National Register of Historic Places listings in Jefferson County, Alabama
This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Jefferson County, United States. Latitude and longitude coordinates are provided for many National Register districts. There are 169 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county, including 3 National Historic Landmarks. 145 of these sites, including all of the National Historic Landmarks, are located in Birmingham, are listed separately. One district, the Red Mountain Suburbs Historic District, includes contributing properties located in the city of Birmingham and in adjacent parts of Jefferson County; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Alabama National Register of Historic Places listings in Alabama
Georgia State University
Georgia State University is a public research university in Atlanta, Georgia. Founded in 1913, it is one of the University System of Georgia's four research universities, it is the largest institution of higher education based in Georgia and is in the top 10 in the nation with a diverse student population around 53,000 including 33,000 undergraduate and graduate students at the main campus downtown as of 2018. Georgia State University is classified as an "R1" research university by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching; the university's over $200 million in research expenditures for the 2017 fiscal year ranked 1st in the nation among universities without an engineering or medical school. The university is the most comprehensive public institution in the Atlanta area, offering more than 250 undergraduate and graduate degree programs spread across eight academic colleges with around 3,500 faculty members. GSU has two libraries, University library and Law library, which hold over 4.3 million volumes combined and serve as a federal document depository.
GSU has an economic impact on the Atlanta economy of more than $1.4 billion annually. The Georgia State Panthers represent the NCAA Division; the university's athletic teams are members of the Sun Belt Conference, of which Georgia State is a charter member. Intended as a night school, Georgia State University was established in 1913 as the Georgia School of Technology's Evening School of Commerce. A reorganization of the University System of Georgia in the 1930s led to the school becoming the Atlanta Extension Center of the University System of Georgia and allowed night students to earn degrees from several colleges in the University System. During this time, the school was divided into two divisions: Georgia Evening College and Atlanta Junior College. In September 1947, the school became affiliated with the University of Georgia and was named the Atlanta Division of the University of Georgia. For its first four decades, the school was treated as an offsite department of its parent institution, Georgia Tech, until 1947, UGA after 1947.
Accordingly, its chief executive was called a director. However, in 1955, the Board of Regents made it an autonomous four-year college under the name Georgia State College of Business Administration. Walter Sparks, who had served as director since 1927, became the newly autonomous institution's first president. In 1961, other programs at the school had grown large enough that the name was shortened to Georgia State College, it became Georgia State University in 1969. In 1995, the Georgia Board of Regents accorded Georgia State "research university" status, joining the Georgia Institute of Technology, the University of Georgia, Augusta University; the first African-American student became enrolled at Georgia State in 1962, a year after the integration of the University of Georgia and Georgia Tech. Annette Lucille Hall was a Lithonia social studies teacher who enrolled in the course of the Institute on Americanism and Communism, a course required for all Georgia social studies teachers; the Peachtree Road Race was founded in 1970 by Georgia State cross-country coach and dean of men Tim Singleton, heading it in its first six years before turning it over to the Atlanta Track Club.
Over its 100-plus year history, Georgia State's growth has required the acquisition and construction of more space to suit its needs. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, numerous buildings were constructed as part of a major urban renewal project, such as the Pullen Library in 1966, Classroom South in 1968, the expansion of the Pullen Library in 1968, the Arts and Humanities Building in 1970, the 10-story General Classroom Building in 1971, the Sports Arena in 1973, the 12-story Urban Life Building in 1974. In addition, a raised platform and walkway system was constructed to connect these buildings with each other over Decatur Street and various parking structures. In the 1980s, another round of expansion took place with the acquisition of the former Atlanta Municipal Auditorium in 1979, subsequently converted into Alumni Hall in 1982 and to Dahlberg Hall in 2010, houses Georgia State's administrative offices; that same year, the College of Law was founded in the Urban Life Building, the Title Building on Decatur Street was acquired and converted into the College of Education's headquarters and classroom space.
In 1988, the nine-story Library South was constructed on the south side of Decatur Street, connected to the Pullen Library via a three-story high foot bridge and doubled the library's space. Georgia State continued this growth into the 1990s, with the expansion of Alumni Hall in 1991, the opening of the Natural Science Center in 1992, the acquisition of the former C&S Bank Building on Marietta Street in 1993, now the home of the Robinson College of Business. Georgia State's first move into the Fairlie-Poplar district was the acquisition and renovation of the Standard Building, the Haas-Howell Building, the Rialto Theater in 1996; the Standard and Haas-Howell buildings house classrooms and practice spaces for the School of Music, the Rialto is home to Georgia State's Jazz Studies program and an 833-seat theater. In 1998, the Student Center was expanded toward Gilmer Street and provided a new 400-seat auditorium and space for exhibitions and offices for student clubs. A new Student Recreation Center opened on the corner of Piedmont Avenue and Gilmer Street in 2001.
In 2002, the five-story Helen M. Aderhold Learning Center opened on Luckie Street amid controversy over the demolition of historical buildings on its block. Most recently
Toledo is a city in and the county seat of Lucas County, United States. Toledo is at the western end of Lake Erie bordering the state of Michigan; the city was founded in 1833 on the west bank of the Maumee River, incorporated as part of Monroe County, Michigan Territory. It was re-founded after conclusion of the Toledo War, when it was incorporated in Ohio. After the 1845 completion of the Miami and Erie Canal, Toledo grew quickly; the first of many glass manufacturers arrived in the 1880s earning Toledo its nickname: "The Glass City." It has since become a city with an art community, auto assembly businesses, education and local sports teams. The population of Toledo as of the 2010 Census was 287,208, making it the 71st-largest city in the United States, it is the fourth-most-populous city in the U. S. state of Ohio, after Columbus and Cincinnati. The Toledo metropolitan area had a 2010 population of 651,429, was the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the state of Ohio, behind Cleveland, Cincinnati and Akron.
Various cultures of indigenous peoples lived along the rivers and lakefront of what is now northwestern Ohio for thousands of years. When the city of Toledo was preparing to pave its streets, it surveyed "two prehistoric semicircular earthworks for stockades." One was at the intersection of Oliver streets on the south bank of Swan Creek. Such earthworks were typical of mound-building peoples; this region was part of a larger area controlled by the historic tribes of the Wyandot and the people of the Council of Three Fires. The first European to visit the area was Étienne Brûlé, a French-Canadian guide and explorer, in 1615; the French established trading posts in the area by 1680 to take advantage of the lucrative fur trade. The Odawa moved from Manitoulin Island and the Bruce Peninsula at the invitation of the French, who established a trading post at Fort Detroit, about 60 miles to the north, they settled an area extending into northwest Ohio. By the early 18th century, the Odawa occupied areas along most of the Maumee River to its mouth.
They served as middlemen between the French and tribes further to the north. The Wyandot occupied central Ohio, the Shawnee and Lenape occupied the southern areas; the area was not settled by European-Americans until 1795 and later. After the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War, the regional tribes allied in the Western Confederacy, fighting a series of battles in what became known as the Northwest Indian War in an effort to repulse American settlers from the country west of the Appalachians and north of the Ohio River, they were defeated in 1794 at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. This loose affiliation of tribes included the Council of Three Fires. By a treaty in 1795, they ceded large areas of territory in Ohio to the United States, opening lands for European-American settlement. According to Charles E. Slocum, the American military built Fort Industry at the mouth of Swan Creek about 1805, but as a temporary stockade. No official reports support the 19th-century tradition of its earlier history there.
The United States continued to work to extinguish land claims of Native Americans. In the Treaty of Detroit, the above four tribes ceded a large land area to the United States of what became southeastern Michigan and northwestern Ohio, to the mouth of the Maumee River. Reserves for the Odawa were set aside in northwestern Ohio for a limited period of time; the Native Americans signed the treaty at Detroit, Michigan, on November 17, 1807, with William Hull, governor of the Michigan Territory and superintendent of Indian affairs, as the sole representative of the U. S. More European-American settlers entered the area over the next few years, but many fled during the War of 1812, when British forces raided the area with their Indian allies. Resettlement began around 1818 after a Cincinnati syndicate purchased a 974-acre tract at the mouth of Swan Creek and named it Port Lawrence, developing it as the modern downtown area of Toledo. To the north of that, another syndicate founded the town of Vistula, the historic north end.
These two towns bordered each other across Cherry Street. This is why present-day streets on the street's northeast side run at a different angle from those southwest of it. In 1824, the Ohio state legislature authorized the construction of the Miami and Erie Canal and in 1833, its Wabash and Erie Canal extension; the canal's purpose was to connect the city of Cincinnati to Lake Erie for water transportation to eastern markets, including to New York City via the Erie Canal and Hudson River. At that time no highways had been built in the state, it was difficult for goods produced locally to reach the larger markets east of the Appalachian Mountains. During the canal's planning phase, many small towns along the northern shores of Maumee River competed to be the ending terminus of the canal, knowing it would give them a profitable status; the towns of Port Lawrence and Vistula merged in 1833 to better compete against the upriver towns of Waterville and Maumee. The inhabitants of this joined settlement chose the name Toledo, "but the reason for this choice is buried in a welter of legends.
One recounts that Washington Irving, traveling in Spain at the time, suggested the name to his brother, a local resident. Others award the honor to Two Stickney, son of the major
Battle Monument, Trenton, New Jersey
Battle Monument known as Five Points, is a neighborhood located within the city of Trenton in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States. The name Battle Monument is in reference to the Trenton Battle Monument, which sits just south of the Five Points formed from the intersection of Pennington Avenue, Princeton Avenue, Brunswick Avenue, North Broad Street and North Warren Street; the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Freight Station is in the neighborhood
Five Points station
Five Points is a metro station of the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority rail system in Atlanta, Georgia. It is the transfer point for all rail lines and serves as the main transportation hub for MARTA, it provides access to Station Soccer, the Five Points Business District, Underground Atlanta, City Hall, the Richard B. Russell Federal Building, Cobb Community Transit, Gwinnett County Transit, GRTA Xpress Transit, the tourism heart of Downtown Atlanta, it provides connecting bus service to Zoo Atlanta, Grant Park, Atlanta University Center, East Atlanta Village, Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site, Carter Center, Atlanta City Hall, South Dekalb Mall and Fulton County Government Center. Despite being considered subway, only the Red and Gold Lines are underground and utilize a tunnel under Broad Street between Garnett and Peachtree Center; the Blue and Green Lines, on the second level, are located at-grade below the intersecting elevated street viaducts in Downtown Atlanta.
The station is composed of three levels, an additional plaza level. At the surface is the plaza level, which provides access to the concourse level, Alabama Street, shopping along a pedestrian only portion of Broad Street; the plaza level houses the MARTA police precinct. The plaza level connects to the concourse level, which has the faregates and provides access to the rail platforms. Outside the paid area are the MARTA Ride Store, Reduced Fare Office, Lost and Found, a Zip car address. Outside the faregates is a tunnel to Underground Atlanta and stairs to Peachtree Street, Alabama Street, Forsyth Street. Within the faregates are restrooms, an information kiosk, stairs to the platforms. Directly underneath the concourse level are the Blue Green Line platforms. Running underneath and perpendicular to the Blue/Green platforms are the Red Line and Gold Line platforms. At the end of the platform is the original facade of the Eiseman Building, demolished to make way for the station. Elevators provide disabled access to all levels of the station.
This is the busiest station in the MARTA system, handling an average of 57,000 people per business day, over 27,000 on weekends. Preliminary planning and design of the entire MARTA heavy rail system began in 1967 after Georgia state legislature approval of MARTA's 1966 creation, with early blueprints ready in mid-1968. Design and engineering began in 1973; the station was constructed using the cut-and-cover method. The Gold Line was built beneath Broad Street, the Blue Line was constructed next to the railroad freight lines that run through Downtown Atlanta. Five Points opened on December 1979 with only the original East-West platform open; the initial opening of the station was delayed because of construction on the lower level. The North-South platform did not open until December 4, 1981. Major renovations to both the east and west street-level plazas of the station began in April 2006. In 2016, a section of the station was converted into a small soccer field funded by MARTA and Atlanta United FC, the city's new Major League Soccer team.
Station Soccer City Hall Fulton County Annex Richard B. Russell Federal Building Five Points The station is served by the following MARTA bus routes: Route 3 - Martin Luther King Jr. Drive / Auburn Avenue Route 21 - Memorial Drive Route 26 - Marietta Street / Perry Boulevard. Route 40 - Peachtree Street / Downtown Route 42 - Pryor Road. Route 49 - McDonough Boulevard Route 55 - Jonesboro Road Route 186 - Rainbow Drive / South DeKalb Route 813 - Atlanta Student Movement Blvd. Route 816 - North Highland Avenue Cobb Community Transit Gwinnett County Transit Georgia Regional Transportation Authority MARTA Station Page nycsubway.org Atlanta page Photo showing construction of the Five Points MARTA station - #1 Photo showing construction of the Five Points MARTA station - #2 Forsyth Street entrance from Google Maps Street View Peachtree Street entrance from Google Maps Street View
Five Points (Athens)
Five Points is a residential neighborhood in Athens, centered on the intersection of South Milledge Avenue, South Lumpkin Street, Milledge Circle. The neighborhood occupies the South-Southwest edge of the University of Georgia campus and is known for its historical residences, eclectic local businesses, mix of students and older residents, many of the latter being faculty and staff employed by the University; the neighborhood is home to several landmark local businesses, including Five Points Bottle Shop, Hodgson's Pharmacy, ADD Drugs, Jittery Joe's coffee house, organic foods store Earth Fare, Athens 5 Points Yoga studio, a not-for-profit dance studio, award-winning restaurant Five and Ten. Five Points has an active neighborhood association, Friends of Five Points, which organizes several events throughout the year, including the Friends of Five Points Easter Egg Hunt, Five Points Art Fair, the "5 at 5" 5K Fun Run/Walk. One of the neighborhood's main thoroughfares, South Milledge Avenue, is home to many historical single-family mansions which have since been converted to University of Georgia sorority and fraternity chapter houses, is included as part of a tour of historical Athens by the Athens Welcome Center.
Five Points is home to Barrow Elementary School, located on Pinecrest Drive, UGA's Family and Graduate Housing, along Agriculture Drive and Southview Drive
San Diego County, California
San Diego County the County of San Diego, is a county in the southwestern corner of the state of California, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,095,313. Making it California's second-most populous county and the fifth-most populous in the United States, its county seat is the eighth-most populous city in the United States. It is the southwesternmost county in the 48 contiguous United States. San Diego County comprises the San Diego-Carlsbad, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, the 17th most populous metropolitan statistical area and the 18th most populous primary statistical area of the United States as of July 1, 2012. San Diego is part of the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area shared between the United States and Mexico. Greater San Diego ranks as the 38th largest metropolitan area in the Americas. San Diego County has more than 70 miles of coastline; this forms the most densely populated region of the county, which has a mild Mediterranean to semiarid climate and extensive chaparral vegetation, similar to the rest of the western portion of southern California.
Precipitation and temperature extremes increase to the east, with mountains that receive frost and snow in the winter. These lushly forested mountains receive more rainfall than average in southern California, while the desert region of the county lies in a rain shadow to the east, which extends into the Desert Southwest region of North America. There are 16 naval and military installations of the U. S. Navy, U. S. Marine Corps, the U. S. Coast Guard in San Diego County; these include the Naval Base San Diego, Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, Naval Air Station North Island. From north to south, San Diego County extends from the southern borders of Orange and Riverside Counties to the Mexico-U. S. Border and Baja California. From west to east, San Diego County stretches from the Pacific Ocean to its boundary with Imperial County; the area, now San Diego County has been inhabited for more than 12,000 years by Kumeyaay, Luiseño, Cupeño and Cahuilla Indians and their local predecessors.
In 1542, the explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, who may have been born in Portugal but sailed on behalf of Spain, claimed San Diego Bay for the Spanish Empire, he named the site San Miguel. In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego. European settlement in what is now San Diego County began with the founding of the San Diego Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá by Spanish soldiers and clerics in 1769; this county was part of Alta California under the Viceroyalty of New Spain until the Mexican declaration of independence. From 1821 through 1848 this area was part of Mexico. San Diego County became part of the United States as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, ending the Mexican–American War; this treaty designated the new border as terminating at a point on the Pacific Ocean coast which would result in the border passing one Spanish league south of the southernmost portion of San Diego Bay, thus ensuring that the United States received all of this natural harbor.
San Diego County was one of the original counties of California, created at the time of California statehood in 1850. At the time of its establishment in 1850, San Diego County was large, included all of southernmost California south and east of Los Angeles County, it included areas of what are now Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, as well as all of what are now Riverside and Imperial Counties. During the part of the 19th century, there were numerous changes in the boundaries of San Diego County, when various areas were separated to make up the counties mentioned above; the most recent changes were the establishments of Riverside County in 1893 and Imperial County in 1907. Imperial County was the last county to be established in California, after this division, San Diego no longer extended from the Pacific Ocean to the Colorado River, it no longer covered the entire border between California and Mexico. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,526 square miles, of which 4,207 square miles is land and 319 square miles is water.
The county is larger in area than the combined states of Rhode Delaware. San Diego County has a varied topography. On its western side is more than 70 miles of coastline. Most of San Diego between the coast and the Laguna Mountains consists of hills and small canyons. Snow-capped mountains rise with the Sonoran Desert farther to the east. Cleveland National Forest is spread across the central portion of the county, while the Anza-Borrego Desert State Park occupies most of the northeast. Although the county's western third is urban, the mountains and deserts in the eastern two-thirds are undeveloped backcountry. Most of these backcountry areas are home to a native plant community known as chaparral. San Diego County contains more than a million acres of chaparral, twice as much as any other California county. North San Diego County is known as North County; the eastern suburbs are collectively known as East County, though most still lie in the western third of the county. The southern suburbs and southern detached portion of the city of San Diego, extending to the Mexican border, are collectively referred to as South Bay.
Periodically the area has been subject to wildfires th