International Children's Day is a day recognized to celebrate children. The day is celebrated on various dates in different countries. Children's Day began on the second Sunday of June in 1857 by Reverend Dr. Charles Leonard, pastor of the Universalist Church of the Redeemer in Chelsea, Massachusetts: Leonard held a special service dedicated to, for the children. Leonard named the day Rose Day, though it was named Flower Sunday, named Children's Day. Children's Day was first declared a national holiday by the Republic of Turkey in 1929 with the set date of 23 April. Children's Day has been celebrated nationally since 1923 with the government and the newspapers of the time declaring it a day for the children. However, it was decided that an official confirmation was needed to clarify and justify this celebration and the official declaration was made nationally in 1931 by the founder and the President of the Republic of Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk; the International Day for Protection of Children is observed in many countries as Children's Day on 1 June since 1950.
It was established by the Women's International Democratic Federation on its congress in Moscow. Major global variants include a Universal Children's Holiday on 20 November, by United Nations recommendation. Though Children's Day is celebrated globally by most of the countries in the world on 1 June, Universal Children's Day takes place annually on 20 November. First proclaimed by the United Kingdom in 1954, it was established to encourage all countries to institute a day, firstly to promote mutual exchange and understanding among children and secondly to initiate action to benefit and promote the welfare of the world's children; that is observed to promote the objectives outlined for the welfare of children. On 20 November 1959, the United Nations adopted the Declaration of the Rights of the Child; the United Nations adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child on 20 November 1989 and can be found on the Council of Europe website. In 2000, the Millennium Development Goals outlined by world leaders to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015.
Albeit this applies to all people, the primary objective is concerning children. UNICEF is dedicated to meeting the six of eight goals that apply to the needs of children so that they are all entitled to fundamental rights written in the 1989 international human rights treaty. UNICEF delivers vaccines, works with policymakers for good health care and education and works to help children and protect their rights. In September 2012, the Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon of the United Nations led the initiative for the education of children, he firstly wants every child to be able to attend school, a goal by 2015. Secondly, to improve the skill set acquired in these schools. Implementing policies regarding education to promote peace and environmental concern. Universal Children's Day is not just a day to celebrate children for who they are, but to bring awareness to children around the globe that have experienced violence in forms of abuse and discrimination. Children are used as laborers in some countries, immersed in armed conflict, living on the streets, suffering by differences be it religion, minority issues, or disabilities.
Children feeling the effects of war can be displaced because of the armed conflict and may suffer physical and psychological trauma. The following violations are described in the term "children and armed conflict": recruitment and child soldiers, killing/maiming of children, abduction of children, attacks on schools/hospitals and not allowing humanitarian access to children. There are about 153 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 who are forced into child labor; the International Labour Organization in 1999 adopted the Prohibition and Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour including slavery, child prostitution, child pornography. A summary of the rights under the Convention on the Rights of the Child can be found on the UNICEF website. Canada co-chaired the World Summit for children in 1990, in 2002 the United Nations reaffirmed the commitment to complete the agenda of the 1990 World Summit; this added to the UN Secretary-General's report We the Children: End-of Decade review of the follow-up to the World Summit for Children.
The United Nations children's agency released a study referencing the population increase of children will make up 90 percent of the next billion people. The recognized date of Children's Day varies from country to country; this section lists some significant examples, in order of date of observance. In Albania, Children's Day is celebrated on 1 June. In Argentina, Children's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday of August. In Armenia, Children's Day is celebrated on 1 June. Children's Week is an annual event celebrated in Australia during the fourth week in October, from the Saturday before Universal Children's Day to the following Sunday, it was established as a holiday in 1954. Until 1977 Child Care Week was held in various Australian states and territories focusing on children in care or those in institutions, it was held at different times. In 1984 it was decided to coordinate a national week to include all children. In Azerbaijan, Children's Day is celebrated on 1 June. Since 2009 JAAGO Foundation has been celebrating this day throughout Bangladesh by engaging youth and creating awareness about children's right on 20 November, the declared Universal Children’s Day by United Nation.
After this movement gained a lot of attraction, Bangladesh started celebrating, Children's Day on 17 March on the birthday of the Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. Children's day in Bolivia was first established in 1954. Goo
Labour Day is an annual holiday to celebrate the achievements of workers. Labour Day has its origins in the labour union movement the eight-hour day movement, which advocated eight hours for work, eight hours for recreation, eight hours for rest. For most countries, Labour Day is synonymous with, or linked with, International Workers' Day, which occurs on 1 May. For other countries, Labour Day is celebrated on a different date one with special significance for the labour movement in that country. Labour Day is a public holiday in many countries. In Canada and the United States, the holiday is celebrated on the first Monday of September and considered the unofficial end of summer, with summer vacations ending and students returning to school around then. For most countries, "Labour Day" is synonymous with, or linked with, International Workers' Day, which occurs on 1 May; some countries vary the actual date of their celebrations so that the holiday occurs on a Monday close to 1 May. Labour Day in Australia is a public holiday on dates which vary between territories.
It is the first Monday in October in the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and South Australia. In Victoria and Tasmania, it is the second Monday in March. In Western Australia, Labour Day is the first Monday in March. In the Northern Territory and Queensland it occurs on the first Monday in May, it is on the fourth Monday of March in the territory of Christmas Island. The first march for an eight-hour day by the labour movement occurred in Melbourne on 21 April 1856. On this day stonemasons and building workers on building sites around Melbourne stopped work and marched from the University of Melbourne to Parliament House to achieve an eight-hour day, their direct action protest was a success, they are noted as being among the first organised workers in the world to achieve an 8-hour day, with no loss of pay. Bangladesh Garment Sramik Sanghati, an organization working for the welfare of garment workers, has requested that 24 April be declared Labour Safety Day in Bangladesh, in memory of the victims of the Rana Plaza building collapse.
Labour Day is a national holiday in the Bahamas, celebrated on the first Friday in June in order to create a long weekend for workers. The traditional date of Labour Day in the Bahamas, however, is 7 June, in commemoration of a significant workers' strike that began on that day in 1942. Labour Day is meant to honor and celebrate workers and the importance of their contributions to the nation and society. In the capital city, thousands of people come to watch a parade through the streets, which begins at mid-morning. Bands in colorful uniforms, traditional African junkanoo performers, members of various labour unions and political parties are all part of the procession, which ends up at the Southern Recreation Grounds, where government officials make speeches for the occasion. For many residents and visitors to the Bahamas, the afternoon of Labour Day is a time to relax at home or visit the beach. Labour Day has been celebrated in Canada on the first Monday in September since the 1880s; the origins of Labour Day in Canada can be traced back to December 1872 when a parade was staged in support of the Toronto Typographical Union's strike for a 58-hour work-week a full decade before a similar event in New York City by the American Knights of Labor, a late 19th-century U.
S. labor federation, launched the movement towards the American Labor Day holiday. The Toronto Trades Assembly called its 27 unions to demonstrate in support of the Typographical Union, on strike since 25 March. George Brown, Canadian politician and editor of the Toronto Globe hit back at his striking employees, pressing police to charge the Typographical Union with "conspiracy." Although the laws criminalising union activity were outdated and had been abolished in Great Britain, they were still on the books in Canada and police arrested 24 leaders of the Typographical Union. Labour leaders decided to call another similar demonstration on 3 September to protest the arrests. Seven unions marched in Ottawa, prompting a promise by Canadian Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald to repeal the "barbarous" anti-union laws. Parliament passed the Trade Union Act on 14 June the following year, soon all unions were seeking a 54-hour work-week; the Toronto Trades and Labour Council held similar celebrations every spring.
American Peter J. McGuire, co-founder of the American Federation of Labor, was asked to speak at a labour festival in Toronto, Canada on 22 July 1882. Returning to the United States, McGuire and the Knights of Labor organised a similar parade based on the Canadian event on 5 September 1882 in New York City, USA. On 23 July 1894, Canadian Prime Minister John Thompson and his government made Labour Day, to be held in September, an official holiday. In the United States, the New York parade became an annual event that year, in 1894 was adopted by American president Grover Cleveland to compete with International Workers' Day. While Labour Day parades and picnics are organised by unions, many Canadians regard Labour Day as the Monday of the last long weekend of summer. Non-union celebrations include picnics, fireworks displays, water activities, public art events. Since the new school year starts right after Labour Day, families with school-age children take it as the last chance to travel before the end of summer.
An old fashioned tradition in Canada and the United States frowns upon the wearing of white after Labour Day. Explanations for this tradition vary.
Nochebuena is a Spanish word referring to the night of Christmas Eve and celebrated on December 24 every year. For Latin American cultures, it is the biggest feast for the Christmas season and is the annual Spanish tradition. Nochebuena is the Spanish word for Christmas Eve. In Spain, Latin America, the Philippines, the evening consists of a traditional family dinner. Roasted pig, or lechón is the center of Nochebuena for feasts around the world, it is believed that the tradition dates back to the 15th century when Caribbean colonists hunted down pigs and roasted them with a powerful flame. In the Philippines, the traditional dinner comes at midnight after the family hears the late evening Mass known as Misa de Gallo; some of the more conventional dishes served for the main course include: lechón, sweet-tasting spaghetti, fried chicken, jamón, queso de bola, arróz caldo, turkey, relyenong bangus, steamed rice, various breads such as pan de sal. Desserts include úbe halayá, membrilyo, fruit salad, various rice- and flour-based cakes, ice cream and fruits, while popular beverages such as tsokolate as well as coffee, wine and fruit juices accompany the feast.
In Spain, Nochebuena includes a dinner with family and friends. It is common to start the meal with a seafood dish, followed by a bowl of hot homemade soup, lamb or roasted pig, it is common to have desserts such as turrón. In Cuban and Cuban-Floridian tradition, the pig is sometimes cooked in a Caja China, a large box where an entire pig is placed below hot coals; the dinner features many side dishes and desserts, games of dominos are played. The tradition is continued by Cuban families in the United States. In New Mexico, la Nochebuena is celebrated by lighting farolitos. Nochebuena is celebrated on Christmas Eve with La Sangre de Navidad, marks the final evening of the Posadas celebrations, in others a dinner is served with the family after attended the late Mass known as Misa de Gallo. In Peru, a large, juicy turkey is the star for Noche Buena. In Venezuela, hallacas are the staple dish for Noche Buena alongside of either ham or pork leg known as "pernil", rum and "Ponche Crema"; the night is accompanied by traditional Christmas music known as "aguinaldos.
The 2016 Elena of Avalor season one episode, "Navidad", focused on Nochebuena. As part of its special "Dora's Christmas Carol Adventure," Dora the Explorer featured a song titled "Nochebuena" regarding the celebration on the musical album for the special. Christmas in Mexico Christmas in the Philippines
A flag day is a flag-related holiday, a day designated for flying a certain flag or a day set aside to celebrate a historical event such as a nation's adoption of its flag. Flag days are codified in national statutes passed by legislative bodies or parliaments; the statute or proclamation / decree may specify locations where flags are flown and how are they flown. National Day Republic Day Independence Day Public holiday Media related to Flag day at Wikimedia Commons
Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo is an annual celebration held on May 5. The date is observed to commemorate the Mexican Army's victory over the French Empire at the Battle of Puebla, on May 5, 1862, under the leadership of General Ignacio Zaragoza. In the United States, Cinco de Mayo has taken on a significance beyond that in Mexico. More popularly celebrated in the United States than Mexico, the date has become associated with the celebration of Mexican-American culture. In Mexico, the commemoration of the battle continues to be ceremonial, such as through military parades or battle reenactments. Cinco de Mayo is sometimes mistaken for Mexico's Independence Day—the most important national holiday in Mexico—which is celebrated on September 16, commemorating the Cry of Dolores that initiated the war of Mexican independence from Spain. Cinco de Mayo has its roots in the Second French intervention in Mexico, which took place in the aftermath of the 1846–48 Mexican–American War and the 1858–61 Reform War; the Reform War was a civil war.
These wars nearly bankrupted the Mexican Treasury. On July 17, 1861, Mexican President Benito Juárez issued a moratorium in which all foreign debt payments would be suspended for two years. In response, Britain and Spain sent naval forces to Veracruz to demand reimbursement. Britain and Spain negotiated with Mexico and withdrew, but France, at the time ruled by Napoleon III, decided to use the opportunity to establish an empire in Mexico that would favor French interests, the Second Mexican Empire; the empire was part of an envisioned "Latin America" that would rebuild French influence in the American continent and exclude Anglophone American territories. Late in 1861, a well-armed French fleet attacked Veracruz, landing a large French force and driving President Juárez and his government into retreat. Moving on from Veracruz towards Mexico City, the French army encountered heavy resistance from the Mexicans close to Puebla, at the Mexican forts of Loreto and Guadalupe; the French army of 8,000 attacked the poorly equipped Mexican army of 4,000.
On May 5, 1862, the Mexicans decisively defeated the French army. The victory represented a significant morale boost to the Mexican army and the Mexican people at large and helped establish a sense of national unity and patriotism; the Mexican victory, was short-lived. A year with 30,000 troops, the French were able to defeat the Mexican army, capture Mexico City, install Emperor Maximilian I as ruler of Mexico; the French victory was itself short-lived, lasting only three years, from 1864 to 1867. By 1865, "with the American Civil War now over, the U. S. began to provide more political and military assistance to Mexico to expel the French". Upon the conclusion of the American Civil War, Napoleon III, facing a persistent Mexican guerilla resistance, the threat of war with Prussia, "the prospect of a serious scrap with the United States", retreated from Mexico starting in 1866; the Mexicans recaptured Mexico City, Maximilian I was apprehended and executed, along with his Mexican generals Miguel Miramón and Tomás Mejía Camacho in Cerro de las Campanas, Querétaro.
"On June 5, 1867, Benito Juárez entered Mexico City where he installed a new government and reorganized his administration." The Battle of Puebla was nationally and internationally, for several reasons. First, although outnumbered, the Mexicans defeated a much-better-equipped French army. "This battle was significant in that the 4,000 Mexican soldiers were outnumbered by the well-equipped French army of 8,000 that had not been defeated for 50 years." Second, since the Battle of Puebla, some have argued that no country in the Americas has subsequently been invaded by any other European military force. Historian Justo Sierra has written in his Political Evolution of the Mexican People that, had Mexico not defeated the French in Puebla on May 5, 1862, France would have gone to the aid of the Confederacy in the U. S. Civil War and the United States' destiny would have been different. According to a paper published by the UCLA Center for the Study of Latino Health and Culture about the origin of the observance of Cinco de Mayo in the United States, the modern American focus on that day first started in California in 1863 in response to the resistance to French rule in Mexico.
"Far up in the gold country town of Columbia Mexican miners were so overjoyed at the news that they spontaneously fired off rifle shots and fireworks, sang patriotic songs and made impromptu speeches."A 2007 UCLA Newsroom article notes that, "the holiday, celebrated in California continuously since 1863, is ignored in Mexico." TIME magazine reports that "Cinco de Mayo started to come into vogue in 1940s America during the rise of the Chicano Movement." The holiday crossed over from California into the rest of the United States in the 1950s and 1960s but did not gain popularity until the 1980s when marketers beer companies, capitalized on the celebratory nature of the day and began to promote it. It grew in popularity and evolved into a celebration of Mexican culture and heritage, first in areas with large Mexican-American populations, like Los Angeles, Chicago and San Jose. In a 1998 study in the Journal of American Culture it was reported that there were more than 120 official US celebrations of Cinco de Mayo in 21 different states.
An update in 2006 found that the number of official Cinco de Mayo events w
Epiphany Theophany, Little Christmas, or Three Kings' Day, is a Christian feast day that celebrates the revelation of God incarnate as Jesus Christ. In Western Christianity, the feast commemorates principally the visit of the Magi to the Christ Child, thus Jesus' physical manifestation to the Gentiles. Moreover, the feast of the Epiphany, in some Western Christian denominations initiates the liturgical season of Epiphanytide. Eastern Christians, on the other hand, commemorate the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan River, seen as his manifestation to the world as the Son of God. Qasr el Yahud in the West Bank, Al-Maghtas in Jordan on the east bank, is considered to be the original site of the baptism of Jesus and the ministry of John the Baptist; the traditional date for the feast is January 6. However, since 1970, the celebration is held in some countries on the Sunday after January 1. Eastern Churches following the Julian calendar observe the feast on what for most countries is January 19 because of the 13-day difference today between that calendar and the used Gregorian calendar.
In many Western Christian Churches, the eve of the feast is celebrated as Twelfth Night. The Monday after Epiphany is known as Plough Monday. Popular Epiphany customs include Epiphany singing, chalking the door, having one's house blessed, consuming Three Kings Cake, winter swimming, as well as attending church services, it is customary for Christians in many localities to remove their Christmas decorations on Epiphany Eve, although those in other Christian countries remove them on Candlemas, the conclusion of Epiphanytide. According to the first tradition, those who fail to remember to remove their Christmas decorations on Epiphany Eve must leave them untouched until Candlemas, the second opportunity to remove them; the word Epiphany is from Koine Greek ἐπιφάνεια, meaning manifestation or appearance. It is derived from the verb φαίνειν, meaning "to appear." In classical Greek it was used of the appearance of dawn, of an enemy in war, but of a manifestation of a deity to a worshiper. In the Septuagint the word is used of a manifestation of the God of Israel.
In the New Testament the word is used in 2 Timothy 1:10 to refer either to the birth of Christ or to his appearance after his resurrection, five times to refer to his Second Coming. Alternative names for the feast in Greek include τα Θεοφάνια, ta Theopháneia "Theophany", η Ημέρα των Φώτων, i Iméra ton Fóton, hē Hēméra tōn Phṓtōn, "The Day of the Lights", τα Φώτα, ta Fóta, "The Lights". Epiphany may have originated in the Greek-speaking eastern half of the Roman Empire as a feast to honor the baptism of Jesus. Around 200, Clement of Alexandria wrote that, "But the followers of Basilides celebrate the day of His Baptism too, spending the previous night in readings, and they say. And some say that it was observed the 11th of the same month." The Egyptian dates given correspond to January 6 and 10. The Basilides were a Gnostic sect; the reference to "readings" suggests. In ancient gospel manuscripts, the text is arranged to indicate passages for liturgical readings. If a congregation began reading Mark at the beginning of the year, it might arrive at the story of the Baptism on January 6, thus explaining the date of the feast.
If Christians read Mark in the same format the Basilides did, the two groups could have arrived at the January 6 date independently. The earliest reference to Epiphany as a Christian feast was in A. D. 361, by Ammianus Marcellinus. The holiday is listed twice, which suggests a double feast of birth; the baptism of Jesus was assigned to the same date as the birth because Luke 3:23 was misread to mean that Jesus was 30 when he was baptized. Epiphanius of Salamis says, he asserts that the Miracle at Cana occurred on the same calendar day. Epiphanius assigns the Baptism to November 6; the scope to Epiphany expanded to include the commemoration of his birth. In the Latin-speaking West, the holiday emphasized the visit of the magi; the magi represented the non-Jewish peoples of the world, so this was considered a "revelation to the gentiles." In this event, Christian writers inferred a revelation to the Children of Israel. John Chrysostom identified the significance of the meeting between the magi and Herod's court: "The star had been hidden from them so that, on finding themselves without their guide, they would have no alternative but to consult the Jews.
In this way the birth of Jesus would be made known to all."In 385, the pilgrim Egeria described a celebration in Jerusalem and Bethlehem, which she called "Epiphany" that commemorated the Nativity. At this early date, there was an octave associated with the feast. In a sermon delivered on 25 December 380, St. Gregory of Nazianzus referred to the day as "the Theophany", saying expressly that it is a day commemorating "the holy nativity of Christ" and told his listeners that they would soon be celebrating the baptism of Christ. On January 6 and 7, he preached two more sermons, wherein he declared that the celebration of the birth of Christ and the vis
Benito Pablo Juárez García was a Mexican lawyer and president of Mexico, of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca. He was of poor, indigenous origins, but he became a well-educated, urban professional and politician, who married a prominent woman of Oaxaca City, Margarita Maza, he identified as a Liberal and wrote only about his indigenous heritage. He held power during the tumultuous decade of French invasion. In 1858 as head of the Supreme Court, he became president of Mexico by the succession mandated by the Constitution of 1857 when moderate liberal President Ignacio Comonfort was forced to resign by Mexican conservatives. Juárez remained in the presidential office until his death by natural causes in 1872, he weathered the War of the Reform, a civil war between Liberals and Conservatives, the French invasion, supported by Mexican Conservatives. Never relinquishing office although forced into exile in areas of Mexico not controlled by the French, Juárez tied Liberalism to Mexican nationalism and maintained that he was the legitimate head of the Mexican state, rather than Emperor Maximilian.
When the French-backed Second Mexican Empire fell in 1867, the Mexican Republic with Juárez as president was restored to full power. In his success in ousting the European incursion, Latin Americans considered his a "second struggle for independence, a second defeat for the European powers, a second reversal of the Conquest."He is now "a preeminent symbol of Mexican nationalism and resistance to foreign intervention." Juárez was a skilled politician, controversial in his lifetime and beyond. He had an understanding of the importance of a working relationship with the United States, secured its recognition for his liberal government during the War of the Reform. Although many of his positions shifted during his political life, he held fast to particular principles including the supremacy of civil power over the Catholic Church and part of the military. In his lifetime he sought to strengthen the national government and asserted the supremacy of central power over states, a position that both radical and provincial liberals opposed.
He was the subject of polemical attacks both beyond. However, the place of Juárez in Mexican historical memory has enshrined him as a major Mexican hero, beginning in his own lifetime, his birthday is a national public and patriotic holiday in Mexico, the only individual Mexican so honored. Juárez was born on 21 March 1806, in a small adobe house in San Pablo Guelatao, located in the mountain range now known as the Sierra Juárez, his parents, Brígida García and Marcelino Juárez, were Zapotec peasants and died of complications of diabetes when he was three years old. Shortly afterward, his grandparents died as well, he described his parents as "indios de la raza primitiva del país," that is, "Indians of the original race of the country." He worked in the cornfields and as a shepherd until the age of 12, when he walked to the city of Oaxaca to attend school. At the time, he could speak only Zapotec. In the city, where his sister worked as a cook, he took a job as a domestic servant for Antonio Maza.
His formal education began when a lay Franciscan and bookbinder, Antonio Salanueva, was impressed by Juárez's intelligence and desire for learning. Salanueva arranged for his placement at the city's seminary so that he could train to become a priest, his earlier education was rudimentary, but he began studying Latin, completing the secondary curriculum too young to be ordained. Juárez had no calling to become a priest and began studying law at the Institute of Sciences and Arts, founded in 1827 in the state capital, it was a center of liberal intellectual life in Oaxaca and Juárez graduated from it in 1834. Prior to his graduation, he sought political office, was elected to the Oaxaca city council in 1831. In 1841, he was appointed a civil judge. In 1843, when he was in his late 30s, Benito married Margarita Maza, the daughter of his sister's patron; the family was of European part of Oaxaca's respectable society. With the marriage Juárez gained social standing. Margarita Maza accepted his proposal and said of Juárez, "He is homely, but good."
Their ethnically mixed marriage was unusual, but not noted in standard biographies. However, Enrique Krauze notes that "In this uncommon instance, a white woman had been conquered by an Indian, not a native woman by a Spaniard." Their marriage lasted until her death from cancer in 1871. Juárez and Maza had twelve children together, his wife's remains are buried in the Juárez mausoleum in Mexico City. Juárez's experiences in political life in Oaxaca were crucial to his success as a leader, his political affiliation with liberalism developed at the Institute of Arts and Science and his ability to rise in Oaxaca state politics was due to the lack of an entrenched political class of criollos, Mexicans of European descent. The relative openness of the system allowed him and other newcomers to enter politics and gain patronage, he gained an understanding of political maneuvering. Following Juárez's graduation as a lawyer in 1834 and service as a civil judge in 1841, he became part of the Oaxaca state government, led by liberal governor Antonio León.
He became a pr