent the mesh from opening which have been developed to work around technical regulation of size selectivity.
One problem is. The capture of undesirable species is a recognized problem with all fishing methods and unites environmentalists, who do not want to see fish killed needlessly, fishermen, who do not want to waste their time sorting marketable fish from their catch. A number of methods to minimize this have been developed for use in trawling. Bycatch reduction grids or square mesh panels of net can be fitted to parts of the trawl, allowing certain species to escape while retaining others. Studies have suggested. Trawling is controversial because of its environmental impacts; because bottom trawling involves towing heavy fishing gear over the seabed, it can cause large-scale destruction on the ocean bottom, including coral shattering, damage to habitats and removal of seaweed. The primary sources of impact are the doors, which can weigh several tonnes and create furrows if dragged along the bottom, the footrope configuration, which remains in contact with the bottom across the entire lower edge of the net.
Depending on the configuration, the footrope may turn over large rocks or boulders dragging them along with the net, disturb or damage sessile organisms or rew
The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around
Fish farming or pisciculture involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures such as fish ponds for food. It is the principal form of aquaculture. A facility that releases juvenile fish into the wild for recreational fishing or to supplement a species' natural numbers is referred to as a fish hatchery. Worldwide, the most important fish species produced in fish farming are carp, tilapia and catfish. Demand is increasing for fish and fish protein, which has resulted in widespread overfishing in wild fisheries. China provides 62% of the world's farmed fish; as of 2016, more than 50% of seafood was produced by aquaculture. Farming carnivorous fish, such as salmon, does not always reduce pressure on wild fisheries. Carnivorous farmed fish are fed fishmeal and fish oil extracted from wild forage fish; the 2008 global returns for fish farming recorded by the FAO totaled 33.8 million tonnes worth about $US 60 billion. Aquaculture makes use of local photosynthetic production or fish that are fed with external food supply.
Growth is limited by available food zooplankton feeding on pelagic algae or benthic animals, such as crustaceans and mollusks. Tilapia filter feed directly on phytoplankton. Photosynthetic production can be increased by fertilizing pond water with artificial fertilizer mixtures, such as potash, phosphorus and microelements. Another issue is the risk of algal blooms; when temperatures, nutrient supply, available sunlight are optimal for algal growth, algae multiply at an exponential rate exhausting nutrients and causing a subsequent die-off in fish. The decaying algal biomass depletes the oxygen in the pond water because it blocks out the sun and pollutes it with organic and inorganic solutes, which can lead to massive loss of fish. An alternate option is to use a wetland system, such as that used in the commercial fish farm Veta La Palma, Spain. To tap all available food sources in the pond, the aquaculturist chooses fish species that occupy different places in the pond ecosystem, e.g. a filter algae feeder such as tilapia, a benthic feeder such as carp or [catfish, a zooplankton feeder or submerged weeds feeder such as grass carp.
Despite these limitations, significant fish farming industries use these methods. In the Czech Republic, thousands of natural and semi-natural ponds are harvested each year for trout and carp; the large Rožmberk Pond near Trebon, built in 1590, is still in use. In these kinds of systems fish production per unit of surface can be increased at will, as long as sufficient oxygen, fresh water and food are provided; because of the requirement of sufficient fresh water, a massive water purification system must be integrated in the fish farm. One way to achieve this is to combine hydroponic horticulture and water treatment, see below; the exception to this rule are cages which are placed in a river or sea, which supplements the fish crop with sufficient oxygenated water. Some environmentalists object to this practice; the cost of inputs per unit of fish weight is higher than in extensive farming because of the high cost of fish feed. It must contain a much higher level of protein than cattle feed and a balanced amino acid composition, as well.
These higher protein-level requirements are a consequence of the higher feed efficiency of aquatic animals. Fish such as salmon have an FCR around 1.1 kg of feed per kg of salmon whereas chickens are in the 2.5 kg of feed per kg of chicken range. Fish do not use energy to keep warm, eliminating some carbohydrates and fats in the diet, required to provide this energy; this may be offset, though, by the lower land costs and the higher production which can be obtained due to the high level of input control. Aeration of the water is essential; this is achieved by cascade flow, or aqueous oxygen. Clarias spp. can breathe atmospheric air and can tolerate much higher levels of pollutants than trout or salmon, which makes aeration and water purification less necessary and makes Clarias species suited for intensive fish production. In some Clarias farms, about 10% of the water volume can consist of fish biomass; the risk of infections by parasites such as fish lice, intestinal worms and protozoa is similar to that in animal husbandry at high population densities.
However, animal husbandry is a larger and more technologically mature area of human agriculture and has developed better solutions to pathogen problems. Intensive aquaculture has to provide adequate water quality levels to minimize stress on the fish; this requirement makes control of the pathogen problem more difficult. Intensive aquaculture requires a high level of expertise of the fish farmer. Very-high-intensity recycle aquaculture systems, where all the production parameters are controlled, are being used for high-value species. By recycling water, little is used per unit of production. However, the process has high operating costs; the higher cost structures mean that RAS is economical only for high-value products, such as broodstock for egg production, fingerlings for net pen aquaculture operations, sturgeon production, research animals, some special niche markets such as live fish. Raising ornamental coldwater fish, although theoretically much more profitable due to the higher income per weig
Juvenile fish go through various stages between birth and adulthood. They start as eggs; the larvae are not able to feed themselves, carry a yolk-sac which provides their nutrition. Before the yolk-sac disappears, the tiny fish must become capable of feeding themselves; when they have developed to the point where they are capable of feeding themselves, the fish are called fry. When, in addition, they have developed scales and working fins, the transition to a juvenile fish is complete and it is called a fingerling. Fingerlings are about the size of fingers; the juvenile stage lasts until the fish is grown, sexually mature and interacting with other adult fish. Ichthyoplankton are the eggs and larvae of fish, they are found in the sunlit zone of the water column, less than 200 metres deep, sometimes called the epipelagic or photic zone. Ichthyoplankton are planktonic, meaning they cannot swim under their own power, but must drift with ocean currents. Fish eggs cannot swim at all, are unambiguously planktonic.
Early stage larvae swim poorly, but stage larvae swim better and cease to be planktonic as they grow into juveniles. Fish larvae are part of the zooplankton that eat smaller plankton, while fish eggs carry their own food supply. Both eggs and larvae are themselves eaten by larger animals. According to Kendall et al. 1984 there are three main developmental stages of fish: Egg stage: Spawning to hatching. This stage is used instead of using an embryonic stage because there are aspects, such as those to do with the egg envelope, that are not just embryonic aspects. Larval stage: From hatching till all fin rays are present and the growth of fish scales has started. A key event is when the notochord associated with the tail fin on the ventral side of the spinal cord develops and becomes flexible. A transitional stage, the yolk-sac larval stage, lasts from hatching to the absorption of the yolk-sac. Juvenile stage: Starts when the transformation or metamorphosis from larva to juvenile is complete, that is, when the larva develops the features of a juvenile fish.
These features are that scale growth is under way. The stage completes when the juvenile becomes adult, that is, when it becomes sexually mature or starts interacting with other adults; this article is about the juvenile stage. Fry – refers to a hatched fish that has reached the stage where its yolk-sac has disappeared and its swim bladder is operational to the point where the fish can feed for itself. Fingerling – refers to a fish that has reached the stage where the fins can be extended and where scales have started developing throughout the body. In this stage, the fish is about the size of a finger. Fry and fingerling are terms, but some groups of fishes have juvenile development stages particular to the group. This section details the stages and the particular names used for juvenile salmon. Sac fry or alevin – The life cycle of salmon begins and ends in the backwaters of streams and rivers; these are the salmon spawning grounds. The salmon spawning grounds are the salmon nurseries, providing a more protected environment than the ocean offers.
After 2 to 6 months the eggs hatch into tiny larvae called sac alevin. The alevin have a sac containing the remainder of the yolk, they stay hidden in the gravel for a few days while they feed on the yolk. Fry – When the sac or yolk has gone the baby fish must find food for themselves, so they leave the protection of the gravel and start feeding on plankton. At this point the baby salmon are called fry. Parr – At the end of the summer the fry develop into juvenile fish called parr. Parr are camouflaged with a pattern of spots and vertical bars, they remain in this stage for up to three years. Smolt – As they approach the time when they are ready to migrate out to the sea, the parr lose their camouflage bars and undergo a process of physiological changes that allows them to survive a shift from freshwater to saltwater. At this point the salmon are called smolt. Smolt spend time in the brackish waters of the river estuary while their body chemistry adjusts to the higher salt levels they will encounter in the ocean.
Smolt grow the silvery scales which visually confuse ocean predators. Post-smolt – When they have matured sufficiently in late spring and are about 15 to 20 centimetres long, the smolt swim out of the rivers and into the sea. There they spend their first year as post-smolt. Post-smolt set off to find deep-sea feeding grounds, they spend up to four more years as adult ocean salmon while their full swimming and reproductive capacity develops. Juvenile fish need protection from predators. Juvenile species, as with small species in general, can achieve some safety in numbers by schooling together. Juvenile coastal fish are drawn to turbid shallow waters and to mangrove structures, where they have better protection from predators; as the fish grow, their foraging ability increases and their vulnerability to predators decreases, they tend to shift from mangroves to mudflats. In the open sea juvenile species aggregate around floating objects such as jellyfish and Sargassum seaweed; this can increase their survival rates.
Juvenile fish are marketed as food. Whitebait is a marketing term for the fry of fish between 25 and 50 millimetres long; such juvenile fish travel together in schools along the coast, move into estuaries and sometimes up rivers where they can be caught with fine meshed fishing n
Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business that exists in either a marine or freshwater environment, producing shrimp or prawns for human consumption. Commercial marine shrimp farming began in the 1970s, production grew steeply to match the market demands of the United States and Western Europe; the total global production of farmed shrimp reached more than 2.1 million tonnes in 1991, representing a value of nearly US$9 billion. About 30% of farmed shrimp is produced in Asia in China and Indonesia; the other 54.1% is produced in Latin America, where Brazil and Mexico are the largest producers. The largest exporting nation is Indonesia. Shrimp farming has changed from traditional, small-scale businesses in Southeast Asia into a global industry. Technological advances have led to growing shrimp at higher densities, broodstock is shipped worldwide. All farmed shrimp are of the family Penaeidae, just two species – Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon – account for 32.14% of all farmed shrimp. These industrial monocultures are susceptible to diseases, which have caused several regional wipe-outs of farm shrimp populations.
Increasing ecological problems, repeated disease outbreaks, pressure and criticism from both NGOs and consumer countries led to changes in the industry in the late 1990s and stronger regulation by governments. In 1999, a program aimed at developing and promoting more sustainable farming practices was initiated, including governmental bodies, industry representatives, environmental organizations. Freshwater prawn farming shares many characteristics with, many of the same problems as, marine shrimp farming. Unique problems are introduced by the developmental lifecycle of the main species; the global annual production of freshwater prawns in 2010 was about 2 eggs, of which China produced 615,000 tons. Eyestalk ablation is both eyestalks from a crustacean, it is practiced on female shrimps in every marine shrimp maturation or reproduction facility in the world, both research and commercial. The aim of ablation under these circumstances is to stimulate the female shrimp to develop mature ovaries and spawn.
Most captive conditions for shrimp cause inhibitions in females that prevent them from developing mature ovaries. In conditions where a given species will develop ovaries and spawn in captivity, use of eyestalk ablation increases total egg production and increases the percentage of females in a given population that participate in reproduction. Once females have been subjected to eyestalk ablation, complete ovarian development ensues within as little as 3 to 10 days. Pain in invertebrates