Castoreum is a yellowish exudate from the castor sacs of the mature North American beaver and the European beaver. Beavers use castoreum in combination with urine to scent mark their territory. Both beaver sexes have a pair of castor sacs and a pair of anal glands, located in two cavities under the skin between the pelvis and the base of the tail; the castor sacs are not true glands on a cellular level, hence references to these structures as preputial glands, castor glands, or scent glands are misnomers. It is used as a food additive; the government of Ontario pays trappers to harvest beaver castor sacs. The sacs brought CA$2.62–5.10 per ounce when auctioned at the May–June 2016 North American Fur Auction. At least 24 compounds are known constituents of beaver castoreum. Several of these have pheromonal activity, of which the phenols 4-ethylphenol and catechol and the ketones acetophenone and 3-hydroxyacetophenone were strongest. Five additional compounds elicit a weaker response: 4-methylcatechol, 4-methoxyacetophenone, 5-methoxysalicylic acid, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid.
There are oxygen-containing monoterpenes such as 6-methyl-l-heptanol, 4,6-dimethyl-l-heptanol, isopinocamphone and two linalool oxides and their acetates. Other compounds are: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol, borneol, o-cresol, 4--2-butanone, phenol. All those compounds are gathered from plant food, it contains nupharamine alkaloids and castoramine, cis-cyclohexane-1,2-diol. In perfumery, the term castoreum refers to the resinoid extract resulting from the dried and alcohol tinctured beaver castor; the dried beaver castor sacs are aged for two or more years to mellow. Castoreum is used for its note suggesting leather compounded with other ingredients including top and base notes; some classic perfumes incorporating castor are Emeraude, Chanel Antaeus, Cuir de Russie, Magie Noire, Lancôme Caractère, Hechter Madame, Givenchy III, many "leather" themed compositions. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration lists castoreum extract as a recognized as safe food additive. In 1965, the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association's GRAS program added castoreum extract and castoreum liquid.
Product ingredient lists refer to it as a "natural flavoring." While it is used in foods and beverages as part of a substitute vanilla flavor, it is less used as a part of a raspberry or strawberry flavoring. The annual industry consumption is low, around 300 pounds, whereas vanillin is over 2.6 million pounds annually. Castoreum has been traditionally used in Sweden for flavoring schnapps referred to as "Bäverhojt". Castoreum is used to contribute to the flavor and odor of cigarettes. Medieval beekeepers used castoreum to increase honey production. Taxea, a secretion of the badger's subcaudal glands comparable in its medicinal use to the better-known castoreum Hyraceum, the petrified and rock-like excrement composed of urine and feces excreted by the cape hyrax, a sought-after material, used in traditional South African medicine and perfumery Musk Ambergris Perfume - Animal sources The International Perfume Museum: Castoreum
Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry
Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry is a reference work related to industrial chemistry published in English and German. As of 2016 it is in its 7th edition; the first edition was published in German by Fritz Ullmann in 1914. The 4th Edition, published 1972 to 1984 contained 25 volumes; the fifth edition, published 1985 to 1996, was the first version available in English. In 1997, the first online version was available, updated at least every other month; as of 2016, Ullmann's Encyclopedia is in 40 volumes including one index volume. While PDF versions of individual chapters used to be available for purchase from the Wiley Online Library, as of at least 9/2018, it appears that Wiley has restricted access to the online version only to institutional users. Therefore, it is no longer possible to purchase individual chapters through the Wiley Online Library. For individuals or small companies, the only option is to purchase the entire hardcopy 40-volume set for $11,150. Industrial chemistry is the study of chemistry with a higher mathematics and physics education for critical processes engineering and maintenance.
The industrial chemist strengthens the association of new materials investigation and manufacturing development, amid research chemistry and chemical engineering, through innovative intelligence and quality management. Subject areas include "inorganic and organic chemicals, pharmaceuticals and plastics, metals and alloys and biotechnological products, food chemistry, process engineering and unit operations, analytical methods, environmental protection and others"; as of 2016, Barbara Elvers is Editor-in-Chief and the editorial board consists of 17 editors, all but 3 of them from Germany
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms and ions: their composition, properties and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances. In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology, it is sometimes called the central science because it provides a foundation for understanding both basic and applied scientific disciplines at a fundamental level. For example, chemistry explains aspects of plant chemistry, the formation of igneous rocks, how atmospheric ozone is formed and how environmental pollutants are degraded, the properties of the soil on the moon, how medications work, how to collect DNA evidence at a crime scene. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron; the word chemistry comes from alchemy, which referred to an earlier set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, philosophy, astronomy and medicine.
It is seen as linked to the quest to turn lead or another common starting material into gold, though in ancient times the study encompassed many of the questions of modern chemistry being defined as the study of the composition of waters, growth, disembodying, drawing the spirits from bodies and bonding the spirits within bodies by the early 4th century Greek-Egyptian alchemist Zosimos. An alchemist was called a'chemist' in popular speech, the suffix "-ry" was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as "chemistry"; the modern word alchemy in turn is derived from the Arabic word al-kīmīā. In origin, the term is borrowed from the Greek χημία or χημεία; this may have Egyptian origins since al-kīmīā is derived from the Greek χημία, in turn derived from the word Kemet, the ancient name of Egypt in the Egyptian language. Alternately, al-kīmīā may derive from χημεία, meaning "cast together"; the current model of atomic structure is the quantum mechanical model. Traditional chemistry starts with the study of elementary particles, molecules, metals and other aggregates of matter.
This matter can be studied in isolation or in combination. The interactions and transformations that are studied in chemistry are the result of interactions between atoms, leading to rearrangements of the chemical bonds which hold atoms together; such behaviors are studied in a chemistry laboratory. The chemistry laboratory stereotypically uses various forms of laboratory glassware; however glassware is not central to chemistry, a great deal of experimental chemistry is done without it. A chemical reaction is a transformation of some substances into one or more different substances; the basis of such a chemical transformation is the rearrangement of electrons in the chemical bonds between atoms. It can be symbolically depicted through a chemical equation, which involves atoms as subjects; the number of atoms on the left and the right in the equation for a chemical transformation is equal. The type of chemical reactions a substance may undergo and the energy changes that may accompany it are constrained by certain basic rules, known as chemical laws.
Energy and entropy considerations are invariably important in all chemical studies. Chemical substances are classified in terms of their structure, phase, as well as their chemical compositions, they can be analyzed using the tools of e.g. spectroscopy and chromatography. Scientists engaged in chemical research are known as chemists. Most chemists specialize in one or more sub-disciplines. Several concepts are essential for the study of chemistry; the particles that make up matter have rest mass as well – not all particles have rest mass, such as the photon. Matter can be a mixture of substances; the atom is the basic unit of chemistry. It consists of a dense core called the atomic nucleus surrounded by a space occupied by an electron cloud; the nucleus is made up of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons, while the electron cloud consists of negatively charged electrons which orbit the nucleus. In a neutral atom, the negatively charged electrons balance out the positive charge of the protons.
The nucleus is dense. The atom is the smallest entity that can be envisaged to retain the chemical properties of the element, such as electronegativity, ionization potential, preferred oxidation state, coordination number, preferred types of bonds to form. A chemical element is a pure substance, composed of a single type of atom, characterized by its particular number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms, known as the atomic number and represented by the symbol Z; the mass number is the sum of the number of neutrons in a nucleus. Although all the nuclei of all atoms belonging to one element will have the same
Frankincense is an aromatic resin used in incense and perfumes, obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia in the family Burseraceae Boswellia sacra, B. carterii, B. frereana, B. serrata, B. papyrifera. The word is from Old French franc encens. There are five main species of Boswellia. Resin from each of the five is available in various grades; the resin is hand-sorted for quality. The English word frankincense derives from the Old French expression franc encens, meaning "high-quality incense"; the word franc in Old French meant "noble" or "pure". A popular folk etymology suggests a connection with the Franks, who reintroduced the spice to Western Europe during the Middle Ages, but the word itself comes from the expression. Frankincense is tapped from the scraggly but hardy trees by striping and letting the exuded resin bleed out and harden; the hardened streaks of resin are called tears. Several species and varieties of frankincense trees each produce a different type of resin. Differences in soil and climate create more diversity of the resin within the same species.
Boswellia sacra trees are considered unusual for their ability to grow in environments so unforgiving that they sometimes grow out of solid rock. The initial means of attachment to the rock is unknown, but is accomplished by a bulbous disk-like swelling of the trunk; this growth prevents violent storms from detaching the tree. This feature is absent in trees that grow in rocky soil or gravel; the trees start producing resin at about eight to 10 years old. Tapping is done two to three times a year with the final taps producing the best tears due to their higher aromatic terpene and diterpene content. Speaking, the more opaque resins are the best quality. Fine resin is produced in Somalia. Recent studies indicate that frankincense tree populations are declining due to over-exploitation. Tapped trees produce seeds that germinate at only 16% while seeds of trees that had not been tapped germinate at more than 80%. In addition, burning and attacks by the longhorn beetle have reduced the tree population.
Conversion of frankincense woodlands to agriculture is a major threat. These are some of the chemical compounds present in frankincense: acid resin, soluble in alcohol and having the formula C20H32O4 gum 30–36% 3-acetyl-beta-boswellic acid alpha-boswellic acid 4-O-methyl-glucuronic acid incensole acetate, C21H34O3 phellandrene -cis- and -trans-olibanic acidsSee the following references for a comprehensive overview of the chemical compounds in different frankincense species. Frankincense has been traded on the Arabian Peninsula for more than 6,000 years. Frankincense was one of the consecrated incenses described in the Torah and Talmud used in ketoret ceremonies, an important component of the services in the Temple in Jerusalem, it was offered on a specialized incense altar in the time when the Tabernacle was located in the First and Second Temples. It is mentioned in the Book of Exodus 30:34, which calls it לבונה, similar to לבן, lavan,'white', it was one of the ingredients in the perfume of the sanctuary, was used as an accompaniment of the meal-offering.
It was mentioned as a commodity in trade from Sheba. When burnt it emitted a fragrant odor, the incense was a symbol of the Divine name and an emblem of prayer, it was associated with myrrh. A specially "pure" kind, lebhonah zakkah, was presented with the showbread. Frankincense received numerous mentions in the New Testament. Together with gold and myrrh, it was made an offering to the infant Jesus. Frankincense was reintroduced to Europe by Frankish Crusaders, although its name refers to its quality, not to the Franks themselves. Though it is better known as "frankincense" to westerners, the resin is known as olibanum, or in Arabic al-lubān, a reference to the milky sap tapped from the Boswellia tree; the Greek historian Herodotus was familiar with frankincense and knew it was harvested from trees in southern Arabia. He reported that the gum was dangerous to harvest because of venomous snakes that lived in the trees, he goes on to describe the method used by the Arabs to get around this problem, that being the burning of the gum of the styrax tree whose smoke would drive the snakes away.
Theophrastus mentions the resin. Southern Arabia was a major exporter of frankincense in antiquity, with some of it being traded as far as China; the 13th-century Chinese writer and customs inspector Zhao Rugua wrote on the origin of frankincense, of its being traded to China: "Ruxiang or xunluxiang comes from the three Dashi countries of Murbat and Dhofar, from the depths of the remotest mountains. The tree which yields this drug may be compared to the pine tree, its trunk is notched with a hatchet, upon which the resin flows out, when hardened, turns into incense, gathered and made into lumps. It is transported on elephants to the Das
Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases at a given temperature in a closed system. The equilibrium vapor pressure is an indication of a liquid's evaporation rate, it relates to the tendency of particles to escape from the liquid. A substance with a high vapor pressure at normal temperatures is referred to as volatile; the pressure exhibited by vapor present above a liquid surface is known as vapor pressure. As the temperature of a liquid increases, the kinetic energy of its molecules increases; as the kinetic energy of the molecules increases, the number of molecules transitioning into a vapor increases, thereby increasing the vapor pressure. The vapor pressure of any substance increases non-linearly with temperature according to the Clausius–Clapeyron relation; the atmospheric pressure boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the vapor pressure equals the ambient atmospheric pressure.
With any incremental increase in that temperature, the vapor pressure becomes sufficient to overcome atmospheric pressure and lift the liquid to form vapor bubbles inside the bulk of the substance. Bubble formation deeper in the liquid requires a higher temperature due to the higher fluid pressure, because fluid pressure increases above the atmospheric pressure as the depth increases. More important at shallow depths is the higher temperature required to start bubble formation; the surface tension of the bubble wall leads to an overpressure in the small, initial bubbles. Thus, thermometer calibration should not rely on the temperature in boiling water; the vapor pressure that a single component in a mixture contributes to the total pressure in the system is called partial pressure. For example, air at sea level, saturated with water vapor at 20 °C, has partial pressures of about 2.3 kPa of water, 78 kPa of nitrogen, 21 kPa of oxygen and 0.9 kPa of argon, totaling 102.2 kPa, making the basis for standard atmospheric pressure.
Vapor pressure is measured in the standard units of pressure. The International System of Units recognizes pressure as a derived unit with the dimension of force per area and designates the pascal as its standard unit. One pascal is one newton per square meter. Experimental measurement of vapor pressure is a simple procedure for common pressures between 1 and 200 kPa. Most accurate results are obtained near the boiling point of substances and large errors result for measurements smaller than 1kPa. Procedures consist of purifying the test substance, isolating it in a container, evacuating any foreign gas measuring the equilibrium pressure of the gaseous phase of the substance in the container at different temperatures. Better accuracy is achieved when care is taken to ensure that the entire substance and its vapor are at the prescribed temperature; this is done, as with the use of an isoteniscope, by submerging the containment area in a liquid bath. Low vapor pressures of solids can be measured using the Knudsen effusion cell method.
In a medical context, vapor pressure is sometimes expressed in other units millimeters of mercury. This is important for volatile anesthetics, most of which are liquids at body temperature, but with a high vapor pressure. Anesthetics with a higher vapor pressure at body temperature will be excreted more as they are exhaled from the lungs; the Antoine equation is a mathematical expression of the relation between the vapor pressure and the temperature of pure liquid or solid substances. The basic form of the equation is: log P = A − B C + T and it can be transformed into this temperature-explicit form: T = B A − log P − C where: P is the absolute vapor pressure of a substance T is the temperature of the substance A, B and C are substance-specific coefficients log is either log 10 or log e A simpler form of the equation with only two coefficients is sometimes used: log P = A − B T which can be transformed to: T = B A − log P Sublimations and vaporizations of the same substance have separate sets of Antoine coefficients, as do components in mixtures.
Each parameter set for a specific compound is only applicable over a specified temperature range. Temperature ranges are chosen to maintain the equation's accuracy of a few up to 8–10 percent. For many volatile substances, several different sets of parameters are available and used for different temperature ranges; the Antoine equation has poor accuracy with any single parameter set when used from a compound's melting point to its critical temperature. Accuracy is usually poor when vapor pressure is under 10 Torr because of the limitations of the apparatus used to establish the Antoine parameter values; the Wagner equation gives "o
Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds and solvents, used to give the human body, food and living-spaces an agreeable scent. It is in liquid form and used to give a pleasant scent to a person's body. Ancient texts and archaeological excavations show the use of perfumes in some of the earliest human civilizations. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin, which allowed for the composition of perfumes with smells unattainable from natural aromatics alone; the word perfume derives from the Latin perfumare, meaning "to smoke through". Perfumery, as the art of making perfumes, began in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, or maybe Ancient China, was further refined by the Romans and the Arabs; the world's first-recorded chemist is considered a woman named Tapputi, a perfume maker mentioned in a cuneiform tablet from the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamia. She distilled flowers and calamus with other aromatics filtered and put them back in the still several times.
In India and perfumery existed in the Indus civilization. One of the earliest distillations of Ittar was mentioned in the Hindu Ayurvedic text Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita. In 2003, archaeologists uncovered what are believed to be the world's oldest surviving perfumes in Pyrgos, Cyprus; the perfumes date back more than 4,000 years. They were discovered in an ancient perfumery, a 300-square-meter factory housing at least 60 stills, mixing bowls and perfume bottles. In ancient times people used herbs and spices, such as almond, myrtle, conifer resin, bergamot, as well as flowers. In May 2018, an ancient perfume “Rodo” was recreated for the Greek National Archaeological Museum's anniversary show “Countless Aspects of Beauty”, allowing visitors to approach antiquity through their olfaction receptors. In the 9th century the Arab chemist Al-Kindi wrote the Book of the Chemistry of Perfume and Distillations, which contained more than a hundred recipes for fragrant oils, aromatic waters, substitutes or imitations of costly drugs.
The book described 107 methods and recipes for perfume-making and perfume-making equipment, such as the alembic. The Persian chemist Ibn Sina introduced the process of extracting oils from flowers by means of distillation, the procedure most used today, he first experimented with the rose. Until his discovery, liquid perfumes consisted of mixtures of oil and crushed herbs or petals, which made a strong blend. Rose water was more delicate, became popular. Both the raw ingredients and the distillation technology influenced western perfumery and scientific developments chemistry; the art of perfumery was known in western Europe from 1221, taking into account the monks' recipes of Santa Maria delle Vigne or Santa Maria Novella of Florence, Italy. In the east, the Hungarians produced in 1370 a perfume made of scented oils blended in an alcohol solution – best known as Hungary Water – at the behest of Queen Elizabeth of Hungary; the art of perfumery prospered in Renaissance Italy, in the 16th century the personal perfumer to Catherine de' Medici, Rene the Florentine, took Italian refinements to France.
His laboratory was connected with her apartments by a secret passageway, so that no formulae could be stolen en route. Thanks to Rene, France became one of the European centers of perfume and cosmetics manufacture. Cultivation of flowers for their perfume essence, which had begun in the 14th century, grew into a major industry in the south of France. Between the 16th and 17th centuries, perfumes were used by the wealthy to mask body odors resulting from infrequent bathing. Due to this patronage, the perfume industry developed. In 1693, Italian barber Giovanni Paolo Feminis created a perfume water called Aqua Admirabilis, today best known as eau de cologne. By the 18th century the Grasse region of France and Calabria were growing aromatic plants to provide the growing perfume industry with raw materials. Today and France remain the center of European perfume design and trade. Perfume types reflect the concentration of aromatic compounds in a solvent, which in fine fragrance is ethanol or a mix of water and ethanol.
Various sources differ in the definitions of perfume types. The intensity and longevity of a perfume is based on the concentration and longevity of the aromatic compounds, or perfume oils, used; as the percentage of aromatic compounds increases, so does the intensity and longevity of the scent. Specific terms are used to describe a fragrance's approximate concentration by the percent of perfume oil in the volume of the final product; the most widespread terms are: parfum or extrait, in English known as perfume extract, pure perfume, or perfume: 15–40% aromatic compounds.
Musk is a class of aromatic substances used as base notes in perfumery. They include glandular secretions from animals such as the musk deer, numerous plants emitting similar fragrances, artificial substances with similar odors. Musk was a name given to a substance with a strong odor obtained from a gland of the musk deer; the substance has been used as a popular perfume fixative since ancient times and is one of the most expensive animal products in the world. The name originates from the Late Greek μόσχος'moskhos', from Persian'mushk' from Sanskrit मुष्क muṣka meaning "a testicle", from a diminutive of मूष् mūṣ; the deer gland was thought to resemble a scrotum. It is applied to various plants and animals of similar smell and has come to encompass a wide variety of aromatic substances with similar odors, despite their differing chemical structures and molecular shapes. Natural musk was used extensively in perfumery until the late 19th century when economic and ethical motives led to the adoption of synthetic musk, now used exclusively.
The organic compound responsible for the characteristic odor of musk is muscone. Modern use of natural musk pods occurs in traditional Chinese medicine; the musk deer belongs to the family Moschidae and lives in Nepal, India, Afghanistan, China and Mongolia. The musk pod is obtained by killing the male deer through traps laid in the wild. Upon drying, the reddish-brown paste inside the musk pod turns into a black granular material called "musk grain", tinctured with alcohol; the aroma of the tincture gives a pleasant odor only after it is diluted. No other natural substance has such a complex aroma associated with so many contradictory descriptions. Musk has been a key constituent in many perfumes since its discovery, being held to give a perfume long-lasting power as a fixative. Today, the trade quantity of the natural musk is controlled by CITES, but illegal poaching and trading continues. Muskrat, a rodent native to North America, has been known since the 17th century to secrete a glandular substance with a musky odor.
A chemical means of extracting it was discovered in the 1940s, but it did not prove commercially worthwhile. Glandular substances with musk-like odors are obtained from the musk duck of southern Australia, the muskox, the musk shrew, the musk beetle, the African civet, the musk turtle, the American alligator of North America, lynx musk, lungurion which, in antiquity, was valued, from several other animals. In crocodiles, there are two pairs of musk glands, one pair situated at the corner of the jaw and the other pair in the cloaca. Musk glands are found in snakes; some plants such as Angelica archangelica or Abelmoschus moschatus produce musky-smelling macrocyclic lactone compounds. These compounds are used in perfumery as substitutes for animal musk or to alter the smell of a mixture of other musks; the plant sources include the musk flower of western North America, the muskwood of Australia, the musk seeds from India. Since obtaining the deer musk requires killing the endangered animal, nearly all musk fragrance used in perfumery today is synthetic, sometimes called "white musk".
They can be divided into three major classes: aromatic nitro musks, polycyclic musk compounds, macrocyclic musk compounds. The first two groups have broad uses in industry ranging from cosmetics to detergents. However, the detection of the first two chemical groups in human and environmental samples as well as their carcinogenic properties initiated a public debate on the use of these compounds and a ban or reduction of their use in many regions of the world. Macrocyclic musk compounds are expected to replace them. Musk has been used to attract wild animals, including in man-made perfume mixtures. For example, in 2018 Indian authorities used the perfume Obsession by Calvin Klein to attract and thus trap a wild tiger that had attacked and killed more than a dozen humans. Musk sticks, which are artificially flavoured with a substance, reminiscent of musk perfume, are a popular confection in Australia. Androstenol Civetone Musk stick This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Musk". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19. Cambridge University Press. P. 90. Borschberg, Peter, "O comércio europeu de almíscar com a Ásia no inicio da edad moderna - The European Musk Trade with Asia in the Early Modern Period", Revista Oriente, 5: 90-9. Borschberg, Peter, "Der asiatische Moschushandel vom frühen 15. Bis zum 17. Jahrhundert", in Mirabilia Asiatica, edited by J. Alves, C. Guillot and R. Ptak. Wiesbaden and Lisbon: Harrassowitz-Fundação Oriente: 65-84