Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Abstract strategy game
An abstract strategy game is a strategy game in which the theme is not important to the experience of playing. Many of the world's classic board games, including chess, Go, checkers and draughts, shogi, Nine Men's Morris, most mancala variants, fit into this category. Play is sometimes said to resemble a series of puzzles; as J. Mark Thompson wrote in his article "Defining the Abstract": There is an intimate relationship between such games and puzzles: every board position presents the player with the puzzle, What is the best move?, which in theory could be solved by logic alone. A good abstract game can therefore be thought of as a "family" of interesting logic puzzles, the play consists of each player posing such a puzzle to the other. Good players are the ones. Many abstract strategy games happen to be "combinatorial". Combinatorial games have no randomizers such as dice, no simultaneous movement, nor hidden information; some games that do have these elements are sometimes classified as abstract strategy games.
A smaller category of abstract strategy games manages to incorporate hidden information without using any random elements. Traditional abstract strategy games are treated as a separate game category, hence the term'abstract games' is used for competitions that exclude them and can be thought of as referring to modern abstract strategy games. Two examples are the IAGO World Tour and the Abstract Games World Championship held annually since 2008 as part of the Mind Sports Olympiad; some abstract strategy games have multiple starting positions of which it is required that one be randomly determined. For a game to be one of skill, a starting position needs to be chosen by impartial means; some games, such as Arimaa and DVONN, have the players build the starting position in a separate initial phase which itself conforms to combinatorial game principles. Most players, would consider that although one is starting each game from a different position, the game itself contains no luck element. Indeed, Bobby Fischer promoted randomization of the starting position in chess in order to increase player dependence on thinking at the board.
Analysis of "pure" abstract strategy games is the subject of combinatorial game theory. Abstract strategy games with hidden information, bluffing, or simultaneous move elements are better served by Von Neumann–Morgenstern game theory, while those with a component of luck may require probability theory incorporated into either of the above; as for the qualitative aspects, ranking abstract strategy games according to their interest, complexity, or strategy levels is a daunting task and subject to extreme subjectivity. In terms of measuring how finite a mathematical field each of the three top contenders represents, it is estimated that checkers has a game-tree complexity of 1031 possible positions, whereas chess has 10123; this suggests that computer programs, through brute force calculation alone, should be able to surpass human players' abilities. As for Go, the possible legal game positions range in the magnitude of 10170; the Mind Sports Olympiad first held the Abstract Games World Championship in 2008 to try to find the best abstract strategy games all-rounder.
The MSO event saw a change in format in 2011 restricting the competition to players' five best events, was renamed to the Modern Abstract Games World Championship. It was again won by David Pearce. 2008: David M. Pearce 2009: David M. Pearce 2010: David M. Pearce 2011: David M. Pearce 2012: Andres Kuusk 2013: Andres Kuusk Connection games Game complexity List of abstract strategy games List of world championships in mind sports Mind Sports Olympiad World Mind Sports Games The University of Alberta Games Group David Eppstein's CGT page
Chinese checkers or Chinese chequers is a strategy board game of German origin which can be played by two, four, or six people, playing individually or with partners. The game is a simplified variation of the game Halma; the objective is to be first to race all of one's pieces across the hexagram-shaped board into "home"—the corner of the star opposite one's starting corner—using single-step moves or moves that jump over other pieces. The remaining players continue the game to establish second-, third-, fourth-, fifth-, last-place finishers; the rules are simple, so young children can play. Despite its name, the game is not a variation of checkers, nor did it originate in China or any part of Asia; the game was invented in Germany in 1892 under the name "Stern-Halma" as a variation of the older American game Halma. The "Stern" refers to the board's star shape; the name "Chinese Checkers" originated in the United States as a marketing scheme by Bill and Jack Pressman in 1928. The Pressman company's game was called "Hop Ching Checkers".
The game was introduced to Chinese-speaking regions by the Japanese. The aim is to race all one's pieces into the star corner on the opposite side of the board before opponents do the same; the destination corner is called home. Each player has 10 pieces, except in games between two players. In "hop across", the most popular variation, each player starts with their colored pieces on one of the six points or corners of the star and attempts to race them all home into the opposite corner. Players take turns moving a single piece, either by moving one step in any direction to an adjacent empty space, or by jumping in one or any number of available consecutive hops over other single pieces. A player may not combine hopping with a single-step move – a move consists of one or the other. There is no capturing in Chinese Checkers, so hopped pieces remain active and in play. Turns proceed clockwise around the board. In the diagram, Green might move the topmost piece one space diagonally forward as shown.
A hop consists of jumping over a single adjacent piece, either one's own or an opponent's, to the empty space directly beyond it in the same line of direction. Red might advance the indicated piece by a chain of three hops in a single move, it is not mandatory to make the most number of hops possible. Can be played "all versus all", or three teams of two; when playing teams, teammates sit at opposite corners of the star, with each team member controlling their own colored set of pieces. The first team to advance both sets to their home destination corners is the winner; the remaining players continue play to determine second- and third-place finishers, etc. The four-player game is the same as the game for six players, except that two opposite corners will be unused. In a three-player game, all players control either two sets of pieces each. If one set is used, pieces race across the board into opposite corners. If two sets are used, each player controls two differently colored sets of pieces at opposite corners of the star.
In a two-player game, each player plays two, or three sets of pieces. If one set is played, the pieces go into the opponent's starting corner, the number of pieces per side is increased to 15. If two sets are played, the pieces can either go into the opponent's starting corners, or one of the players' two sets can go into an opposite empty corner. If three sets are played, the pieces go into the opponent's starting corners. A basic strategy is to create or find the longest hopping path that leads closest to home, or into it. Since either player can make use of any hopping'ladder' or'chain' created, a more advanced strategy involves hindering an opposing player in addition to helping oneself make jumps across the board. Of equal importance are the players' strategies for emptying and filling their starting and home corners. Games between top players are decided by more than a couple of moves. Differing numbers of players result in different starting layouts, in turn imposing different best-game strategies.
For example, if a player's home destination corner starts empty, the player can build a'ladder' or'bridge' with their pieces between the two opposite ends. But if a player's opponent occupies the home corner, the player may need to wait for opponent pieces to clear before filling the home vacancies. While the standard rules allow hopping over only a single adjacent occupied position at a time, this version of the game allows pieces to catapult over multiple adjacent occupied positions in a line when hopping. In the fast-paced or Super Chinese Checkers variant popular in France, a piece may hop over a non-adjacent piece. A hop consists of jumping over a distant piece to a symmetrical position on the opposite side, in the same line of direction; as in the standard rules, a jumping move may consist of any number of a chain of hops. (When making a chain of hops, a piece is allowed to enter an empty corner, as lo
Zillions of Games
Zillions of Games is a commercial general game playing system developed by Jeff Mallett and Mark Lefler in 1998. The game rules are specified with Zillions rule language, it was designed to handle abstract strategy board games or puzzles. After parsing the rules of the game, the system's artificial intelligence can automatically play one or more players, it treats puzzles as solitaire games and its AI can be used to solve them. The scripting language of Zillions-of-Games uses S-expressions; the rules are stored in a text file with extension ".zrf". The users can create their own ZRF-files and make the AI of Zillions-of-Games play their newly created game. Here is an example of rules for Tic-tac-toe: The result of loading of this ZRF into Zillions-of-Games and playing against the computer is shown in screenshot at right; the definition of games contains the following pattern: Game title. One ZRF can contain more than one game and game title allows the user to select a certain game. Description and strategy of the game.
This is a text which shown to the user on demand to explain game rules, history and to give general gameplay advice. Players; this is a list of player names used in the game. For example, for chess it would be Black; the player name is used in some further places, for example in initial position or game goal definitions. There could be just two or more. Turn order This specifies the order of moves made by the players. In the example above, the player X starts, the player O moves and the whole sequence repeats; the definition of turn-order can be more complex, for example for balanced double-move chess it would be:, which specifies the following order of moves: White, Black, White, Black, White, etc. Board definition; this sections specifies geometry of the playing board, separate positions of the board and connections between them. The board definition in the example above first specifies a bitmap image to be used for the board. A 2-dimensional board is defined using pixel coordinates from the bitmap.
The definition specified notations to be used for rows as well as an offset in pixels between rows. The text notation is used in move list, as well for saving the played game into ".zsg" file. The connections between board position is specified in statement; the example above defines four directions: n - one step up, e - one step right, nw - diagonally up-left and ne - diagonally up-right. The directions are used in move definitions as well as in game goal definitions. Piece definition. Defines pieces used in their names and how they moved. In the example above one pieces is defined, which can be dropped on any empty position of the board. Besides this two bitmaps for X and O players are specified. Board setup. Specifies initial position of the game; the example above defines that the board is empty and each side has 5 pieces off the board, which can be dropped. Goal of the game. Condition when one of players wins or when draw occurs. In Tic-Tac-Toe win condition is defined as relative piece configurations, using directions n, e, ne and nw from board definition.
Zillions of Games is so called because of its potential to play a large number of user-programmed games. The system is shipped with over puzzles; these include a lot of popular board games, such as Alquerque and geese, Go, Jungle, Nim, Nine Men's Morris, Reversi and Tic-tac-toe. The package includes many checkers variants, for Turkish Checkers. Besides standard FIDE chess, Zillions of Games contains many national chess variants such as shogi, janggi, as well as a number of popular chess variants like Ultima, Extinction chess, Losing Chess, Berolina chess, Grand Chess and others, it include some puzzles, such as 15-Puzzle, Towers of Hanoi, eight queens, a variety of Solitaires. Not long after it came to market in late 1998, users of Zillions of Games began to program new games and puzzles for it, creating many of them themselves. Two large collections of Zillions Rules Files soon began to appear. One was at the Zillions-of-Games website, the other was at the Chess Variant Pages website; the former collected together every kind of ZRF, whereas the latter focused on ZRFs for chess variants.
As of November 2017, the ZILLIONS interface had 2,577 ZRF's, created by 462 ZRF authors, the Chess Variant Pages collection had 794 ZRF's of chess variants. The games programmed by the users include such games as 4D Tic-Tac-Toe, FreeCell, Rubik's Cube, Mancala, Alice Chess, Chess960, Hexagonal chess, Star Trek Tridimensional Chess and Sokoban. Besides various games and puzzles, there are educational ZRFs, such as the cellular automata Game of Life, a calculator, some Turing machine simulations. Zillions of Games can be used for the following: Playing any of the games or puzzles that come with it. Playing any of the free games and puzzles that have been programmed for it by users. Playing games with remote users through the internet or a dialup connection. Playing games by emailing ZSG files back and forth. Programming it to play new games and puzzles. Using it as a development tool for the creation of new games and puzzles. Testing new games for drawishness and other qualities by having Zillions play them against itself.
Solving puzzles or making sure that newly created puzzles can be solved. Creating diagrams that can be cut out of screen captures. Zillions represents pieces with bitmap images.
Stewart Culin was an American ethnographer and author interested in games and dress. Culin played a major role in the development of ethnography, first concentrating his efforts on studying the Asian-Americans workers in Philadelphia, his first published works were "The Practice of Medicine by the Chinese in America" and "China in America: A study in the social life of the Chinese in the eastern cities of the United States", both dated 1887. He believed that similarity in gaming demonstrated similarity and contact among cultures across the world. Born Robert Stewart Culin, a son of Mina Barrett Daniel Culin and John Culin, in Philadelphia, Culin was schooled at Nazareth Hall. While he had no formal education in anthropology, Culin played a role in the development of the field, his interest began with the Asian-American population of Philadelphia composed chiefly of Chinese-American laborers. His first published works were an 1887 article for a medical journal, "The Practice of Medicine by the Chinese in America" and his speech to the American Association for the Advancement of Science on "China in America: a study in the social life of the Chinese in the eastern cities of the United States".
In 1889 Culin published a report about Chinese games. In 1890 he wrote an article about Italian marionettes was inspired by a visit to a marionette theater in New York City. Active in several ethnographic organizations during the late 1880s, Culin became involved with the World's Columbian Exposition, held in Chicago during 1893; as an assistant curator, Culin organized several game-related exhibitions. In addition, 1891 saw the publication of two papers; the first treated the street games of city boys, the second dealt with Chinese gambling games, providing explanations on Fan-Tan and Pak Kop Pin. At the World Exposition, Culin met Frank Hamilton Cushing; the two became friends and endeavored to create the first cumulative documentation on the world's games. In 1892 Culin became Director of the University of Pennsylvania's Museum of Archaeology and Paleontology. Married on March 18, 1893, to Helen Bunker, Culin published on the games exhibit at the 1891 Chicago exposition. In 1899 he became curator at the Free Museum of Science and Arts in Philadelphia on American and general ethnology.
Korean Games, with comparisons to those of other Asian cultures, were the topic of Culin's first book, published in 1895. This work was inspired by Cushing of the Bureau of American Ethnology of Washington. Culin became interested in chess and card games and published a paper on the topic in 1886, he worked with Cushing on an article called Arrow games and their variants in America and the Orient. When Cushing became ill, Culin continued the work and published three inter-related papers: American Indian Games, Hawaiian Games and Philippine Games. After Cushing's death in 1900, Culin published a revised version of American Indian Games in 1903. Although he had no formal training, Robert Stewart Culin is known today as an expert on games as well as for his museum work, his influence was not limited to the two great institutions where he spent his career—the University of Pennsylvania and the Brooklyn Museum. Culin was a founding member of both the American Anthropological Association and the American Folklore Society, was an experienced collector and exhibitor who organized exhibitions at world's fairs in Madrid and Chicago.
Culin's collecting methodology in many ways exemplified the attitudes and assumptions of the heyday of anthropological collecting known as the "museum age". His major focus was to understand the "language of things", which resulted in innovative exhibitions and collaboration with several colleagues in the worlds of fashion and design, he was a meticulous record keeper whose exhaustive documentation practices, unique to museums today, created a level of documentation that set standards in the field. Culin endeavored to document both the meanings and the origins of the objects he collected. Culin began his career by studying the culture of Chinese Americans in Philadelphia. During the 1890s, while employed at the University of Pennsylvania, he turned his attention to Native American culture. After resigning from the University in 1903, Culin was appointed Curator of the Brooklyn Museum's newly established Department of Ethnology. Under the parentage of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, the Museum was about to embark on a new era, "building up great ethnological collections, sending out expeditions for the acquiring of antiquities, first over all America over the entire world".
Culin set out on a series of field trips through the Southwest and the Northwest Coast. By 1911, he had collected more than nine thousand Native American objects and acquired or created an astonishing level of attendant documentation. Believing that he had collected everything necessary to represent Native Americans, he turned his interests to the cultures of Asia and Eastern Europe. Culin was concerned not only with finding and acquiring objects for the Museum, but with documenting the maker, the social position of the seller, the circumstances of purchase, the provenance, the use of the object, the cultural life of the region. Thus, the collection includes information on the cultural and historical context of objects, as seen through Culin's eyes. Like his colleagues, what Culin collected and decided not to collect are important parameters in the history of cultural representation in museums, his opinions and biases are evident throughout the collection. Culin amassed an extensive research collection, including correspondence, reports, publi
Korea is a region in East Asia. Since 1948, it has been divided between two distinct sovereign states: South Korea. Korea consists of the Korean Peninsula, Jeju Island, several minor islands near the peninsula. Korea is bordered by China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, neighbours Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan. During the first half of the 1st millennium, Korea was divided between the three competing states of Baekje and Silla, together known as the "Three Kingdoms of Korea". In the second half of the 1st millennium and Goguryeo were conquered by Silla, leading to the "Unified Silla" period. Meanwhile, Balhae formed in the north following the collapse of Goguryeo. Unified Silla collapsed into three separate states due to civil war, ushering in the Later Three Kingdoms. Toward the end of the 1st millennium Goryeo, a revival of Goguryeo, defeated the two other states and unified the Korean Peninsula as one single state. Around the same time, Balhae collapsed and its last crown prince fled south to Goryeo.
Goryeo, whose name developed into the modern exonym "Korea", was a cultured state that created the world's first metal movable type in 1234. However, multiple invasions by the Mongol Empire during the 13th century weakened the nation, which agreed to become a vassal state after decades of fighting. Following military resistance under King Gongmin which ended Mongol political influence in Goryeo, severe political strife followed, Goryeo fell to a coup led by General Yi Seong-gye, who established Joseon in 1392; the first 200 years of Joseon were marked by relative peace. During this period, the Korean alphabet was created by Sejong the Great in the 15th century and there was increasing influence of Confucianism. During the part of the dynasty, Korea's isolationist policy earned it the Western nickname of the "Hermit Kingdom". By the late 19th century, the country became the object of imperial design by the Empire of Japan. After the First Sino-Japanese War, despite the Korean Empire's effort to modernize, it was annexed by Japan in 1910 and ruled by Imperial Japan until the end of World War II in August 1945.
In 1945, the Soviet Union and the United States agreed on the surrender of Japanese forces in Korea in the aftermath of World War II, leaving Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel. The North was under Soviet occupation and the South under U. S. occupation. These circumstances soon became the basis for the division of Korea by the two superpowers, exacerbated by their inability to agree on the terms of Korean independence; the Communist-inspired government in the North received backing from the Soviet Union in opposition to the pro-Western government in the South, leading to Korea's division into two political entities: North Korea, South Korea. Tensions between the two resulted in the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. With involvement by foreign troops, the war ended in a stalemate in 1953, but without a formalized peace treaty; this status contributes to the high tensions. Both governments of the two Koreas claim to be the sole legitimate government of the region. "Korea" is the modern spelling of "Corea", a name attested in English as early as 1614.
Korea was transliterated as Cauli in The Travels of Marco Polo, of the Chinese 高麗. This was the Hanja for the Korean kingdom of Goryeo, which ruled most of the Korean peninsula during Marco Polo's time. Korea's introduction to the West resulted from trade and contact with merchants from Arabic lands, with some records dating back as far as the 9th century. Goryeo's name was a continuation of Goguryeo the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, known as Goryeo beginning in the 5th century; the original name was a combination of the adjective go with the name of a local Yemaek tribe, whose original name is thought to have been either *Guru or *Gauri. With expanding British and American trade following the opening of Korea in the late 19th century, the spelling "Korea" appeared and grew in popularity; the name Korea is now used in English contexts by both North and South Korea. In South Korea, Korea as a whole is referred to as Hanguk; the name references Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula.
Although written in Hanja as 韓, 幹, or 刊, this Han has no relation to the Chinese place names or peoples who used those characters but was a phonetic transcription of a native Korean word that seems to have had the meaning "big" or "great" in reference to leaders. It has been tentatively linked with the title khan used by the nomads of Central Asia. In North Korea, China and Japan, Korea as a whole is referred to as. "Great Joseon" was the name of the kingdom ruled by the Joseon dynasty from 1393 until their declaration of the short-lived Great Korean Empire in 1897. King Taejo had named them for the earlier Kojoseon, who ruled northern Korea from its legendary prehistory until their conquest in 108 BC by China's Han Empire; this go is the Hanja 古 and