Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of late antiquity. English dictionary definitions of Late Latin date this period from the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD, continuing into the 7th century in the Iberian Peninsula; this somewhat ambiguously defined version of Latin was used between the eras of Classical Latin and Medieval Latin. There is no scholarly consensus about when Classical Latin should end or Medieval Latin should begin. However, Late Latin is characterized by an identifiable style. Being a written language, Late Latin is not the same as Vulgar Latin; the latter served as ancestor of the Romance languages. Although Late Latin reflects an upsurge of the use of Vulgar Latin vocabulary and constructs, it remains classical in its overall features, depending on the author who uses it; some Late Latin writings are more literary and classical, but others are more inclined to the vernacular. Late Latin is not identical to Christian patristic Latin, used in the theological writings of the early Christian fathers.
While Christian writings used a subset of Late Latin, pagans wrote extensively in Late Latin in the early part of the period. Late Latin formed when mercenaries from non-Latin-speaking peoples on the borders of the empire were being subsumed and assimilated in large numbers, the rise of Christianity was introducing a heightened divisiveness in Roman society, creating a greater need for a standard language for communicating between different socioeconomic registers and separated regions of the sprawling empire. A new and more universal speech evolved from the main elements: Classical Latin, Christian Latin, which featured sermo humilis in which the people were to be addressed, all the various dialects of Vulgar Latin; the linguist Antoine Meillet wrote, "Without the exterior appearance of the language being much modified, Latin became in the course of the imperial epoch a new language", and, "Serving as some sort of lingua franca to a large empire, Latin tended to become simpler, to keep above all what it had of the ordinary".
Neither Late Latin nor Late Antiquity are modern concepts. A notice in Harper's New Monthly Magazine of the publication of Andrews' Freund's Lexicon of the Latin Language in 1850 mentions that the dictionary divides Latin into ante-classic, quite classic, Augustan, post-Augustan and post-classic or late Latin, which indicates the term was in professional use by English classicists in the early 19th century. Instances of English vernacular use of the term may be found from the 18th century; the term Late Antiquity meaning post-classical and pre-medieval had currency in English well before then. Wilhelm Sigismund Teuffel's first edition of History of Roman Literature defined an early period, the Golden Age, the Silver Age and goes on to define other ages first by dynasty and by century. In subsequent editions he subsumed all periods under three headings: the First Period, the Second Period and the Third Period, "the Imperial Age", subdivided into the Silver Age, the 2nd century, Centuries 3–6 together, a recognition of Late Latin, as he sometimes refers to the writings of those times as "late."
Imperial Latin went on into English literature. There are, insoluble problems with the beginning and end of Imperial Latin. Politically the excluded Augustan Period is the paradigm of imperiality, yet the style cannot be bundled with either the Silver Age or with Late Latin. Moreover, in 6th century Italy, the Roman Empire no longer existed. Subsequently the term Imperial Latin was dropped by historians of Latin literature, although it may be seen in marginal works; the Silver Age was extended the final four centuries represent Late Latin. Low Latin is a vague and pejorative term that might refer to any post-classical Latin from Late Latin through Renaissance Latin depending on the author, its origins are obscure but the Latin expression media et infima Latinitas sprang into public notice in 1678 in the title of a Glossary by Charles du Fresne, sieur du Cange. The multi-volume set had many expansions by other authors subsequently; the title varies somewhat. It has been translated by expressions of different meanings.
The uncertainty is understanding what media, "middle", infima, "low", mean in this context. The media is securely connected to Medieval Latin by Cange's own terminology expounded in the Praefatio, such as scriptores mediae aetatis, "writers of the middle age." Cange's Glossary takes words from authors ranging from the Christian period to the Renaissance, dipping into the classical period if a word originated there. Either media et infima Latinitas refers to one age, which must be the middle age covering the entire post-classical range, or it refers to two consecutive periods, infima Latinitas and media Latinitas. Both interpretations have their adherents. In the former case the infimae appears extraneous; the two-period case postulates a second unity of style, infima Latinitas, translated into English as "Low Latin". Cange in the glossarial part of his Glossary identifies some words as being used by purioris Latinitatis scriptores, such as Cicero, he has said in the Preface that he rejects the a
Blow molding is a specific manufacturing process by which hollow plastic parts are formed and can be joined together: It is used for forming glass bottles or other hollow shapes. In general, there are three main types of blow molding: extrusion blow molding, injection blow molding, injection stretch blow molding; the blow molding process begins with melting down the plastic and forming it into a parison or, in the case of injection and injection stretch blow molding, a preform. The parison is a tube-like piece of plastic with a hole in one end through which compressed air can pass; the parison is clamped into a mold and air is blown into it. The air pressure pushes the plastic out to match the mold. Once the plastic has cooled and hardened the mold opens up and the part is ejected; the cost of blow molded parts is higher than that of injection-molded parts but lower than rotational molded parts. The process principle comes from the idea of glassblowing. Enoch Ferngren and William Kopitke produced a blow molding machine and sold it to Hartford Empire Company in 1938.
This was the beginning of the commercial blow molding process. During the 1940s the variety and number of products was still limited and therefore blow molding did not take off until later. Once the variety and production rates went up the number of products created soon followed; the technical mechanisms needed to produce hollow bodied workpieces using the blowing technique were established early on. Because glass is breakable, after the introduction of plastic, plastic was being used to replace glass in some cases; the first mass production of plastic bottles was done in America in 1939. Germany started using this technology a little bit but is one of the leading manufacturers of blow molding machines. In the United States soft drink industry, the number of plastic containers went from zero in 1977 to ten billion pieces in 1999. Today a greater number of products are blown and it is expected to keep increasing. For amorphous metals known as bulk metallic glasses, blow molding has been demonstrated under pressures and temperatures comparable to plastic blow molding.
In extrusion blow molding, plastic is extruded into a hollow tube. This parison is captured by closing it into a cooled metal mold. Air is blown into the parison, inflating it into the shape of the hollow bottle, container, or part. After the plastic has cooled sufficiently, the mold is opened and the part is ejected. Continuous and Intermittent are two variations of Extrusion Blow Molding. In continuous extrusion blow molding the parison is extruded continuously and the individual parts are cut off by a suitable knife. In Intermittent blow molding there are two processes: straight intermittent is similar to injection molding whereby the screw turns stops and pushes the melt out. With the accumulator method, an accumulator gathers melted plastic and when the previous mold has cooled and enough plastic has accumulated, a rod pushes the melted plastic and forms the parison. In this case the screw may intermittently. With continuous extrusion the weight of the parison drags the parison and makes calibrating the wall thickness difficult.
The accumulator head or reciprocating screw methods use hydraulic systems to push the parison out reducing the effect of the weight and allowing precise control over the wall thickness by adjusting the die gap with a parison programming device. EBM processes may be either intermittent. Types of EBM equipment may be categorized as follows: Continuous extrusion equipment rotary wheel blow molding systems shuttle machineryIntermittent extrusion machinery reciprocating screw machinery accumulator head machineryExamples of parts made by the EBM process include most polyethylene hollow products, milk bottles, shampoo bottles, automotive ducting, watering cans and hollow industrial parts such as drums. Advantages of blow molding die cost. Disadvantages of blow molding include: limited to hollow parts, low strength, to increase barrier properties multilayer parisons of different materials are used thus not recyclable. To make wide neck jars spin trimming is necessary. Containers such as jars have an excess of material due to the molding process.
This is trimmed off by spinning a knife around the container. This excess plastic is recycled to create new moldings. Spin Trimmers are used on a number of materials, such as PVC, HDPE and PE+LDPE. Different types of the materials have their own physical characteristics affecting trimming. For example, moldings produced from amorphous materials are much more difficult to trim than crystalline materials. Titanium coated blades are used rather than standard steel to increase life by a factor of 30 times; the process of injection blow molding is used for the production of hollow glass and plastic objects in large quantities. In the IBM process, the polymer is injection molded onto a core pin; this is the least-used of the three blow molding processes, is used to make small medical and single serve bottles. The process is divided into three steps: injection and ejection; the injection blow molding machine is based on an extruder barrel and screw assembly which melts the polymer. The molten polymer is fed into a hot runner manifold where it is injected through nozzles into a heated cavity and core pin.
The cavity mold forms the external shape and is clamped around a core rod which forms the internal shape
A flagon is a large leather, glass or ceramic vessel, used for drink, whether this be water, ale, or another liquid. A flagon is of about 2 imperial pints in volume, it has either a handle, or one or two rings at the neck. Sometimes the neck has a large flange at the top rather than rings; the neck itself may or may not be formed into one, two or three spouts. The name comes from the same origin as the word "flask"; as a Roman Catholic term or use, the flagon is the large vessel glass and metal, that holds the wine. Before March 2002, a flagon may have been used to hold the wine during the consecration of the Eucharist and be poured into many chalices; this pouring of the precious blood from flagon to chalice was eliminated. A smaller container called a cruet is used for the priest's chalice identical to the cruet of water, mingled with the wine before consecration; the cruets do not remain on the altar after the preparation of the gifts. In the Anglican Church, the flagon is the vessel. If more than one chalice is used during the administration of Communion, the flagon is placed on the altar at the Offertory, other chalices are brought to the altar after the Breaking of the Bread.
There should be only one chalice on the altar during the Great Thanksgiving. In New Zealand, a flagon refers to a glass vessel filled with beer available in public bars or bottle stores. Drinkers could take their own washed flagons or swap their empties for those pre-filled and ready for sale; the flagon was preceded by the square rigger and the bluey. These were used during the period of six-o'clock closing of bars. A flagon can hold different volumes of beer or wine and is thought to have originated from an amendment to the licensing laws, which took effect in 1881; the amendment allowed winemakers to sell wine from their vineyards for off-licence consumption, so long as the quantity was 2 gallons or more. Before this change winemakers could only sell wine from hotels. A half-gallon flagon was a common volume used for beer. In modern Ireland a flagon refers to a two-litre bottle of cider, or in some cases a 350ml bottle of spirits
Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile. A material is pushed through a die of the desired cross-section; the two main advantages of this process over other manufacturing processes are its ability to create complex cross-sections, to work materials that are brittle, because the material only encounters compressive and shear stresses. It forms parts with an excellent surface finish. Drawing is a similar process, which uses the tensile strength of the material to pull it through the die; this limits the amount of change which can be performed in one step, so it is limited to simpler shapes, multiple stages are needed. Drawing is the main way to produce wire. Metal bars and tubes are often drawn. Extrusion may be semi-continuous; the extrusion process can be done with the material cold. Extruded materials include metals, ceramics, modelling clay, foodstuffs; the products of extrusion are called "extrudates". Referred to as "hole flanging", hollow cavities within extruded material cannot be produced using a simple flat extrusion die, because there would be no way to support the centre barrier of the die.
Instead, the die assumes the shape of a block with depth, beginning first with a shape profile that supports the center section. The die shape internally changes along its length into the final shape, with the suspended center pieces supported from the back of the die; the material flows around the fuses together to create the desired closed shape. The extrusion process in metals may increase the strength of the material. In 1797, Joseph Bramah patented the first extrusion process for making pipe out of soft metals, it involved preheating the metal and forcing it through a die via a hand-driven plunger. In 1820 Thomas Burr implemented that process with a hydraulic press. At that time the process was called "squirting". In 1894, Alexander Dick expanded the extrusion process to brass alloys; the process begins by heating the stock material. It is loaded into the container in the press. A dummy block is placed behind it where the ram presses on the material to push it out of the die. Afterward the extrusion is stretched in order to straighten it.
If better properties are required it may be heat treated or cold worked. The extrusion ratio is defined as the starting cross-sectional area divided by the cross-sectional area of the final extrusion. One of the main advantages of the extrusion process is that this ratio can be large while still producing quality parts. Hot extrusion is a hot working process, which means it is done above the material's recrystallization temperature to keep the material from work hardening and to make it easier to push the material through the die. Most hot extrusions are done on horizontal hydraulic presses that range from 230 to 11,000 metric tons. Pressures range from 30 to 700 MPa, therefore lubrication is required, which can be oil or graphite for lower temperature extrusions, or glass powder for higher temperature extrusions; the biggest disadvantage of this process is its cost for its upkeep. The extrusion process is economical when producing between several kilograms and many tons, depending on the material being extruded.
There is a crossover point. For instance, some steels become more economical to roll. Aluminium hot extrusion die Cold extrusion is done at near room temperature; the advantages of this over hot extrusion are the lack of oxidation, higher strength due to cold working, closer tolerances, better surface finish, fast extrusion speeds if the material is subject to hot shortness. Materials that are cold extruded include: lead, aluminum, zirconium, molybdenum, vanadium and steel. Examples of products produced by this process are: collapsible tubes, fire extinguisher cases, shock absorber cylinders and gear blanks. In March 1956, a US Patent was filed for "process for warm extrusion of metal." Patent US3156043 A outlines that a number of important advantages can be achieved with warm extrusion of both ferrous and non-ferrous metals and alloys if a billet to be extruded is changed in its physical properties in response to physical forces by being heated to a temperature below the critical melting point.
Warm extrusion is done above room temperature, but below the recrystallization temperature of the material the temperatures ranges from 800 to 1800 °F. It is used to achieve the proper balance of required forces and final extrusion properties. Friction extrusion was invented at The Welding Institute in the UK and patented in 1991, it was intended as a method for production of homogenous microstructures and particle distributions in metal matrix composite materials. Friction extrusion differs from conventional extrusion in that the charge rotates relative to the extrusion die. An extrusion force is applied so as to push the charge against the die. In practice either the die or the charge may rotate or they may be counter-rotating; the relative rotary motion between the charge and the die has several significant effects on the process. First, the relative motion in the plane of rotation leads to large shear stresses, plastic deformation in the layer of charge in contact with and near the die; this plastic deformation is dissipated by recovery and recrystallization processes
Charles Pierre Baudelaire was a French poet who produced notable work as an essayist, art critic, pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe. His most famous work, a book of lyric poetry titled Les Fleurs du mal, expresses the changing nature of beauty in modern, industrializing Paris during the mid-19th century. Baudelaire's original style of prose-poetry influenced a whole generation of poets including Paul Verlaine, Arthur Rimbaud and Stéphane Mallarmé, among many others, he is credited with coining the term "modernity" to designate the fleeting, ephemeral experience of life in an urban metropolis, the responsibility of artistic expression to capture that experience. Baudelaire was born in Paris, France, on April 9, 1821, baptized two months at Saint-Sulpice Roman Catholic Church, his father, Joseph-François Baudelaire, a senior civil servant and amateur artist, was 34 years older than Baudelaire's mother, Caroline. François died during Baudelaire's childhood, at rue Hautefeuille, Paris, on February 10, 1827.
The following year, Caroline married Lieutenant Colonel Jacques Aupick, who became a French ambassador to various noble courts. Baudelaire's biographers have seen this as a crucial moment, considering that finding himself no longer the sole focus of his mother's affection left him with a trauma, which goes some way to explaining the excesses apparent in his life, he stated in a letter to her that, "There was in my childhood a period of passionate love for you." Baudelaire begged his mother for money throughout his career promising that a lucrative publishing contract or journalistic commission was just around the corner. Baudelaire was educated in Lyon. At fourteen he was described by a classmate as "much more refined and distinguished than any of our fellow pupils... we are bound to one another... by shared tastes and sympathies, the precocious love of fine works of literature." Baudelaire was erratic in his studies, at times diligent, at other times prone to "idleness". He attended the Lycée Louis-le-Grand in Paris, studying law, a popular course for those not yet decided on any particular career.
He may have contracted gonorrhea and syphilis during this period. He began to run up debts for clothes. Upon gaining his degree in 1839, he told his brother "I don't feel I have a vocation for anything." His stepfather had in mind a career in law or diplomacy, but instead Baudelaire decided to embark upon a literary career. His mother recalled: "Oh, what grief! If Charles had let himself be guided by his stepfather, his career would have been different.... He would not have left a name in literature, it is true, but we should have been happier, all three of us." His stepfather sent him on a voyage to Calcutta, India, in 1841 in the hope of ending his dissolute habits. The trip provided strong impressions of the sea and exotic ports, that he employed in his poetry. On returning to the taverns of Paris, he began to compose some of the poems of "Les Fleurs du Mal". At 21, he squandered much of it within a few years, his family obtained a decree to place his property in trust, which he resented bitterly, at one point arguing that allowing him to fail financially would have been the one sure way of teaching him to keep his finances in order.
Baudelaire became known in artistic circles as a dandy and free-spender, going through much of his inheritance and allowance in a short period of time. During this time, Jeanne Duval became his mistress, she was rejected by his family. His mother thought Duval a "Black Venus" who "tortured him in every way" and drained him of money at every opportunity. Baudelaire made a suicide attempt during this period, he wrote for a revolutionary newspaper. However, his interest in politics was passing, as he was to note in his journals. In the early 1850s, Baudelaire struggled with poor health, pressing debts, irregular literary output, he moved from one lodging to another to escape creditors. He undertook many projects that he was unable to complete, though he did finish translations of stories by Edgar Allan Poe. Upon the death of his stepfather in 1857, Baudelaire received no mention in the will but he was heartened nonetheless that the division with his mother might now be mended. At 36 he wrote her: "believe that I belong to you and that I belong only to you."
His mother died on August 16, 1871, outliving her son by four years. His first published work, under the pseudonym Baudelaire Dufaÿs, was his art review "Salon of 1845", which attracted immediate attention for its boldness. Many of his critical opinions were novel in their time, including his championing of Delacroix, some of his views seem remarkably in tune with the future theories of the Impressionist painters. In 1846, Baudelaire wrote his second Salon review, gaining additional credibility as an advocate and critic of Romanticism, his continued support of Delacroix as the foremost Romantic artist gained widespread notice. The following year Baudelaire's novella La Fanfarlo was published. Baudelaire was a slow and attentive worker; however he was sidetracked by indolence, emotional distress and illness, it was not until 1857 that he published his first and most famous volume of poems, Les Fleurs du mal. Some of these poems had appeared in the Revue des deux mondes (Review of Two
Uranium glass is glass which has had uranium in oxide diuranate form, added to a glass mix before melting for coloration. The proportion varies from trace levels to about 2% uranium by weight, although some 20th-century pieces were made with up to 25% uranium. Uranium glass was once made into tableware and household items, but fell out of widespread use when the availability of uranium to most industries was curtailed during the Cold War in the 1940s to 1990s. Most such objects are now considered antiques or retro-era collectibles, although there has been a minor revival in art glassware. Otherwise, modern uranium glass is now limited to small objects like beads or marbles as scientific or decorative novelties; the normal colour of uranium glass ranges from yellow to green depending on the oxidation state and concentration of the metal ions, although this may be altered by the addition of other elements as glass colorants. Uranium glass fluoresces bright green under ultraviolet light and can register above background radiation on a sufficiently sensitive Geiger counter, although most pieces of uranium glass are considered to be harmless and only negligibly radioactive.
The most typical color of uranium glass is pale yellowish-green, which in the 1920s led to the nickname vaseline glass based on a perceived resemblance to the appearance of petroleum jelly as formulated and commercially sold at that time. Specialized collectors still define vaseline glass as transparent or semi-transparent uranium glass in this specific color. Vaseline glass is now used as a synonym for any uranium glass in the United States, but this usage is not universal; the term is sometimes carelessly applied to other types of glass based on certain aspects of their superficial appearance in normal light, regardless of actual uranium content which requires a blacklight test to verify the characteristic green fluorescence. In the United Kingdom and Australia, the term vaseline glass can be used to refer to any type of translucent glass. Within the United States, the "vaseline" description is sometimes applied to any type of translucent glass with a greasy surface luster. Several other common subtypes of uranium glass have their own nicknames: custard glass jadite glass Depression glass.
Burmese glass However, like "vaseline", the terms "custard" and "jadite" are applied on the basis of superficial appearance rather than uranium content. Depression glass is a general description for any piece of glassware manufactured during the Great Depression regardless of appearance or formula; the use of uranium glass dates back to at least 79 AD, the date of a mosaic containing yellow glass with 1% uranium oxide found in a Roman villa on Cape Posillipo in the Bay of Naples, Italy by R. T. Gunther of the University of Oxford in 1912. Starting in the late Middle Ages, pitchblende was extracted from the Habsburg silver mines in Joachimsthal and was used as a coloring agent in the local glassmaking industry. Martin Klaproth, who discovered uranium experimented with the use of the element as a glass colourant. Uranium glass is used as one of several intermediate glasses in what is known to scientific glass blowers as a'graded seal'; this is used in glass-to-metal seals such as tungsten and molybdenum or nickel based alloys such as Kovar, as an intermediary glass between the metal sealing glass and lower expansion borosilicate glass.
Uranium glass became popular in the mid-19th century, with its period of greatest popularity being from the 1880s to the 1920s. The first major producer of items made of uranium glass is recognized as Austrian Franz Xaver Riedel, who named the yellow and yellow-green varieties of the glass "annagelb" and "annagrün" in honor of his daughter Anna Maria. Riedel was a prolific blower of uranium glass in Unter-Polaun, Bohemia from 1830 to 1848. By the 1840s, many other European glassworks began to produce uranium glass items and developed new varieties of uranium glass; the Baccarat glassworks in France created an opaque green uranium glass which they named chrysoprase from its similarity to that green form of chalcedony. At the end of the 19th century, glassmakers discovered that uranium glass with certain mineral additions could be tempered at high temperatures, inducing varying degrees of micro-crystallization; this produced a range of opaque glasses from the traditional transparent yellow or yellow-green to an opaque white.
During the Depression years, more iron oxide was added to the mixture to match popular preferences for a greener glass. This material, technically a glass-ceramic, acquired the name "vaseline glass" because of its similar appearance to petroleum jelly. Today, a few manufacturers continue the vaseline glass tradition: Fenton Glass, Mosser Glass, Gibson Glass and Jack Loranger. US production of uranium glasses ceased in the middle years of World War II because of the US government's confiscation of uranium supplies for the Manhattan Project from 1942 to 1958. After the restrictions in the United States were eased several firms resumed production of uranium glass, including Fenton, Mosser. Following the Cold War, restrictions on uranium glass were lifted. During this time many older pieces entered the free market and new pieces continued to be produced in small quantities into the 2000'