Ceremonial ship launching
Ceremonial ship launching is the process of transferring a vessel to the water. It is a tradition in many cultures, dating back thousands of years. It has been observed as a celebration and a solemn blessing. The process involves many traditions intended to invite good luck, such as christening by breaking a bottle of champagne over the bow as the ship is named aloud. There are three methods of conveying a new ship from building site to water, only two of which are called launching. The oldest, most familiar, and most widely used is the launch, in which the vessel slides down an inclined slipway. With the side launch, the ship enters the water broadside and this method came into use in the 19th-century on inland waters and lakes, and was more widely adopted during World War II. The third method is float-out, used for ships that are built in basins or dry docks and floated by admitting water into the dock. In all cases, heavy chains are attached to the ship, ways are arranged perpendicular to the shore line and the ship is built with its stern facing the water.
The barricades support the two launch ways, the vessel is built upon temporary cribbing that is arranged to give access to the hulls outer bottom and to allow the launchways to be erected under the complete hull. When it is time to prepare for launching, a pair of standing ways is erected under the hull, the surface of the ways is greased. A pair of sliding ways is placed on top, under the hull, the weight of the hull is transferred from the build cribbing onto the launch cradle. On launching, the vessel slides backwards down the slipway on the ways until it floats by itself, some slipways are built so that the vessel is side-on to the water and is launched sideways. This is done where the limitations of the channel would not allow lengthwise launching. The Great Eastern designed by Brunel was built this way as were many landing craft during World War II and this method requires many more sets of ways to support the weight of the ship. Sometimes ships are launched using a series of inflated tubes underneath the hull and this procedure has the advantages of requiring less permanent infrastructure and cost.
The airbags provide support to the hull of the ship and aid its launching motion into the water and these airbags are usually cylindrical in shape with hemispherical heads at both ends. The Xiao Qinghe shipyard launched a tank barge with marine airbags on January 20,1981, egyptians and Romans called on their gods to protect seamen
RMS Queen Mary 2
RMS Queen Mary 2 is a transatlantic ocean liner. She is the major ocean liner built for Cunard Line since Queen Elizabeth 2 in 1969. The new ship was named Queen Mary 2 by Queen Elizabeth II in 2004 after the first 1936 namesake ship RMS Queen Mary, Queen Mary was in turn named after Mary of Teck, consort of King George V. With the retirement of Queen Elizabeth 2 in 2008, Queen Mary 2 is the transatlantic ocean liner in line service between Southampton and New York, which operates for part of each year. The ship is used for cruising, including an annual world cruise. The ship was designed by a team of British naval architects led by Stephen Payne, at the time of her construction, Queen Mary 2 was the longest passenger ship ever built, and with her gross tonnage of 148,528 the largest. She no longer holds this distinction after the construction of Royal Caribbean Internationals 154,407 GT Freedom of the Seas in April 2006, Queen Mary 2 was intended for routine crossings of the Atlantic Ocean, and was therefore designed differently from many other passenger ships.
The ships final cost was approximately $300,000 US per berth, expenses were increased by the high quality of materials, and having been designed as an ocean liner, she required 40% more steel than a standard cruise ship. Queen Mary 2 has a speed of just over 30 knots. Instead of the configuration found on many ships, Queen Mary 2 uses integrated electric propulsion to achieve her top speed. This uses gas turbines to augment the power generated from the ships diesels, some of Queen Mary 2s facilities include fifteen restaurants and bars, five swimming pools, a casino, a ballroom, a theatre, and the first planetarium at sea. Queen Mary 2 is the flagship of Cunard Line, the ship was constructed for eventual replacement of the aging Queen Elizabeth 2, the Cunard flagship from 1969 to 2004 and the last major ocean liner built before the construction of Queen Mary 2. Queen Mary 2 had the Royal Mail Ship title conferred on her, as a gesture to Cunards history, the spaces for these prime movers are split, and controls are backed up, with the intention of preventing a single failure from disabling the ship.
Queen Mary 2s 30-knot open ocean speed sets the ship apart from ships, such as MS Oasis of the Seas. While the hull of a ship will typically have a block coefficient of 0.73 Queen Mary 2 is more fine-lined. In December 1998, Cunard released details of Project Queen Mary and Wolff of Northern Ireland, Aker Kværner of Norway, Fincantieri of Italy, Meyer Werft of Germany, and Chantiers de lAtlantique of France were invited to bid on the project. The contract was signed with Chantiers de lAtlantique, a subsidiary of Alstom. This was the yard that built Cunards former rivals, the SS Normandie
The Admiralty Shipyard is one of the oldest and largest shipyards in Russia, located in Saint Petersburg. The shipyards building ways can accommodate ships of up to 70,000 tonnes deadweight,250 metres in length and 35 metres in width, military products include naval warships such as nuclear and diesel-powered submarines and large auxiliaries. The shipyard was founded as the Galley Yard by Peter the Great during the Great Northern War on 5 November 1704 and it was administered by the Russian Admiralty, hence its name. In 1721 it was renamed Galley Wharf and in 1800 the New Admiralty Yard, supplementing, in 1908, it was renamed the Admiralty Shipyard. In 1937 its two sections were known as Admiralty and Sudomekh, Shipyards No.194 and No, in 1966 it once again became the New Admiralty Shipyard as in 1800 and, in 1972, the Leningrad Admiralty Association. The latest name changes occurred in 1992 – State Enterprise Admiralty Wharves –, finally, in 2008, it became an open stock company – OAO Admiralty Wharves.
In 1959 it delivered the worlds first non-naval nuclear-powered vessel, the icebreaker LENIN, in the 19th century it was a major builder of battleships and submarines and cruisers in the 20th. All were products of the shipyards foundry, in 1966, the shipyard delivered the Victor I-class nuclear attack submarine, and the Victor II and Victor III-class submarines as well as the titanium hulled Alfa class. From 1973 to 1998, the shipyard has built 298 submarines, including 41 nuclear submarines, as well as 68 submersibles. The specialized submersibles produced include the civilian Sever-2, Tinro-2, Tetis, Osa and Osmotr types, plus the naval Lima, Xray, Admiralty Shipyards still specializes in submarine shipbuilding. The most recently built submarines include Kilo-class submarines and the smaller Petersburg/Lada class, in 1992 Iran purchased two Kilo-class submarines for $600 million from the United Admiralty Sudomekh shipyard, with an option to buy a third. The shipyards latest development are the Lada-class submarine and its version, the Amur-class submarine.
The construction of underwater vessels constitutes 70% of the production volume of the shipyard. Out of all built in the world, 15% by tonnage are produced at the Admiralty Shipyards. Admiralty Shipyards in St. Petersburg will build six Kilo-class diesel-electric submarines for delivery to Vietnam, sources in Rosoboronexport confirmed that Russia and Vietnam had been negotiating a $1.8 billion deal on the delivery of six Kilo-class submarines to the Vietnamese navy for about a year. Admiralty Shipyards is currently building two Kilo-class submarines for Algeria to be delivered in 2009 and 2010 and these tankers have been equipped with the latest automated ships systems of world class. The tanker has double hull and is able to run in solid-ice up to a half-meter thick at a speed of 1½–2 knots, during recent years the shipyard constructed five ships for Russias largest oil company —Astrakhan, Kaliningrad, Usinsk. All of which are working on the Northern Sea Route, military shipbuilding consists of orders from the Russian Ministry of Defense and export orders for foreign governments
Russian battleship Poltava (1911)
Poltava was the second of the Gangut-class battleships of the Imperial Russian Navy built before World War I. The Ganguts were the first class of Russian dreadnoughts and she was named after the Russian victory over Charles XII of Sweden in the Battle of Poltava in 1709. She was completed during the winter of 1914–15, but was not ready for combat until mid-1915. Her role was to defend the mouth of the Gulf of Finland against the Germans and she was laid up in 1918 for lack of trained crew and suffered a devastating fire the following year that almost gutted her. Many proposals were made to reconstruct or modernize her in different ways for the twenty years. While all this was being discussed she served as source of parts for her sister ships and was used as a barracks ship. She was finally struck from the Navy List in 1940 and scrapping began at a leisurely rate. She was intentionally grounded in late 1941 to prevent her from being sunk in some inconvenient location by the Germans and she was refloated in 1944 and scrapped beginning in 1949.
Poltava was 180 meters long at the waterline and 181.2 meters long overall and she had a beam of 26.9 meters and a draft of 8.99 meters,49 centimeters more than designed. Her displacement was 24,800 tonnes at load, over 1,500 t more than her designed displacement of 23,288 t, Poltavas machinery was built by the Franco-Russian Works. Ten Parsons steam turbines drove the four propellers, the engine rooms were located between turrets three and four in three transverse compartments. The outer compartments each had a high-pressure ahead and reverse turbine for each wing propeller shaft, the central engine room had two each low-pressure ahead and astern turbines as well as two cruising turbines driving the two centre shafts. The engines had a designed output of 42,000 shaft horsepower. Twenty-five Yarrow Admiralty-type small-tube boilers provided steam to the engines at a working pressure of 17.5 standard atmospheres. Each boiler was fitted with Thornycroft oil sprayers for mixed oil/coal burning and they were arranged in two groups.
The forward group consisted of two rooms in front of the second turret, the foremost of which had three boilers while the second one had six. The rear group was between the second and third turrets and comprised two compartments, each with eight boilers. At full load she carried 1,847.5 long tons of coal and 700 long tons of fuel oil and her main armament consisted of a dozen Obukhovskii 12-inch Pattern 1907 52-calibre guns mounted in four triple turrets distributed the length of the ship
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the only national library in Japan. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy, the library is similar in purpose and scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two facilities in Tokyo and Kyoto, and several other branch libraries throughout Japan. The Diets power in prewar Japan was limited, and its need for information was correspondingly small, the original Diet libraries never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity. Until Japans defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information. The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II.
In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee, hani Gorō, a Marxist historian who had been imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as both a citadel of popular sovereignty, and the means of realizing a peaceful revolution, the National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes. The first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori, the philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL merged with the National Library and became the national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained a million volumes previously housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, in 1986, the NDLs Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals.
The Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items, in May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Childrens Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno. This branch contains some 400,000 items of literature from around the world. Though the NDLs original mandate was to be a library for the National Diet. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries, in contrast, as Japans national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. The NDL has an extensive collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences
Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and other floating vessels. It normally takes place in a facility known as a shipyard. Shipbuilders, called shipwrights, follow a specialized occupation that traces its roots to before recorded history and ship repairs, both commercial and military, are referred to as naval engineering. The construction of boats is an activity called boat building. The dismantling of ships is called ship breaking, the ancestors of Australian Aborigines and New Guineans went across the Lombok Strait to Sahul by boat over 50,000 years ago. Evidence from Ancient Egypt shows that the early Egyptians knew how to assemble planks of wood into a ship hull as early as 3000 BC, the Archaeological Institute of America reports that some of the oldest ships yet unearthed are known as the Abydos boats. These are a group of 14 ships discovered in Abydos that were constructed of wooden planks which were sewn together, the ship dating to 3000 BC was about 25 m,75 feet long and is now thought to perhaps have belonged to an earlier pharaoh.
According to professor OConnor, the 5, 000-year-old ship may have belonged to Pharaoh Aha. Early Egyptians knew how to assemble planks of wood with treenails to fasten them together, early Egyptians knew how to fasten the planks of this ship together with mortise and tenon joints. The oldest known tidal dock in the world was built around 2500 BC during the Harappan civilisation at Lothal near the present day Mangrol harbour on the Gujarat coast in India, other ports were probably at Balakot and Dwarka. However, it is probable that many small-scale ports, and not massive ports, were used for the Harappan maritime trade, ships from the harbour at these ancient port cities established trade with Mesopotamia. Shipbuilding and boatmaking may have been prosperous industries in ancient India, native labourers may have manufactured the flotilla of boats used by Alexander the Great to navigate across the Hydaspes and even the Indus, under Nearchos. The Indians exported teak for shipbuilding to ancient Persia, other references to Indian timber used for shipbuilding is noted in the works of Ibn Jubayr.
The ships of Ancient Egypts Eighteenth Dynasty were typically about 25 meters in length and they mounted a single square sail on a yard, with an additional spar along the bottom of the sail. These ships could be oar propelled, the ocean and sea going ships of Ancient Egypt were constructed with cedar wood, most likely hailing from Lebanon. The ships of Phoenicia seem to have been of a similar design, the naval history of China stems back to the Spring and Autumn period of the ancient Chinese Zhou Dynasty. The Chinese built large rectangular barges known as ships, which were essentially floating fortresses complete with multiple decks with guarded ramparts. There is considerable knowledge regarding shipbuilding and seafaring in the ancient Mediterranean and this was dually met with the introduction of the Han Dynasty junk ship design in the same century
A dry dock is a narrow basin or vessel that can be flooded to allow a load to be floated in, drained to allow that load to come to rest on a dry platform. Dry docks are used for the construction and repair of ships, the use of dry docks in China goes at least as far back the 10th century A. D. The upper works included several decks with cabins and saloons. After many years, their hulls decayed and needed repairs, so in the Hsi-Ning reign period a palace official Huang Huai-Hsin suggested a plan. A large basin was excavated at the end of the Chin-ming Lake capable of containing the dragon ships. Then so that the quickly filled with water, after which the ships were towed in above the beams. The the water was pumped out by wheels so that the ships rested quite in the air, when the repairs were complete, the water was let in again, so that the ships were afloat once more. The first English and oldest surviving dry dock still in use was commissioned by Henry VII of England at HMNB Portsmouth in 1495 and this dry dock currently holds the worlds oldest commissioned warship, HMS Victory.
Possibly the earliest description of a floating dock comes from a small Italian book printed in Venice in 1560, called Descrittione dellartifitiosa machina. In the booklet, an unknown author asks for the privilege of using a new method for the salvaging of a ship and proceeds to describe. The included woodcut shows a ship flanked by two large floating trestles, forming a roof above the vessel, the ship is pulled in an upright position by a number of ropes attached to the superstructure. The Alfredo da Silva Dry Dock, of the Lisnave Dockyards in Almada, was the largest in the world until 2000, harland and Wolff Heavy Industries in Belfast, Northern Ireland, is the site of a large dry dock 556 by 93 metres. The massive cranes are named after the Biblical figures Samson and Goliath, Goliath stands 96 m tall, while Samson is taller at 106 m. The Saint-Nazaires Chantiers de lAtlantique owns one of the biggest in the world,1,200 by 60 metres, the largest graving dock of the Mediterranean as of 2009 is at the Hellenic Shipyards S. A.
The largest roofed dry dock is at the German Meyer Werft Shipyard in Papenburg, Germany, it is 504 m long,125 m wide, Dry Dock 12 at Newport News Shipbuilding is 662 by 76 metres the largest dry dock in the USA. The largest floating-dock in North America named The Vigorous and it is operated Vigor Industries in Portland, OR, in the Swan Island industrial area along the Willamette River. The keel blocks as well as the block are placed on the floor of the dock in accordance with the docking plan of the ship. Routine use of dry docks is for the graving i. e. the cleaning, removal of barnacles and rust, some fine-tuning of the ships position can be done by divers while there is still some water left to manoeuvre it about
A sea trial is the testing phase of a watercraft. It is referred to as a cruise by many naval personnel. It is usually the last phase of construction and takes place on open water, sea trials are conducted to measure a vessel’s performance and general seaworthiness. Testing of a speed, maneuverability and safety features are usually conducted. Usually in attendance are technical representatives from the builder and certification officials, successful sea trials subsequently lead to a vessel’s certification for commissioning and acceptance by its owner. Although sea trials are commonly thought to be conducted only on new-built vessels, in new vessels, they are used to determine conformance to construction specifications. On commissioned vessels, they are used to confirm the impact of any modifications. Sea trials can refer to a short test trip undertaken by a buyer of a new or used vessel as one determining factor in whether to purchase the vessel. Sea trials are fairly standardized using technical bulletins published by ITTC, SNAME, BMT and they involve demonstrations and tests of the ships systems and performance.
The ships heading is adjusted to have the wind and tide as close to bow-on as possible, the vessel is allowed to come to speed and the speed is continuously recorded using differential GPS. The trial will be executed with different speeds including service and maximum speed, the ship is turned through 180° and the procedure is followed again. This reduces the impact of wind and tide, the final Trials Speed is determined by averaging all of the measured speeds during each of the runs. This process may be repeated in various sea states, the trial begins once the order to Execute Crash Stop is given. At this point the propulsion machinery is set to full-astern and the helm is put hard-over to either port or starboard, the speed and heading are continuously recorded using differential GPS. The final time to stop track line and advance are all calculated, the trial may be repeated at various starting speeds. The fuel flow and cooling temperatures and ships speed are all recorded. Maneuvering trials involve a number of trials to determine the maneuverability and these include a direct and reverse spiral manoeuvres, zig-zag, and lateral thruster use.
Seakeeping trials were used exclusively for passenger ships but now used in a variety of vessels, involves measurements of ship motions in various sea states followed by a series of analyses to determine comfort levels, likelihood of sea sickness and hull damage
Ship commissioning is the act or ceremony of placing a ship in active service, and may be regarded as a particular application of the general concepts and practices of project commissioning. The term is most commonly applied to the placing of a warship in active duty with its countrys military forces, the ceremonies involved are often rooted in centuries old naval tradition. Ship naming and launching endow a ship hull with her identity, the engineering plant and electronic systems and multitudinous other equipment required to transform the new hull into an operating and habitable warship are installed and tested. The prospective commanding officer, ships officers, the petty officers, prior to commissioning, the new ship undergoes sea trials to identify any deficiencies needing correction. USS Monitor, of American Civil War fame, was commissioned less than three weeks after launch, regardless of the type of ship in question, a vessels journey towards commissioning in its nations navy begins with process known as sea trials.
Sea trials begin when the ship in question is floated out of its dry dock, after a ship has successfully cleared its sea trial period, it will officially be accepted into service with its nations navy. At this point, the ship in question will undergo a process of degaussing and/or deperming, once a ships sea trials are successfully completed plans for the actual commissioning ceremony will take shape. If the ships ceremony is an affair the Captain may make a speech to the audience. Religious ceremonies, such as blessing the ship or the singing of hymns or songs. Once a ship has been commissioned its final step toward becoming a unit of the navy it now serves is to report to its home port. To decommission a ship is to terminate its career in service in the forces of a nation. Decommissioning of the vessel may occur due to treaty agreements or for safety reasons, vessels preserved in this manner typically do not relinquish their names to other, more modern ships that may be in the design, planning, or construction phase of the parent nations navy.
Prior to its decommissioning, the ship in question will begin the process of decommissioning by going through a preliminary step called inactivation or deactivation. The removed material from a ship usually ends up either rotating to another ship in the class with similar weapons and/or capabilities, or in storage pending a decision on equipments fate. During this time a crew may be thinned out via transfers. When a ship finishes its inactivation, it is formally decommissioned, but not always, ships that are decommissioned end up spending the next few years in a reserve fleet before their ultimate fate is decided. Commissioning in the early United States Navy under sail was attended by no ceremony, the ship was placed in commission. Commissionings were not public affairs, and unlike christening-and-launching ceremonies, were not recorded by newspapers, the first specific reference to commissioning located in naval records is a letter of November 6,1863, from Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles to all navy yards and stations
Laying the keel or laying down is the formal recognition of the start of a ships construction. It is often marked with a ceremony attended by dignitaries from the shipbuilding company, keel laying is one of the four specially-celebrated events in the life of a ship, the others are launching and decommissioning. In earlier times, the event recognized as the keel laying was the placement of the central timber making up the backbone of a vessel. As steel ships replaced wooden ones, the central timber gave way to a steel beam. Modern ships are now built in a series of pre-fabricated. The event recognized as the keel laying is the first joining of modular components and it is now often called keel authentication, and is the ceremonial beginning of the ships life, although modules may have been started months before that stage of construction. Keel-related traditions from the times of wooden ships are said to bring luck to the ship during construction and to the captain, the first milestone in the history of a ship is the generally simple ceremony that marks the laying of the keel.
Invitations to the ceremony are issued by officials, and the ceremony is conducted by them. The builder may be the commander of a shipyard or the president of a private company. The ships prospective name, without the USS, is mentioned in the invitation, if known, otherwise her type and number are given, e. g. DD2217
A passenger ship is a merchant ship whose primary function is to carry passengers on the sea. The type does however include many classes of ships designed to transport substantial numbers of passengers as well as freight, only in more recent ocean liners and in virtually all cruise ships has this cargo capacity been eliminated. While typically passenger ships are part of the merchant marine, passenger ships have used as troopships. An ocean liner is the form of passenger ship. Once such liners operated on scheduled line voyages to all inhabited parts of the world, with the advent of airliners transporting passengers and specialized cargo vessels hauling freight, line voyages have almost died out. Her success demonstrated that there was a market for large cruise ships, successive classes of ever-larger ships were ordered, until the Cunard liner Queen Elizabeth was finally dethroned from her 56-year reign as the largest passenger ship ever built. Both the RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 and her successor as Cunards flagship RMS Queen Mary 2, QM2 was superseded by the Freedom of the Seas of the Royal Caribbean line as the largest passenger ship ever built, however, QM2 still hold the record for the largest ocean liner.
The Freedom of the Seas was superseded by the Oasis of the Seas in October 2009, by convention and long usage, the size of civilian passenger ships is measured by gross tonnage, which is a dimensionless figure calculated from the total enclosed volume of the vessel. Gross tonnage is not a measure of weight, although the two concepts are often confused, weight is measured by displacement, which is the conventional means of measuring naval vessels. Often a passenger ship is stated to weigh or displace a certain tonnage, but the figure given nearly always refers to gross tonnage, gross tonnage normally is a much higher value than displacement. However, by the conventional and historical measure of gross tonnage, the Oasis of the Seas measures over 225,000 GT, over twice as large as the largest cruise ships of the late 1990s. Power is unavailable to the crew of the ship to operate electrically powered mechanisms, lack of an adequate backup system to propel the ship can, in rough seas, render it dead in the water and result in loss of the ship.
It is believed some owners and operators of ships built before 1980, fred Olsens Black Prince, built in 1966 was one such ship, but was reported to be headed for inter-island service in Venezuelan waters. The International Ice Patrol was formed in 1914 after the sinking of the RMS Titanic to address the issue of iceberg collision