Geological Survey of India
The Geological Survey of India, founded in 1851, is a Government of India Ministry of Mines organisation, one of the oldest of such organisations in the world and the second oldest survey in India after Survey of India, for conducting geological surveys and studies of India, as the prime provider of basic earth science information to government and general public, as well as the official participant in steel, metals, power industries and international geoscientific forums. GSI as well as ASI, BSI, FiSI, FSI, IIEE, NIO, RGCCI and language survey), SI, ZSI are key national survey organisations of India. Formed in 1851 by East India Company, its roots can be traced to 1836 when the "Coal Committee", followed by more such committees, was formed to study and explore availability of coals in the eastern parts of India. British colonised India for the systematic financial exploitation of resources, leading to India's deindustrialization and Britain's Industrial Revolution, by using India as both a significant supplier of raw goods to British manufacturers and a large captive market for British manufactured goods, to sell British goods in India without any tariffs or duties and to tax local Indian producers with the imposition of Britain protectionist policies such as bans and high tariffs to restrict Indian finished goods from being sold in Britain, whereas raw material was imported from India without tariffs to British factories, resulting in decline of India's share of the world economy from 24.4% in 1700 to 4.2% in 1950, decline of India's share of global industrial output from 25% in 1750 down to 2% in 1900, corresponding increase in United Kingdom's share of the world economy rose from 2.9% in 1700 up to 9% in 1870.
David Hiram Williams, one of the first surveyors for the British Geological Survey, was appointed'Surveyor of coal districts and superintendent of coal works, Bengal' on 3 December 1845 and arrived in India the following February. The phrase "Geological Survey of India" was first used on his Dec 1847 map of the Damoodah and Adji Great Coal Field, together with Horizontal and Vertical sections of the map. On 4 February 1848, he was appointed the "Geological Surveyor of the Geological Survey of India", but he fell off his elephant and, soon after, died with his assistant, F. B. Jones, of'jungle fever' on 15 November 1848, after which John McClelland took over as the "Officiating Surveyor" until his retirement on 5 March 1851; until 1852, Geological Survey remained focused on exploration for coal for powering steam transport, oil reserves, ore deposits, when Sir Thomas Oldham, father of Richard Dixon Oldham, broadened the ambit of the scope of functioning of the Geological Survey of India by advancing the argument with the government that it was not possible to find coal without first mapping the geology of India.
Thus, the Geological Survey commenced to map the rock types, geological structures and relative ages of different rock types. The age of rock strata was estimated from the presence of index fossils, which consumed much of the geologists' efforts in finding these index fossils, as the method of Radiometric dating for estimating the age of rock strata was not developed at that time. In 19th and early 20th century GSI made important contributions to Seismology by its studies and detailed reports on numerous Indian earthquakes. Richard Dixon Oldham, like his father worked for GSI, first identified p- and s-waves, hypothesised and calculated the diameter of the Earth's core. On 8 April 2017 GSI began pilot project, with the first aerial survey of mineral stocks by GSI, to map the mineral stocks up to a depth of 20 km using specially-equipped aircraft; the GSI was restructured into 5 Missions relating to "Baseline Surveys". Vijay Kumar Additional Secretary in the Ministry of Mines of the Government of India.
Some of the geological parks include Tiruvakkarai National Fossil Wood Park national geo-heritage site with wood fossils scattered over 247 acres nine separate enclaves, Sathanur National Fossil Wood Park national geo-heritage site with an 18-meter 120 million years old fossilised tree trunk from the Cretaceous period, Nehru Zoological Park at Hyderabad with life size figures of T-Rex and other dinosaurs, Saketi Fossil Park near Chandigarh with a fossil museum and life size fiberglass models of six pre-historic animals. Geography of Asia Outline of geography List of National Geological Monuments in India Official website
Traditional fishing boat
Traditionally, many different kinds of boats have been used as fishing boats to catch fish in the sea, or on a lake or river. Today, many traditional fishing boats are still in use. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, at the end of 2004, the world fishing fleet consisted of about 4 million vessels, of which 2.7 million were undecked boats. While nearly all decked vessels were mechanised, only one-third of the undecked fishing boats were powered with outboard engines; the remaining 1.8 million boats were traditional craft of various types, operated by sail and oars. This article is about the boats used for fishing that are or were built from designs that existed before engines became available. Early fishing vessels included rafts, dugout canoes, reed boats, boats constructed from a frame covered with hide or tree bark, such as coracles; the oldest boats found by archaeological excavation are dugout canoes dating back to the Neolithic Period around 7,000-9,000 years ago.
These canoes were cut from coniferous tree logs, using simple stone tools. A 7000-year-old sea going boat made from reeds and tar has been found in Kuwait; these early vessels had limited capability. They were used for fishing and hunting; the development of fishing boats took place in parallel with the development of boats built for trade and war. Early navigators began to use animal skins or woven fabrics for sails. Affixed to a pole set upright in the boat, these sails gave early boats more range, allowing voyages of exploration According to the FAO, at the end of 2004, the world fishing fleet included 1.8 million traditional craft of various types which were operated by sail and oars. These figures for small fishing vessels are under reported; the FAO compiles these figures from national registers. These records omit smaller boats where registration is not required or where fishing licences are granted by provincial or municipal authorities. Indonesia has about 700,000 current fishing boats, 25 percent of which are dugout canoes, half of which are without motors.
The Philippines have reported a similar number of small fishing boats. Traditional fishing boats are characteristic of the stretch of coast along which they operate, they evolve over time to meet the local conditions, such as the materials available locally for boat building, the type of sea conditions the boats will encounter, the demands of the local fisheries. Artisan fishing is small-scale commercial or subsistence fishing practices involving coastal or island ethnic groups using traditional fishing techniques and traditional boats; this may include heritage groups involved in customary fishing practices. Artisan fishers use small traditional fishing boats that are open and have sails. Large numbers of artisan fishing boats are still in use in developing countries with long productive marine coastlines. A raft is a structure with a flat top, it is the most basic boat design, characterised by the absence of a hull. The classic raft is constructed by lashing several logs, placed side by side, to two or more additional logs placed transverse to the others.
In many Asian countries, the rafts are constructed using bamboo. In shallow waters, rafts can be punted with a push pole, they can be used as stealthy platforms for fishing shallow waters around lakes. In sheltered coastal waters, anchored or drifting rafts can become effective fish aggregating devices. Payaos were traditional bamboo rafts used in Southeast Asia as aggregating device. Fishermen on the top of the raft used handlines to catch tuna. Pontoon boats, to some degree the punt, can be viewed as modern derivatives of rafts. Boats and small floating islands have been made from reeds. Reed rafts can be distinguished from reed boats; the earliest known boat made with reeds is a 7000-year-old sea going boat found in Kuwait. The Uros are an indigenous people pre-dating the Incas, they live, still today, on man-made floating islands scattered across Lake Titicaca. These islands are constructed from totora reeds; each floating island supports between three and ten houses built of reeds. The Uros build their boats from bundled dried reeds.
These days some Uros boats, used for hunting seabirds, have motors. Reed boats were constructed in Easter Island with a markedly similar design to those used in Peru. Apart from Peru and Bolivia, reed boats are still used in Ethiopia and were used until in Corfu. Coracles are light boats shaped like a bowl with a frame of woven grass or reeds, or strong saplings covered with animal hides; the keel-less, flat bottom evenly spreads the weight across the structure reducing the required depth of water to only a few inches. Coracles have been used, to a degree are still used, in India, Iraq, North America and Britain. Coracles in Iraq are called "quffa." Their history goes back to antiquity where they appear on Assyrian-era reliefs sculpted between 600 and 900 BC. These reliefs are now in the British Museum. Herodotus visited Babylon in the 5th century BC, wrote a long description of the coracles he encountered there. Traditionally, quffa were covered with hides or reeds; the outside was coated with hot bitumen for waterproofing, although the inside could be coated for larger vessels.
These coracles have been in continuous use on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers around Baghdad, through the 1970s. Some of the Iraqi coracles are
A fishing vessel is a boat or ship used to catch fish in the sea, or on a lake or river. Many different kinds of vessels are used in commercial and recreational fishing. According to the FAO, there are four million commercial fishing vessels. About 1.3 million of these are decked vessels with enclosed areas. Nearly all of these decked vessels are mechanised, 40,000 of them are over 100 tons. At the other extreme, two-thirds of the undecked boats are traditional craft of various types, powered only by sail and oars; these boats are used by artisan fishers. It is difficult to estimate the number of recreational fishing boats, they range in size from small dinghies to large charter cruisers, unlike commercial fishing vessels, are not dedicated just to fishing. Prior to the 1950s there was little standardisation of fishing boats. Designs could vary between boatyards. Traditionally boats were built of wood, but wood is not used now because it has higher maintenance costs and lower durability. Fibreglass is used in smaller fishing vessels up to 25 metres, while steel is used on vessels above 25 metres.
Early fishing vessels included rafts, dugout canoes, boats constructed from a frame covered with hide or tree bark, along the lines of a coracle. The oldest boats found by archaeological excavation are dugout canoes dating back to the Neolithic Period around 7,000-9,000 years ago; these canoes were cut from coniferous tree logs, using simple stone tools. A 7000-year-old seagoing boat made from reeds and tar has been found in Kuwait; these early vessels had limited capability. They were used for fishing and hunting; the development of fishing boats took place in parallel with the development of boats built for trade and war. Early navigators began to use animal skins or woven fabrics for sails. Affixed to a pole set upright in the boat, these sails gave early boats more range, allowing voyages of exploration. Around 4000 B. C. Egyptians were building long narrow boats powered by many oarsmen. Over the next 1,000 years, they made a series of remarkable advances in boat design, they developed cotton-made sails to help their boats go faster with less work.
They built boats large enough to cross the oceans. These boats had sails and oarsmen, were used for travel and trade. By 3000 BC, the Egyptians knew, they used woven straps to lash planks together, reeds or grass stuffed between the planks to seal the seams. An example of their skill is the Khufu ship, a vessel 143 feet in length entombed at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza around 2,500 BC and found intact in 1954. At about the same time, the Scandinavians were building innovative boats. People living near Kongens Lyngby in Denmark, came up with the idea of segregated hull compartments, which allowed the size of boats to be increased. A crew of some two dozen paddled the wooden Hjortspring boat across the Baltic Sea long before the rise of the Roman Empire. Scandinavians continued to develop better ships, incorporating iron and other metal into the design and developing oars for propulsion. By 1000 A. D. the Norsemen were pre-eminent on the oceans. They were skilled seamen and boat builders, with clinker-built boat designs that varied according to the type of boat.
Trading boats, such as the knarrs, were wide to allow large cargo storage. Raiding boats, such as the longship, were long and narrow and fast; the vessels they used for fishing were scaled down versions of their cargo boats. The Scandinavian innovations influenced fishing boat design long after the Viking period came to an end. For example, yoles from the Orkney island of Stroma were built in the same way as the Norse boats. In the 15th century, the Dutch developed a type of seagoing herring drifter that became a blueprint for European fishing boats; this was the Herring Buss, used by Dutch herring fishermen until the early 19th centuries. The ship type buss has a long history, it was known around 1000 AD in Scandinavia as a robust variant of the Viking longship. The first herring buss was built in Hoorn around 1415; the ship was about 20 metres long and displaced between 100 tons. It was a massive round-bilged keel ship with a bluff bow and stern, the latter high, with a gallery; the busses used long drifting gill nets to catch the herring.
The nets would be retrieved at night and the crews of eighteen to thirty men would set to gibbing and barrelling the catch on the broad deck. During the 17th century, the British developed the dogger, an early type of sailing trawler or longliner, which operated in the North Sea. Doggers were slow but sturdy. Like the herring buss, they were wide-beamed and bluff-bowed, but smaller, about 15 metres long, a maximum beam of 4.5 metres, a draught of 1.5 metres, displacing about 13 tonnes. They could carry a tonne of bait, three tonnes of salt, half a tonne each of food and firewood for the crew, return with six tonnes of fish. Decked areas forward and aft provided accommodation, storage and a cooking area. An anchor would have allowed extended periods fishing in the same spot, in waters up to 18 metres deep; the dogger would have carried a small open boat for maintaining lines and rowing ashore. A precursor to the dory type was the early French bateau type, a flat bottom boat with straight sides used as early as 1671 on the Saint Lawrence River.
The common coastal boat of the time was the wherry and the merging of the wherry design with the simplified flat bottom of the bateau resulte
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten countries in Southeast Asia, which promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, security, military and sociocultural integration among its members and other countries in Asia. It regularly engages other countries in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond. A major partner of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, ASEAN maintains a global network of alliances and dialogue partners and is considered by many as a global powerhouse, the central union for cooperation in Asia-Pacific, a prominent and influential organisation, it is involved in numerous international affairs, hosts diplomatic missions throughout the world. ASEAN was preceded by an organization formed in 31 July 1961 called the Association of Southeast Asia, a group consisting of the Philippines, the Federation of Malaya, Thailand. ASEAN itself was created on 8 August 1967, when the foreign ministers of five countries: Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand, signed the ASEAN Declaration.
As set out in the Declaration, the aims and purposes of ASEAN are to accelerate economic growth, social progress, cultural development in the region, to promote regional peace and mutual assistance on matters of common interest, to provide assistance to each other in the form of training and research facilities, to collaborate for better utilisation of agriculture and industry to raise the living standards of the people, to promote Southeast Asian studies and to maintain close, beneficial co-operation with existing international organisations with similar aims and purposes. The creation of ASEAN was motivated by a common fear of communism, ASEAN achieved greater cohesion in the mid-1970s following a change in balance of power after the end of the Vietnam War in 1975; the region's dynamic economic growth during the 1970s strengthened the organization, enabling ASEAN to adopt a unified response to Vietnam's invasion of Cambodia in 1979. ASEAN's first summit meeting, held in Bali, Indonesia in 1976, resulted in an agreement on several industrial projects and the signing of a Treaty of Amity and Cooperation, a Declaration of Concord.
The end of the Cold War between the West and the Soviet Union at the end of the 1980s allowed ASEAN countries to exercise greater political independence in the region, in the 1990s ASEAN emerged as a leading voice on regional trade and security issues. In 1984, Brunei became ASEAN's sixth member and on 28 July 1995, Vietnam joined as the seventh member. Laos and Myanmar joined two years on 23 July 1997. Cambodia was to have joined at the same time as Laos and Burma, but its entry was delayed due to the country's internal political struggle, it joined on 30 April 1999, following the stabilization of its government. In 1990, Malaysia proposed the creation of an East Asia Economic Caucus composed of the members of ASEAN as well as China and South Korea, with the intention of counterbalancing the growing US influence in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and in Asia as a whole. However, the proposal failed because of heavy opposition from the Japan. Work for further integration continued, the ASEAN Plus Three, consisting of ASEAN, China and South Korea, was created in 1997.
In 1992, the Common Effective Preferential Tariff scheme was adopted as a schedule for phasing out tariffs with the goal to increase the "region's competitive advantage as a production base geared for the world market". This law would act as the framework for the ASEAN Free Trade Area, an agreement by member states concerning local manufacturing in ASEAN, it was signed on 28 January 1992 in Singapore. After the 1997 Asian financial crisis, a revival of the Malaysian proposal, known as the Chiang Mai Initiative, was put forward in Chiang Mai, Thailand, it called for better integration of the economies of ASEAN as well as the ASEAN Plus Three. The bloc focused on peace and stability in the region. On 15 December 1995, the Southeast Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty was signed with the intention of turning Southeast Asia into a nuclear-weapon-free zone; the treaty took effect on 28 March 1997. It became effective on 21 June 2001 after the Philippines ratified it banning all nuclear weapons in the region.
On 15 December 2008, member states met in Jakarta to launch a charter, signed in November 2007, with the aim of moving closer to "an EU-style community". The charter turned ASEAN into a legal entity and aimed to create a single free-trade area for the region encompassing 500 million people. President of Indonesia Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono stated: "This is a momentous development when ASEAN is consolidating and transforming itself into a community, it is achieved while ASEAN seeks a more vigorous role in Asian and global affairs at a time when the international system is experiencing a seismic shift". Referring to climate change and economic upheaval, he concluded: "Southeast Asia is no longer the bitterly divided, war-torn region it was in the 1960s and 1970s"; the financial crisis of 2007–2008 was seen as a threat to the goals envisioned by the charter, set forth the idea of a proposed human rights body to be discussed at a future summit in February 2009. This proposition caused controversy, as the body would not have the power to impose sanctions or punish countries which violated citizens' rights and would therefore be limited in effectiveness.
The body was established in 2009 as the ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights. In November 2012, the commission adopted the ASEAN Human Rights Declaration. The'ASEAN W
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located in Europe. It has an area of an estimated population of about 513 million; the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency; the EU and European citizenship were established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993. The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community, established by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome.
The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities were the Inner Six: Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, West Germany. The Communities and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit; the latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the United Kingdom signified the intention to leave after a membership referendum in June 2016 and is negotiating its withdrawal. Covering 7.3% of the world population, the EU in 2017 generated a nominal gross domestic product of 19.670 trillion US dollars, constituting 24.6% of global nominal GDP. Additionally, all 28 EU countries have a high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence.
The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. During the centuries following the fall of Rome in 476, several European States viewed themselves as translatio imperii of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire were thereby attempts to resurrect Rome in the West; this political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a renovatio imperii, either in the forms of the Reichsidee or the religiously inspired Imperium Christianum. Medieval Christendom and the political power of the Papacy are cited as conducive to European integration and unity. In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardom, the Empire, declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
The gap between Greek East and Latin West had been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the Great Schism of 1054. Pan-European political thought emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French and American Revolutions after the demise of Napoléon's Empire. In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent in the writings of Wojciech Jastrzębowski, Giuseppe Mazzini or Theodore de Korwin Szymanowski; the term United States of Europe was used at that time by Victor Hugo during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849: A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood... A day will come when we shall see... the United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas. During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent.
In 1920, advocating the creation of a European economic union, British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established... to impose no protectionist tariffs whatever against the produce of other members of the Union." During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Pan-Europa Movement. His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In 1929, the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations, precursor of the United Nations. In a radio address in March 1943, with war still raging, Britain's leader Sir Winston Churchill spoke warmly of "restoring the true greatness of Europe" once victory had been achieved, mused on the post-war creation of a "Council of Europe" which would bring the European nations together to build peace. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent.
In a speech delivered on 19
The Kerala backwaters are a chain of brackish lagoons and lakes lying parallel to the Arabian Sea coast of Kerala state in southern India. The network includes five large lakes linked by canals, both man made and natural, fed by 38 rivers, extending half the length of Kerala state; the backwaters were formed by the action of waves and shore currents creating low barrier islands across the mouths of the many rivers flowing down from the Western Ghats range. The Kerala Backwaters are a network of interconnected canals, rivers and inlets, a labyrinthine system formed by more than 900 km of waterways, sometimes compared to the American Bayou. In the midst of this landscape there are a number of towns and cities, which serve as the starting and end points of backwater cruises. National Waterway 3 from Kollam to Kottapuram, covers a distance of 205 km and runs parallel to the coastline of southern Kerala facilitating both cargo movement and backwater tourism; the important rivers for north to south are the Valapattanam, Kadalundipuzha, Chalakudy, Pamba and Kalladayar.
Other than these, there are 35 more small rivulets flowing down from the Ghats. Most of these rivers are navigable up to the midland region, in country crafts. Vembanad is the largest of the lakes, covering an area of 2033 km²; the lake has a large network of canals. The backwaters have a unique ecosystem: freshwater from the rivers meets the seawater from the Arabian Sea. A barrage has been built near Thanneermukkom, so salt water from the sea is prevented from entering the deep inside, keeping the fresh water intact; such fresh water is extensively used for irrigation purposes. Many unique species of aquatic life including crabs and mudskippers, water birds such as terns, kingfishers and cormorants, animals such as otters and turtles live in and alongside the backwaters. Palm trees, pandanus shrubs, various leafy plants, bushes grow alongside the backwaters, providing a green hue to the surrounding landscape. Kerala was ranked as one of the "50 destinations of a lifetime" by National Geographic Traveler in a special collectors' issue released just before the turn of the millennium, with houseboat and backwater resort tourism in Alappuzha seen as leading factors.
The kettuvallams in the backwaters are one of the prominent tourist attractions in Kerala. More than 2000 kettuvallams ply the backwaters; the Kerala government has classified the tourist houseboats as platinum and silver. The kettuvallams were traditionally used as grain barges, to transport the rice harvested in the fertile fields alongside the backwaters. Thatched roof covers over wooden hulls, 100 feet in length, provided protection from the elements. At some point in time the boats were used as living quarters by the royalty. Converted to accommodate tourists, the houseboats have become floating cottages having a sleeping area, with western-style toilets, a dining area and a sit out on the deck. Most tourists spend the night on a houseboat. Food is cooked on board by the accompanying staff – having a flavour of Kerala; the houseboats are of various patterns and can be hired as per the size of the family or visiting group. The living-dining room is open on at least three sides providing a grand view of the surroundings, including other boats, throughout the day when it is on the move.
It is brought at night. After sunset, the boat crew provide burning coils to drive away mosquitoes. Ketuvallams are motorised but proceed at a slow speed for smooth travel. All ketuvallams have a generator and most bedrooms are air-conditioned. At times, as per demand of customers, electricity is switched off and lanterns are provided to create a rural setting Beypore, located 10 km south of Kozhikode at the mouth of the Chaliyar River, is a famous fishing harbour and boatbuilding centre. Beypore has a 1,500-year tradition of boatbuilding; the skills of the local shipwrights and boatbuilders have sought after. Regular ferry services connect most locations on both banks of the backwaters; the Kerala State Water Transport Department operates ferries for passengers as well as tourists. It is the cheapest mode of transport through the backwaters. Ashtamudi lake, a sleepy destination for years, has been transformed into a busy tourist destination with plush resorts around the Lake and the backwaters.
The unregulated proliferation of motorised houseboats in the lakes and backwaters has raised concerns regarding the adverse impact of pollution from diesel engines and outboard motors on the fragile ecosystem. Connected by artificial canals, the backwaters form an economical means of transport, a large local trade is carried on by inland navigation. Fishing, along with fish curing, is an important industry. Kerala backwaters have been used for centuries by the local people for transportation and agriculture; the region has supported the efforts of the local people to earn a livelihood. In more recent times, agricultural efforts have been strengthened with reclamation of some backwater lands for rice growing in the Kuttanad area. Boat-making has been a traditional craft. Kuttanad region is crisscrossed with waterways that run alongside extensive paddy fields, as well as fields of cassava and yam; the crops are grown on the low-lying ground and irrigated with fresh water from canal and waterways connected to Vembanad lake.
The area is similar to the dikes of the Netherlands, where land has been reclaimed from the sea and crops are grown
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, netting and trapping. “Fishing” may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs, cephalopods and echinoderms. The term is not applied to catching farmed fish, or to aquatic mammals, such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate. In addition to being caught to be eaten, fish are caught as recreational pastimes. Fishing tournaments are held, caught fish are sometimes kept as preserved or living trophies; when bioblitzes occur, fish are caught and released. According to the United Nations FAO statistics, the total number of commercial fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people in developing countries. In 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms.
Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back to at least the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period about 40,000 years ago. Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000-year-old modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he consumed freshwater fish. Archaeology features such as shell middens, discarded fish bones, cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities. Fishing in Africa is evident early on in human history. Neanderthals were fishing by about 200,000 BC to have a source of food for their families and to trade or sell. People could have developed basketry for fish traps, spinning and early forms of knitting in order to make fishing nets to be able to catch more fish in larger quantities. During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity on the move. However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are always associated with fishing as a major source of food.
The British dogger was an early type of sailing trawler from the 17th century, but the modern fishing trawler was developed in the 19th century, at the English fishing port of Brixham. By the early 19th century, the fishermen at Brixham needed to expand their fishing area further than before due to the ongoing depletion of stocks, occurring in the overfished waters of South Devon; the Brixham trawler that evolved there was of a sleek build and had a tall gaff rig, which gave the vessel sufficient speed to make long distance trips out to the fishing grounds in the ocean. They were sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep water; the great trawling fleet that built up at Brixham, earned the village the title of'Mother of Deep-Sea Fisheries'. This revolutionary design made large scale trawling in the ocean possible for the first time, resulting in a massive migration of fishermen from the ports in the South of England, to villages further north, such as Scarborough, Grimsby and Yarmouth, that were points of access to the large fishing grounds in the Atlantic Ocean.
The small village of Grimsby grew to become the largest fishing port in the world by the mid 19th century. An Act of Parliament was first obtained in 1796, which authorised the construction of new quays and dredging of the Haven to make it deeper, it was only in the 1846, with the tremendous expansion in the fishing industry, that the Grimsby Dock Company was formed. The foundation stone for the Royal Dock was laid by Albert the Prince consort in 1849; the dock covered 25 acres and was formally opened by Queen Victoria in 1854 as the first modern fishing port. The elegant Brixham trawler spread across the world. By the end of the 19th century, there were over 3,000 fishing trawlers in commission in Britain, with 1,000 at Grimsby; these trawlers were sold to fishermen including from the Netherlands and Scandinavia. Twelve trawlers went on to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleet; the earliest steam powered fishing boats first appeared in the 1870s and used the trawl system of fishing as well as lines and drift nets.
These were large boats 80–90 feet in length with a beam of around 20 feet. They travelled at 9 -- 11 knots; the earliest purpose built fishing vessels were designed and made by David Allan in Leith, Scotland in March 1875, when he converted a drifter to steam power. In 1877, he built. Steam trawlers were introduced at Hull in the 1880s. In 1890 it was estimated; the steam drifter was not used in the herring fishery until 1897. The last sailing fishing trawler was built in 1925 in Grimsby. Trawler designs adapted as the way they were powered changed from sail to coal-fired steam by World War I to diesel and turbines by the end of World War II. In 1931, the first powered drum was created by Laurie Jarelainen; the drum was a circular device, set to the side of the boat and would draw in the nets. Since World War II, radio navigation aids and fish finders have been used; the first trawlers fished over the side, rather than over the stern. The first purpose built stern trawler was Fairtry built in 1953 at Scotland.
The ship was much larger than any other trawlers in operation and inaugurated the era of the'super trawler'. As the ship pulled its nets over the stern, it could lift out a much greater haul of up to 60 tons; the ship served as a basis for the expansion of'su