The raised fist, or the clenched fist, is a symbol of solidarity and support. It is used as a salute to express unity, defiance, the salute dates back to ancient Assyria as a symbol of resistance in the face of violence. Assyrian depictions of the goddess Ishtar show her raising a clenched fist, a raised fist was used as a logo by the Industrial Workers of the World in 1917. The graphic symbol was popularized in 1948 by Taller de Gráfica Popular, the symbol has been picked up and incorporated around the world by various oppressed groups. In 2015 it has emerged in the southeast area of Ukraine among the separatists battling the Ukraine Kiev government forces, the image gallery shows how a raised fist is used in visual communication. Combined with another element, a raised fist is used to convey polysemous gestures. Depending on the combined, the meaning of the gesture changes in tone. A raised-fist icon appears prominently as a feminist symbol on the covers of two books by Robin Morgan, Sisterhood is Powerful, published in 1970, and Sisterhood Is Forever.
A raised fist incorporates the outline of the state of Wisconsin, as designed in 2011, the raised fist logo may represent unity or solidarity, generally with oppressed peoples. The black fist, known as the Black Power fist is a logo generally associated with black nationalism and its most widely known usage is by the Black Panther Party in the 1960s. A black fist logo was adopted by the northern soul music subculture. The white fist, known as the Aryan fist or the White Power fist is a logo generally associated with white nationalism, a white fist holding a red rose is used by the Socialist International and some socialist or social democratic parties. Loyalists in Northern Ireland occasionally use a red clenched fist on murals depicting the Red Hand of Ulster, this is considered rare, the red hand is usually depicted with a flat palm, that is more similar to the Roman salute. Irish Republicans often have the raised fist as a symbol of resistance against British rule, the Gonzo fist emblem is characterized by two thumbs and four fingers holding a peyote button, was originally used in Hunter S.
Thompsons 1970 campaign for sheriff of Aspen, Colorado. It has become a symbol of Thompson and gonzo journalism as a whole, the raised fist salute consists of raising one arm in the air with a clenched fist. The meaning can vary based on context, during the Spanish Civil War, it was sometimes known as the anti-fascist salute. The traditional version of the salute, originally a symbol of the workers movement. Since the Trotskyists were forced out of the Comintern, some Trotskyists have made a point of raising the left fist in the tradition of the Left Opposition
Giving dap typically involves handshaking, pound hugging, fist pounding, or chest- or fist bumping. The practice and term originated among black soldiers during the Vietnam War, as part of the Black Power movement, known only by the two participants. Elaborate examples of dap are observed as a ritual performed by many teams in the National Basketball Association. These choreographed actions are rarely televised and serve as a means of psychological preparation. The etymology of dap is uncertain, and there are various theories, most simply, it may be imitative, and is sometimes explained as an acronym for dignity and pride, possibly a backronym. There are many variants of complicated dap gestures, the Lock and fly is used in the West Indies and Caribbean Islands and is popular among the Rasta community. It consists of two movements, a full flat-palm grasping of a partners hand followed by sliding of the palms in a forward motion finally finishing with a flexion and extension of the fingers. The Daps Explosion is recognizable by the opening of the fist, the simple fist bump in which both partners closed fists gently yet swiftly impact.
This is sometimes incorporated into more elaborate gesture combinations
The elbow bump is an informal greeting where two people touch elbows. Priests, were wary of such contact with the former Kalaupapa Settlement residents and this greeting became popular among churchgoers of Hawaii in the early 1970s. Because leprosy is transmitted primarily through mucus, there is evidence that the elbow bump constrained infections. The elbow bump as a greeting is attributed to be a derivative of the well known fist bump. The earliest written record of the elbow bump by David Grimes supports this hypothesis, more recently, Shaquille ONeal demonstrated the derivative nature of the elbow bump in relation to the fist bump in 2004, when he dismissed Kobe Bryants greeting with a half-hearted elbow bump. A recent advocate of the fist bump is the World Health Organization, in 2006, due to fears of a possible avian flu pandemic, the WHO proposed using the elbow bump as a means of keeping other peoples cooties at arms length. The elbow bump got renewed interest when the 2009 swine flu outbreak in Mexico began growing into a worldwide pandemic.
By 2009 the elbow bump had grown so large in popularity that people in Mexico had taken it upon themselves to utilize the elbow bump to reduce the spread of disease. As in 2006, the bump was supported by a number of health officials, such as Dr. Sanjay Gupta. The Manhattan Soccer Club endorsed the elbow bump as the alternative to the hygienically promiscuous traditions of vigorous hand-to-hand contact. The potential for mass contamination via these practices is obvious, at this point the MSC Board and the coaching staff would recommend that players not shake/touch hands with opponents after the games. The safest thing to do is to touch elbows, the coach or manager can explain this to the other team prior to the game. Kelly Fischer, David Tulchinsky, and Donna Wartofsky started a tradition of elbow bumping at the Endocrine Society in the summer of 2012, in October 2014 an outbreak of the Ebola disease caused people to revive the Elbow bump interest in the greeting during the 2014 Ebola scare.
By 2009, the bump was endorsed by university officials. The American Association for the Advancement of Science joined the World Health Organization in endorsing the elbow bump, some of these endorsements were meant as much to elicit good humor as for purposes of good hygiene. The word elbow bump was considered for Word of the Year in 2009 by the New Oxford American Dictionary
It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and the government of South Vietnam. The war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war. As the war continued, the actions of the Viet Cong decreased as the role. U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery, in the course of the war, the U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The North Vietnamese government and the Viet Cong were fighting to reunify Vietnam and they viewed the conflict as a colonial war and a continuation of the First Indochina War against forces from France and on the United States. The U. S. government viewed its involvement in the war as a way to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam and this was part the domino theory of a wider containment policy, with the stated aim of stopping the spread of communism. Beginning in 1950, American military advisors arrived in what was French Indochina, U. S. involvement escalated in the early 1960s, with troop levels tripling in 1961 and again in 1962.
Regular U. S. combat units were deployed beginning in 1965, despite the Paris Peace Accord, which was signed by all parties in January 1973, the fighting continued. In the U. S. and the Western world, a large anti-Vietnam War movement developed as part of a larger counterculture, the war changed the dynamics between the Eastern and Western Blocs, and altered North–South relations. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973, the capture of Saigon by the North Vietnamese Army in April 1975 marked the end of the war, and North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities, estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 240, 000–300,000 Cambodians,20, 000–62,000 Laotians, and 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict. Various names have applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most commonly used name in English and it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict.
As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ. It is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam, France began its conquest of Indochina in the late 1850s, and completed pacification by 1893. The 1884 Treaty of Huế formed the basis for French colonial rule in Vietnam for the seven decades
Fredrick James Carter is an American former professional basketball player and coach. A63 guard from Mount St. Marys University, Carter was selected by the Baltimore Bullets in the round of the 1969 NBA draft. He played eight seasons in the NBA as a member of the Bullets, Philadelphia 76ers, Carter was the leading scorer on the 1973 Sixers team that lost an NBA record 73 of 82 regular-season games. Following his tenure with the Sixers, Carter began a career as a basketball analyst for ESPN. During his time as co-host of the NBA 2Night he was known for his claim of being the best player on the worst team in NBA history and he is currently an analyst on NBA TV. On December 1,2007, Carter had his jersey, number 33, retired at halftime of the Mount St. Marys v. Loyola mens basketball game at Coach Jim Phelan Court in Knott Arena in Emmitsburg and he is known for popularizing the fist bump. Career statistics and player information from Basketball-Reference. com
The New York Times Magazine
The New York Times Magazine is a Sunday magazine supplement included with the Sunday edition of The New York Times. It is host to feature articles longer than those typically in the newspaper and has attracted many notable contributors, the magazine is noted for its photography, especially relating to fashion and style. Its first issue was published on September 6,1896, in the early decades it was a section of the broadsheet paper and not an insert as it is today. In its early years, The New York Times Magazine began a tradition of publishing the writing of well-known contributors, du Bois and Albert Einstein to numerous sitting and future U. S. Presidents. Editor Lester Markel, an intense and autocratic journalist who oversaw the Sunday Times from the 1920s through the 1950s, during his tenure, writers such as Leo Tolstoy, Thomas Mann, Gertrude Stein, and Tennessee Williams contributed pieces to the magazine. When, in 1970, The New York Times introduced its first Op-Ed page, in 1979, the magazine began publishing Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist William Safires On Language, a column discussing issues of English grammar and etymology.
Safires column steadily gained popularity and by 1990 was generating more mail than anything else in the magazine, the year 1999 saw the debut of The Ethicist, an advice column written by humorist Randy Cohen that quickly became a highly contentious part of the magazine. In 2011, Ariel Kaminer replaced Cohen as the author of the column, Klosterman left in early 2015 to be replaced by a trio of authors -- Kenji Yoshino, Amy Bloom, and Jack Shafer—who use a conversational format. Consumed, Rob Walkers regular column on culture, debuted in 2004. com, The New Republic magazines website, Greg Veis. In December 2010, Lindgren hired Joel Lovell, formerly editor at GQ magazine. In January 2012, humorist John Hodgman, who hosts his comedy court show podcast Judge John Hodgman, began writing a regular column Judge John Hodgman Rules for the The One-Page Magazine, in 2004, The New York Times Magazine began publishing an entire supplement devoted to style. Titled T, the supplement is edited by Deborah Needleman and appears 14 times a year, in 2009, it launched a Qatari Edition as a standalone magazine.
In 2006, the magazine introduced two other supplements, PLAY, a magazine published every other month, and KEY. The Funny Pages was made up of three parts, the Strip, the Sunday Serial, and True-Life Tales, on July 8,2007, the magazine stopped printing True-Life Tales. 92% of 1824 voters answered No, the Funny Pages is no longer published in the magazine. Of the serial novels, At Risk, The Overlook, Gentlemen of the Road, and The Lemur have since been published in book form with added material
Patricia Mae Andrzejewski, known professionally by her stage name Pat Benatar, is an American coloratura mezzo-soprano singer, actress and four time Grammy Award winner. Other popular singles include Heartbreaker, Treat Me Right and Ice, Promises in the Dark, Shadows of the Night, Benatars recordings were heavily played in the early days of MTV, she was the second artist to be played there, performing You Better Run. Patricia Mae Andrzejewski was born in Greenpoint, New York City and her mother, was a beautician, and her father, Andrew Andrzejewski, was a sheet-metal worker. Her father was of Polish descent and her mother was of German and her family moved to North Hamilton Avenue in Lindenhurst, New York, a village in the Long Island town of Babylon. She became interested in theater and began voice lessons, singing her first solo at the age of eight, at Daniel Street Elementary School, a song called It Must Be Spring. Benatar trained as a coloratura with plans to attend the Juilliard School, in 1971, Benatar quit her job to pursue a singing career after being inspired by a Liza Minnelli concert she saw in Richmond.
She got a job as a waitress at a flapper-esque nightclub named The Roaring Twenties and got a gig singing in the lounge band Coxons Army. The band was the subject of a never-aired PBS special, its bassist Roger Capps was the original bass player for the Pat Benatar Band, in 1975 Benatar performed at an amateur night at the comedy club Catch a Rising Star in New York. Her rendition of Judy Garlands Rock-a-Bye Your Baby With a Dixie Melody earned her a call back by club owner Rick Newman, who became her manager. The couple moved to New York following Dennis discharge from the army, Halloween 1977 proved a pivotal night in Benatars early, spandexed stage persona. She entered a Halloween contest at the Cafe Figaro in Greenwich Village dressed as a character from the film Cat-Women of the Moon, that evening, she went onstage at Catch a Rising Star still in costume. Between appearances at Catch a Rising Star, she recorded commercial jingles for Pepsi Cola and she headlined New York Citys Tramps nightclub for four days in the spring of 1978, where her performance was heard by representatives from several record companies.
She was signed to Chrysalis Records by co-founder Terry Ellis the following week and Dennis divorced shortly after. Benatars debut album In the Heat of the Night was released in August 1979, mike Chapman produced three tracks on the album, while engineer Peter Coleman oversaw the rest. The album featured two songs written by Roger Capps and Benatar, and I Need a Lover written by John Mellencamp and Dont Let It Show written by Alan Parsons, the album was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America in December 1980. In Canada it was certified 4x platinum where it peaked at number 3 on the RPM albums chart If You Think You Know How to Love Me was the first single to be released on September 14,1979. Benatars second single Heartbreaker was released on October 26,1979 and became a hit, a third single We Live for Love, which was written by her future husband Neil Giraldo, was released in February 1980, and reached US #27. Hit Me With Your Best Shot was her first single to break the US Top 10, the album featured a changed-tempo cover of Kate Bushs Wuthering Heights
A fist is an action where a hand has the fingers curled into the palm and the thumb retracted, displaying the knuckles. There can be either an open or closed fist, formation of a fist for the purpose of punching is the most basic knowledge taught in the sport of boxing. Fists are taught in martial arts like karate, kung fu, the raised fist is a symbol of rebellion, militance and unity. Various phenomema, which include the term fist in their name such as the act of fisting or the fist bump greeting. Improper formation of the fist whilst punching or striking an object can cause bruising, Boxers Fracture occurs when metacarpals or small bones in the hand break on the side of the pinky and ring finger. The name derives from the fact that such injuries are most common in boxers and practitioners of fighting arts. Making a fist is virtually unknown amongst other primates and this is because while most primate hands are long of palm and finger short of thumb, the proportions are the opposite for humans.
At least one study has claimed that the clenching of ones fist can be used to recall information. Some studies have shown that making fists can help humans to cope with stress or anxiety because the mind gets preoccupied with the tightening of the muscle to focus on the issue at hand. The act of creating a fist is known as making a fist or clenching a fistor folding a fist, media related to Fists at Wikimedia Commons
A handshake is a short ritual in which two people grasp one of each others like hands, in most cases accompanied by a brief up and down movement of the grasped hands. Using the right hand is considered proper etiquette. Customs surrounding handshakes are specific to cultures, different cultures may be more or less likely to shake hands, or there may be different customs about how or when to shake hands. Handshakes are known to spread germs, the handshake is thought by some to have originated as a gesture of peace by demonstrating that the hand holds no weapon. In sports or other activities, it is done as a sign of good sportsmanship. Its purpose is to convey trust, balance, if it is done to form an agreement, the agreement is not official until the hands are parted Unless health issues or local customs dictate otherwise, usually a handshake is made with bare hands. However, it depends on the situation, in Anglophone countries, in business situations. In casual non-business situations, men are likely to shake hands than women.
In The Netherlands and Belgium, handshakes are done more often, in Switzerland, it may be expected to shake the womens hands first. Austrians shake hands when meeting, often including with children, in Russia, a handshake is rarely performed by opposite sexes. Men shaking hands with women can be considered impolite, since hand-kissing is preferred as a ritual for greeting a lady, kissing the hand is considered unsuitable for business situations. In some countries such as Turkey or the Arabic-speaking Middle East, consequently, a grip which is too firm will be considered as rude. Hand shaking between men and women is not encouraged in countries where the majority religion is Islam, moroccans give one kiss on each cheek together with the handshake. Also, in countries, a variation exists where instead of kisses. In China, where a weak handshake is preferred, people shaking hands will often hold on to each others hands for an extended period after the initial handshake. In Japan, it is appropriate to let the Japanese initiate the handshake, in India and several nearby countries, the respectful Namaste gesture, sometimes combined with a slight bow, is traditionally used in place of handshakes.
However, handshakes are preferred in business and other formal settings, in Norway, where a firm handshake is preferred, people will most often shake hands when agreeing on deals, both in private and business relations. In South Korea, a person will initiate a handshake
Hanna-Barbera Productions, Inc. was an American animation studio that dominated American television animation for over three decades in the mid 20th century. In late 1966, it was sold to Taft Broadcasting and spent two decades as its subsidiary and it is officially considered the very first major animation studio to successfully produce cartoons exclusively for television. For their achievements and Barbera together won seven Academy Awards, eight Emmy Awards, a Golden Globe Award, the pair was inducted into the Television Academy Hall of Fame in 1993. Hanna-Barberas fortunes declined in the mid-1980s when the profitability of Saturday morning cartoons was eclipsed by weekday afternoon syndication, in late 1991, the animation studio was purchased from Taft by Turner Broadcasting System, who used much of its back catalog to program its new channel, Cartoon Network. After Turner purchased the company and Barbera continued to serve as creative consultants, Turner merged with Time Warner in 1996 and the studio became a subsidiary of Warner Bros.
Animation, into which Hanna-Barbera was absorbed after Hanna died in 2001, Cartoon Network Studios continued the projects for the channels output. Barbera went on to work for Warner Bros, Animation until his death in 2006. As of 2017, the studio exists as a unit used to market properties and productions associated with the Hanna-Barbera library. Melrose, New Mexico native William Hanna and New York City-born of Italian heritage Joseph Barbera first met while working at the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer cartoon studio in 1939. Their first directorial production and collaboration was the Academy Award-nominated Puss Gets the Boot and Barbera served as directors of the shorts for over 20 years, with Barbera in charge of the stories and pre-production and Hanna in charge of supervising the animation. Hanna provided the screams and yells for Tom Cat, in addition to the series being nominated for twelve more Oscars, seven of the cartoons won the Academy Award for Best Short Subject between 1943 and 1953. The trophies were awarded to their producer Fred Quimby, who was not involved in the development of the shorts.
In addition to their work on the cartoons, the two men moonlighted on outside projects, including the title sequences and commercials for the CBS sitcom I Love Lucy. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer decided in early 1957 to close its cartoon studio, as it felt it had acquired a reasonable backlog of shorts for re-release and Barbera, contemplating their future while completing the final Tom and Jerry cartoons, began producing animated TV commercials. During their last year at MGM, they developed a concept for an animated TV program about a dog, a coin toss determined that Hanna would have precedence in the naming the new studio. Harry Cohn and head of Columbia Pictures, took an 18 percent ownership in Hanna and Barberas new company, H-B Enterprises, Screen Gems became the new studios distributor and its licensing agent, handling merchandizing of the characters from the animated programs. Sidney and several Screen Gems alumni became members of the board of directors. H-B Enterprises was one of the first American cartoon studios to produce cartoons specifically for TV broadcast