Half crown (British coin)
The half crown was a denomination of British money, equivalent to two shillings and sixpence, or one-eighth of a pound. The half crown was first issued in 1549, in the reign of Edward VI. No half crowns were issued in the reign of Mary, but from the reign of Elizabeth I half crowns were issued in every reign except Edward VIII, the half crown was demonetised on 1 January 1970, the year before the United Kingdom adopted decimal currency on Decimal Day. During the English Interregnum of 1649–1660, a half crown was issued, bearing the arms of the Commonwealth of England. When Oliver Cromwell made himself Lord Protector of England, half crowns were issued bearing his semi-royal portrait, the half crown did not display its value on the reverse until 1893. King Henry VIII1526, the first English half crown was struck in gold, king Edward VI1551, issued the first half crown in silver. The coin was dated and showed the king riding a horse, Queen Mary I, the half crown was struck on Marys marriage to Philip II of Spain in 1554 but was never issued for circulation.
Http, //www. petitioncrown. com/spare15_LK47. html Queen Elizabeth I, at the end of the reign silver half crowns were issued. King James I, gold crowns were issued again. During the reign silver half crowns were issued, king Charles I, silver half crowns were issued, including those struck as obsidional money, money of necessity during the Civil War period. Commonwealth of England, Oliver Cromwell silver half crowns were issued, during the years 1656 and 1658 milled half crowns were issued of Oliver Cromwell. King Charles II 1663–1685, silver half crowns were issued, king James II 1685–1688, silver half crown. King William III & Queen Mary II 1689–1694, silver half crown, William III of England 1694–1702, silver half crown. Queen Anne 1702–1714, silver half crown, king George I 1714–1727, silver half crown. King George II 1727–1760, silver half crown, king George III 1760–1820, silver half crown. King George IV 1820–1830, silver half crown, king William IV 1830–1837, silver half crown. Queen Victoria 1837–1901, silver half crown, king Edward VII 1902–1910, silver half crown.
King George V 1910–1936, silver half crown, sterling silver until 1919, king Edward VIII1936, 50% silver half crown
Following a tradition inaugurated by King George V in 1919, the day is marked by war remembrances in many non-Commonwealth countries. Remembrance Day is observed on 11 November in most countries to recall the end of hostilities of World War I on that date in 1918, the First World War officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on 28 June 1919. The memorial evolved out of Armistice Day, which continues to be marked on the same date, the first official Armistice Day was subsequently held on the grounds of Buckingham Palace the following morning. The red remembrance poppy has become an emblem of Remembrance Day due to the poem In Flanders Fields written by Canadian physician Lieutenant-Colonel John McCrae. After reading the poem, Moina Michael, a professor at the University of Georgia, wrote the poem, We Shall Remember, the custom spread to Europe and the countries of the British Empire and Commonwealth within three years. Madame Anne E. Guerin tirelessly promoted the practice in Europe, in the UK Major George Howson fostered the cause with the support of General Haig.
Poppies were worn for the first time at the 1921 anniversary ceremony, at first real poppies were worn. These poppies bloomed across some of the worst battlefields of Flanders in World War I, the Flowers of the Forest, O Valiant Hearts, I Vow to Thee, My Country and Jerusalem are often played during the service. Services include wreaths laid to honour the fallen, a blessing, the central ritual at cenotaphs throughout the Commonwealth is a stylised night vigil. The Last Post was the bugle call at the close of the military day. This makes the ritual more than just an act of remembrance, the act is enhanced by the use of dedicated cenotaphs and the laying of wreaths—the traditional means of signalling high honours in ancient Greece and Rome. Services are held at 11 am at war memorials and schools in suburbs and cities across the country, at which the Last Post is sounded by a bugler and a one-minute silence is observed. In recent decades, Remembrance Day has been eclipsed as the national day of war commemoration by ANZAC Day.
When Remembrance Day falls on a working day in Melbourne and other major cities. While this occurs, the majority of passers by stop and observe a moment of silence while waiting for the bugler to finish the recital, in Barbados, Remembrance Day is not a public holiday. It is recognised as 11 November, but the parade and ceremonial events are carried out on Remembrance Sunday, the day is celebrated to recognise the Barbadian soldiers who died fighting in the First and Second World Wars. The parade is held at National Heroes Square, where a service is held. The Governor-General and Barbadian Prime Minister are among those who attend, along with government dignitaries
FIFA World Cup
The championship has been awarded every four years since the inaugural tournament in 1930, except in 1942 and 1946 when it was not held because of the Second World War. The current champion is Germany, which won its title at the 2014 tournament in Brazil. 32 teams, including the qualifying host nation, compete in the tournament phase for the title at venues within the host nation over a period of about a month. The 20 World Cup tournaments have been won by eight different national teams, Brazil have won five times, and they are the only team to have played in every tournament. The worlds first international match was a challenge match played in Glasgow in 1872 between Scotland and England, which ended in a 0–0 draw. The first international tournament, the edition of the British Home Championship. After FIFA was founded in 1904, it tried to arrange an international football tournament between nations outside the Olympic framework in Switzerland in 1906 and these were very early days for international football, and the official history of FIFA describes the competition as having been a failure.
At the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, football became an official competition, planned by The Football Association, Englands football governing body, the event was for amateur players only and was regarded suspiciously as a show rather than a competition. Great Britain won the gold medals and they repeated the feat in 1912 in Stockholm. With the Olympic event continuing to be contested only between teams, Sir Thomas Lipton organised the Sir Thomas Lipton Trophy tournament in Turin in 1909. The Lipton tournament was a championship between clubs from different nations, each one of which represented an entire nation. Lipton invited West Auckland, a side from County Durham. West Auckland won the tournament and returned in 1911 to successfully defend their title, in 1914, FIFA agreed to recognise the Olympic tournament as a world football championship for amateurs, and took responsibility for managing the event. This paved the way for the worlds first intercontinental football competition, at the 1920 Summer Olympics, contested by Egypt and 13 European teams, Uruguay won the next two Olympic football tournaments in 1924 and 1928.
Those were the first two world championships, as 1924 was the start of FIFAs professional era. On 28 May 1928, the FIFA Congress in Amsterdam decided to stage a championship itself. With Uruguay now two-time official football world champions and to celebrate their centenary of independence in 1930, indeed, no European country pledged to send a team until two months before the start of the competition. Rimet eventually persuaded teams from Belgium, Romania, in total,13 nations took part, seven from South America, four from Europe and two from North America
Farthing (British coin)
The British farthing coin, from fourthing, was a unit of currency of one quarter of a penny, or one nine hundred and sixtieth of a pound sterling. It was minted in bronze, and replaced the earlier copper farthings and it was used during the reign of six monarchs, Edward VII, George V, Edward VIII, George VI and Elizabeth II, ceasing to be legal tender in 1960. It featured two different designs on its reverse during its one hundred years in circulation, from 1860 until 1936, the image of Britannia, and from 1937 onwards, like all British coinage, it bore the portrait of the monarch on the obverse. Before Decimal Day in 1971, there were two hundred and forty pence in one pound sterling, there were four farthings in a penny, twelve pence made a shilling, and twenty shillings made a pound. Values less than a pound were usually written in terms of shillings and pence, values of less than a shilling were simply written in terms of pence, e. g. 8d, pronounced eightpence. A price with a farthing in it would be written like this, pronounced nineteen, as of 2014, the purchasing power of a farthing in 1960 ranged between 2p and 7p.
The original reverse of the coin, designed by Leonard Charles Wyon, is a seated Britannia, holding a trident, issues before 1895 feature a lighthouse to Britannias left and a ship to her right. Various minor adjustments to the level of the sea depicted around Britannia, some issues feature toothed edges, while others feature beading. Over the years, seven different obverses were used, Edward VII, George V, George VI and Elizabeth II each had a single obverse for farthings produced during their respective reigns. Over the long reign of Queen Victoria two different obverses were used, and the reign of Edward VIII meant that no farthings bearing his likeness were ever issued. The farthing was first issued with the so-called bun head, or draped bust of Queen Victoria on the obverse, the inscription around the bust read VICTORIA D G BRITT REG F D. This was replaced in 1895 by the old head, or veiled bust, the inscription on these coins read VICTORIA DEI GRA BRITT REGINA FID DEF IND IMP. Coins issued during the reign of Edward VII feature his likeness, those issued during the reign of George V feature his likeness and bear the inscription GEORGIVS V DEI GRA BRITT OMN REX FID DEF IND IMP.
The obverse shows a portrait of the king, the inscription on the obverse is EDWARDVS VIII D G BR OMN REX F D IND IMP. The pattern coin of Edward VIII and regular-issue farthings of George VI and Elizabeth II feature a redesigned reverse displaying the wren, one of Britains smallest birds. George VI issue coins feature the inscription GEORGIVS VI D G BR OMN REX F D IND IMP before 1949, and GEORGIVS VI D G BR OMN REX FIDEI DEF thereafter
Shilling (British coin)
The shilling was a coin worth one twentieth of a pound sterling, or twelve pence. It was first minted in the reign of Henry VII as the testoon, the word bob was sometimes used for a monetary value of several shillings, e. g. ten bob note. Following decimalisation in 1970 the coin had a value of five new pence and it was made from silver from its introduction in or around 1503 until 1947, and thereafter in cupronickel. Prior to Decimal Day in 1971 there were 240 pence in one pound sterling, twelve pence made a shilling, and twenty shillings made a pound. Values less than a pound were usually written in terms of shillings and pence, values of less than a shilling were simply written in terms of pence, e. g. eight pence would be 8d. Although the coin was not minted until the sixteenth century, the value of a shilling had been used for accounting purposes since the Anglo-Saxon period, originally, a shilling was deemed to be the value of a cow in Kent, or a sheep elsewhere. The value of one shilling equalling 12d was set by the Normans following the conquest, prior to this various Anglo-Saxon coins equalling 3,4, the first coins of the pound sterling with the value of 12d were minted in 1503 or 1504 and were known as testoons.
Between 1544 and 1551 the coinage was debased repeatedly by the governments of Henry VIII and this debasement meant that coins produced in 1551 had one-fifth of the silver content of those minted in 1544, and consequently the value of new testoons fell from 12d to 6d. The reason the testoon decreased in value is that unlike today and this debasement was recognised as a mistake, and during Elizabeths reign newly minted coins, including the testoon, had a much higher silver content and regained their pre-debasement value. Shillings were minted during the reign of every British monarch following Edward VI, the Royal Mint undertook a massive recoinage programme in 1816, with large quantities of gold and silver coin being minted. Previous issues of silver coinage had been irregular, and the last issue, minted in 1787, new silver coinage was to be of.925 standard, with silver coins to be minted at 66 shillings to the troy pound. Hence, newly minted shillings weighed 87.273 grains or 5.655 grams, the Royal Mint debased the silver coinage in 1920 from 92. 5% silver to 50% silver.
Shillings of both alloys were minted that year and this debasement was done because of the rising price of silver around the world, and followed the global trend of the elimination, or the reducing in purity, of the silver in coinage. The minting of coinage of the pound sterling ceased completely in 1946 for similar reasons. New silver coinage was minted in cupronickel, an alloy of copper. Beginning with Lord Wrottesleys proposals in the 1820s there were attempts to decimalise the pound sterling over the next century. These attempts came to nothing significant until the 1960s when the need for a currency more suited to simple monetary calculations became pressing, the decision to decimalise was announced in 1966, with the pound to be redivided into 100, rather than 240, pence. Decimal Day was set for 15 February 1971, and a range of new coins were introduced
It is subdivided into 100 pence. A number of nations that do not use sterling have called the pound. At various times, the sterling was commodity money or bank notes backed by silver or gold. The pound sterling is the worlds oldest currency still in use, the British Crown dependencies of Guernsey and Jersey produce their own local issues of sterling, the Guernsey pound and the Jersey pound. The pound sterling is used in the Isle of Man, the Bank of England is the central bank for the pound sterling, issuing its own coins and banknotes, and regulating issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Sterling is the fourth most-traded currency in the exchange market, after the United States dollar, the euro. Together with those three currencies it forms the basket of currencies which calculate the value of IMF special drawing rights, Sterling is the third most-held reserve currency in global reserves. The full, official name, pound sterling, is used mainly in formal contexts, otherwise the term pound is normally used.
The abbreviations ster. or stg. are sometimes used, the term British pound is commonly used in less formal contexts, although it is not an official name of the currency. The pound sterling is referred to as cable amongst forex traders, the origins of this term are attributed to the fact that in the 1800s, the dollar/pound sterling exchange rate was transmitted via transatlantic cable. Forex brokers are sometimes referred to as cable dealers, as another established source notes, the compound expression was derived, silver coins known as sterlings were issued in the Saxon kingdoms,240 of them being minted from a pound of silver. Hence, large payments came to be reckoned in pounds of sterlings, in 1260, Henry III granted them a charter of protection. And because the Leagues money was not frequently debased like that of England, English traders stipulated to be paid in pounds of the Easterlings, and land for their Kontor, the Steelyard of London, which by the 1340s was called Easterlings Hall, or Esterlingeshalle.
For further discussion of the etymology of sterling, see sterling silver, the currency sign for the pound sign is £, which is usually written with a single cross-bar, though a version with a double cross-bar is sometimes seen. The ISO4217 currency code is GBP, the abbreviation UKP is used but this is non-standard because the ISO3166 country code for the United Kingdom is GB. The Crown dependencies use their own codes, GGP, JEP, stocks are often traded in pence, so traders may refer to pence sterling, GBX, when listing stock prices. A common slang term for the pound sterling or pound is quid, since decimalisation in 1971, the pound has been divided into 100 pence. The symbol for the penny is p, hence an amount such as 50p properly pronounced fifty pence is more colloquially, quite often, pronounced fifty pee /fɪfti, pi and this helped to distinguish between new and old pence amounts during the changeover to the decimal system
Threepence (British coin)
The British threepence coin, usually simply known as a threepence or threepenny bit, was a unit of currency equaling one eightieth of a pound sterling, or three old pence sterling. It was used in the United Kingdom, and earlier in Great Britain, similar denominations were used throughout the British Empire, notably in Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. The sum of three pence was pronounced variously THROOP-ence, THREPP-ence or THRUPP-ence, reflecting different pronunciations in the regions and nations of the United Kingdom. Likewise, the coin was referred to in conversation as a THROOP-nee, THREPP-nee or THRUPP-nee bit. Before Decimal Day in 1971 there were two hundred and forty pence in one pound sterling, twelve pence made a shilling, and twenty shillings made a pound. Values less than a pound were usually written in terms of shillings and pence, values of less than a shilling were simply written in terms of pence, e. g. eight pence would be 8d. The three pence coin – expressed in writing as 3d – first appeared in England during the silver coinage of King Edward VI.
Hence the coin was not minted in the two reigns. Edward VI threepences were struck at the London and York mints, the obverse shows a front-facing bust of the king, with a rose to the left and the value numeral III to the right, surrounded by the legend EDWARD VI D G ANG FRA Z HIB REX. The reverse shows a cross over the royal shield, surrounded by the legend POSUI DEUM ADIUTOREM MEUM. Queen Elizabeth I produced threepences during her third coinage, most 1561 issues are 21 mm in diameter, while ones are 19 mm in diameter. These coins are identifiable from other denominations by the rose behind the head on the obverse. Dates used for the coins were 1561–77. Threepences of the fourth coinage are identical except for having a lower silver content. There was a fairly rare milled coinage threepence, produced between 1561 and 1564 with similar designs and inscriptions to the hammered coinage threepences, the denomination is identified by the numeral III appearing behind the kings head. By far the most common Charles I threepences were produced at the Aberystwyth mint between 1638 and 1642, plumes were the identifying symbol of the Aberystwyth mint, but the Bristol and Oxford mints often used dies from the Aberystwyth mint so plumes often appear on their output too.
1644 OX – The religion of the Protestants, the laws of England,1644 Oxford, while around the outside of the coin is the legend EXURGAT DEUS DISSIPENTUR INIMICI – Let God arise and His enemies be scattered. This coin appears dated 1646, the mint at Bristol produced rare threepences in 1644 and 1645
Five pounds (British gold coin)
However, the £5 coin tends to have a more modern feel and so is normally considered separately. The normal weight of the denomination was 40 grams, the first appearance of the denomination was in the reign of George III, when it was produced in 1820 as a pattern. The obverse shows the right-facing bust of the king with the legend GEORGIUS III D. G. BRITANNIAR, REX F. D. date, while the reverse shows Benedetto Pistruccis now famous St. George and dragon design with no legend. The edge is inscribed on the version, but plain on the proof version. The next appearance of the denomination was in the reign of George IV, the obverse shows the left-facing bust of the king with the legend GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA date, while the reverse shows a crowned shield within a mantle cape with the legend BRITANNIARUM REX FID DEF. The 1826 coin has the edge inscription DECUS ET TUTAMEN ANNO REGNI SEPTIMO, the edge may either have the inscription DECUS ET TUTAMEN ANNO REGNI TERTIO or be plain. This issue is the lightest of all the £5 coins, weighing only 38. 7–39.3 grams, the edge of this coin is milled, and it weighs 40 grams.
This coin was produced in the mint at Sydney, Australia. In the reigns of Kings Edward VII, George V, and George VI, all these reigns used the Pistrucci George and Dragon obverse, with the 1902 and 1911 coins having milled edges, though at least some of the 1937 coins have plain edges. The 1902 Edward VII coin was minted at Sydney, being identified by an S above the centre of the date. The reign of Queen Elizabeth II saw a departure from the practice in issuing gold coinage. No further £5 gold pieces were struck until 1980, nine years after decimalisation, coins from 1980 to 1984 use the Arnold Machin effigy of the Queen, while the 1985–1990 coins use the Raphael Maklouf effigy. All these years use the Pistrucci reverse, the £5 coins are 36.02 mm in diameter in contrast to the commemorative crowns that are 38. 6mm diam. Since 1990 £5 coins have been produced in cupronickel, but premium versions in silver and these modern five pound coins are a continuation of the crown which was issued from 1544 as a five shilling coin.
The modern five-pound issues are not issued for circulation, but to mark events or commemorations of national or Royal significance
The half sovereign is an English and British gold coin with a face value half that of a sovereign, equivalent to half a pound sterling, ten shillings, or 120 old pence. Since the end of the standard, it has been issued only in limited quantities as a commemorative coin with a sale price. The main reason for this is because they are used, along with coins of this type as bullion coins. The half sovereign was first introduced in 1544 under Henry VIII, after 1604, the issue of half sovereigns, along with gold sovereigns, was discontinued until 1817, following a major revision of British coinage. Production continued until 1926 and, apart from special issues for years, was not restarted until 1980. It was used extensively in Australia, until 1933. Modern half sovereigns, from 1817 onwards, have a diameter of 19.30 mm, a thickness of ~0.99 mm, a weight of 3.99 g, are made of 22 carat crown gold alloy, and contain 0.1176 troy ounces of gold. The reverse side, featuring St. George slaying a dragon was designed by Benedetto Pistrucci, the half sovereign is a protected coin for the purposes of Part II of the Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981.
British Coins - Free information about British coins, online Coin Club / Coins from United Kingdom / Half Sovereign
Five pence (British coin)
The British decimal five pence coin – often pronounced five pee – is a unit of currency equaling five one-hundredths of a pound sterling. Its obverse has featured the profile of Queen Elizabeth II since the introduction in 1968. Four different portraits of the Queen have been used, with the latest design by Jody Clark being introduced in 2015, the second and current reverse, featuring a segment of the Royal Shield, was introduced in 2008. Five pence and ten pence coins are legal tender only up to the sum of £5, the five pence coin was originally minted from cupronickel, but since 2011 it has been minted in nickel-plated steel due to the increasing price of metal. From January 2013, the Royal Mint began a programme to remove the previous cupro-nickel coins from circulation with replacement by the nickel-plated steel versions. As of March 2014, an estimated 3,847 million 5p coins were in circulation with a face value of £192.370 million. To date, three different obverses have been used, in all cases, the inscription is ELIZABETH II D. G. REG. F. D. 2013, where 2013 is replaced by the year of minting, in the original design, both sides of the coin are encircled by dots, a common feature on coins, known as beading.
As with all new decimal currency, until 1984 the portrait of Queen Elizabeth II by Arnold Machin appeared on the obverse, in which the Queen wears the Girls of Great Britain and Ireland Tiara. Between 1985 and 1997, the portrait by Raphael Maklouf was used, in 1990, the 5p coin was reduced in size and the older coins were removed from circulation. From 1998 to 2015, the portrait by Ian Rank-Broadley was used, again featuring the tiara, as of June 2015, coins bearing the portrait by Jody Clark have been seen in circulation. In August 2005 the Royal Mint launched a competition to find new designs for all circulating coins apart from the £2 coin. The winner, announced in April 2008, was Matthew Dent, the designs for the 1p, 2p, 5p, 10p, 20p and 50p coins depict sections of the Royal Shield that form the whole shield when placed together. The shield in its entirety is featured on the £1 coin, the 5p coin depicts the centre of the Royal shield, showing the meeting point of the four quarters. The coins obverse remains largely unchanged, but the beading, which no longer features on the reverse, has been removed from the obverse.
Royal Mint – 5p coin Coins of the UK – Decimal 5p coins
One pound (British coin)
The British one pound coin is a denomination of the pound sterling. Its obverse bears the Latin engraving D G REG “Dei Gratia Regina” meaning, “By the grace of God, Queen” and it has featured the profile of Queen Elizabeth II since the coins introduction on 21 April 1983. Four different portraits of the Queen have been used, with the latest design by Jody Clark being introduced in 2015. One-pound notes continue to be issued in Jersey and the Isle of Man, and by the Royal Bank of Scotland, since 28 March 2017, two versions of the one pound coin have been in circulation - the original round design and a new 12-sided design. As of March 2014 there were an estimated 1,553 million round £1 coins in circulation, of which the Royal Mint estimated in 2014 that 3. 04% were counterfeit. In an effort to counter this, the Royal Mint introduced the new 12-sided coin, which is bimetallic like the current £2 coin, the round pound will remain in circulation until October 2017. To date, five different obverses have been used, for the first three of these, the inscription was ELIZABETH II D. G. REG. F. D.
2013, where 2013 is replaced by the year of minting, the fourth design, unveiled in March 2015, expanded the inscription slightly to ELIZABETH II DEI. GRA. REG. FID. DEF. The fifth design, introduced in March 2017, reverted to D. G. REG. F. D. In summary, In 1983 and 1984 the portrait of Queen Elizabeth II by Arnold Machin appeared on the obverse, in which the Queen wears the Girls of Great Britain and Ireland Tiara. Between 1985 and 1997 the portrait by Raphael Maklouf was used, between 1998 and 2015 the portrait by Ian Rank-Broadley was used, again featuring the tiara, with a signature-mark IRB below the portrait. In 2015 the portrait by Jody Clark was introduced, in which the Queen wears the George IV State Diadem, in August 2005 the Royal Mint launched a competition to find new reverse designs for all circulating coins apart from the £2 coin. The winner, announced in April 2008, was Matthew Dent, the designs for the 1p, 2p, 5p, 10p, 20p and 50p coins depict sections of the Royal Shield that form the whole shield when placed together.
The shield in its entirety is featured on the £1 coin and this edge inscription may frequently be upside-down. Since 2008, national-based designs have still been minted, but alongside the new standard version, the inscription ONE POUND appears on all reverse designs. The reverse of the new 12-sided bimetallic pound coin, introduced on 28 March 2017, was chosen by a design competition. The competition to design the reverse of coin was opened in September 2014. It was won in March 2015 by 15-year-old David Pearce from Walsall, the design features a rose, leek and shamrock bound by a crown