Epiphany Theophany, Little Christmas, or Three Kings' Day, is a Christian feast day that celebrates the revelation of God incarnate as Jesus Christ. In Western Christianity, the feast commemorates principally the visit of the Magi to the Christ Child, thus Jesus' physical manifestation to the Gentiles. Moreover, the feast of the Epiphany, in some Western Christian denominations initiates the liturgical season of Epiphanytide. Eastern Christians, on the other hand, commemorate the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan River, seen as his manifestation to the world as the Son of God. Qasr el Yahud in the West Bank, Al-Maghtas in Jordan on the east bank, is considered to be the original site of the baptism of Jesus and the ministry of John the Baptist; the traditional date for the feast is January 6. However, since 1970, the celebration is held in some countries on the Sunday after January 1. Eastern Churches following the Julian calendar observe the feast on what for most countries is January 19 because of the 13-day difference today between that calendar and the used Gregorian calendar.
In many Western Christian Churches, the eve of the feast is celebrated as Twelfth Night. The Monday after Epiphany is known as Plough Monday. Popular Epiphany customs include Epiphany singing, chalking the door, having one's house blessed, consuming Three Kings Cake, winter swimming, as well as attending church services, it is customary for Christians in many localities to remove their Christmas decorations on Epiphany Eve, although those in other Christian countries remove them on Candlemas, the conclusion of Epiphanytide. According to the first tradition, those who fail to remember to remove their Christmas decorations on Epiphany Eve must leave them untouched until Candlemas, the second opportunity to remove them; the word Epiphany is from Koine Greek ἐπιφάνεια, meaning manifestation or appearance. It is derived from the verb φαίνειν, meaning "to appear." In classical Greek it was used of the appearance of dawn, of an enemy in war, but of a manifestation of a deity to a worshiper. In the Septuagint the word is used of a manifestation of the God of Israel.
In the New Testament the word is used in 2 Timothy 1:10 to refer either to the birth of Christ or to his appearance after his resurrection, five times to refer to his Second Coming. Alternative names for the feast in Greek include τα Θεοφάνια, ta Theopháneia "Theophany", η Ημέρα των Φώτων, i Iméra ton Fóton, hē Hēméra tōn Phṓtōn, "The Day of the Lights", τα Φώτα, ta Fóta, "The Lights". Epiphany may have originated in the Greek-speaking eastern half of the Roman Empire as a feast to honor the baptism of Jesus. Around 200, Clement of Alexandria wrote that, "But the followers of Basilides celebrate the day of His Baptism too, spending the previous night in readings, and they say. And some say that it was observed the 11th of the same month." The Egyptian dates given correspond to January 6 and 10. The Basilides were a Gnostic sect; the reference to "readings" suggests. In ancient gospel manuscripts, the text is arranged to indicate passages for liturgical readings. If a congregation began reading Mark at the beginning of the year, it might arrive at the story of the Baptism on January 6, thus explaining the date of the feast.
If Christians read Mark in the same format the Basilides did, the two groups could have arrived at the January 6 date independently. The earliest reference to Epiphany as a Christian feast was in A. D. 361, by Ammianus Marcellinus. The holiday is listed twice, which suggests a double feast of birth; the baptism of Jesus was assigned to the same date as the birth because Luke 3:23 was misread to mean that Jesus was 30 when he was baptized. Epiphanius of Salamis says, he asserts that the Miracle at Cana occurred on the same calendar day. Epiphanius assigns the Baptism to November 6; the scope to Epiphany expanded to include the commemoration of his birth. In the Latin-speaking West, the holiday emphasized the visit of the magi; the magi represented the non-Jewish peoples of the world, so this was considered a "revelation to the gentiles." In this event, Christian writers inferred a revelation to the Children of Israel. John Chrysostom identified the significance of the meeting between the magi and Herod's court: "The star had been hidden from them so that, on finding themselves without their guide, they would have no alternative but to consult the Jews.
In this way the birth of Jesus would be made known to all."In 385, the pilgrim Egeria described a celebration in Jerusalem and Bethlehem, which she called "Epiphany" that commemorated the Nativity. At this early date, there was an octave associated with the feast. In a sermon delivered on 25 December 380, St. Gregory of Nazianzus referred to the day as "the Theophany", saying expressly that it is a day commemorating "the holy nativity of Christ" and told his listeners that they would soon be celebrating the baptism of Christ. On January 6 and 7, he preached two more sermons, wherein he declared that the celebration of the birth of Christ and the vis
Lince is a district of the Lima Province in Peru. It is part of the city of Lima. Established as a district on May 29, 1936, the current mayor of Lince is Vicente Amable Escalante; the district's postal code is 14. The district has a total land area of 3.03 km². Its administrative center is located 117 meters above sea level; the three main sections of Lince are the West Side, the East Side, San Eugenio, southeast of the East Side facing the Paseo de la República Expressway. North to South, Lince follows the block numbering started in Santa Beatriz section of downtown Lima and its parallel in Jesús María, there are a few north-south avenues that do not have a Santa Beatriz counterpart on the East Side. Although not known, Lince possesses a great concentration of Art Deco architecture, comparable in density and style to the appreciated Art Deco architecture of the South Beach district of Miami Beach, Florida, USA. Many of these art deco buildings in Lince, are well maintained and have endured little modification from their original design in the late 1930s.
The area, however, is not yet regarded as a tourism district nor as a historic preservation area. North: Jesús María and downtown Lima East: La Victoria South: San Isidro West: San Isidro and Jesús María According to a 2002 estimate by the INEI, the district has 70,968 inhabitants and a population density of 23,421.8 persons/km². In 1999, there were 16,907 households in the district. Official district's web site
La Victoria District, Lima
La Victoria is a district of the Lima in Peru and is one of the most populous districts comprising the city of Lima. La Victoria borders downtown Lima on the northwest, the district of Lince on the west, San Isidro on the southwest, San Borja on the south, San Luis on the east, El Agustino on the northeast. La Victoria has several sections: La Victoria proper extends from Avenida Grau in the north to Avenida Mexico in the south and from Paseo de la República Expressway in the west to Avenida San Pablo in the east, it is the most populous sector and it is filled with mom and pop stores, although Avenida Iquitos has a thriving auto parts sector. Gamarra Street is known in the entire city as a steady, if poor, clothier's row. Former Worker´s Hospital, now known as Guillermo Almenara Hospital, belonging to the Social Security System, is located on Avenida Grau Balconcillo south of Avenida Mexico running toward Avenida Canadá, is more residential, although it has some industrial offices, such as the local Ajinomoto and Xerox licensee offices.
Santa Catalina, running south from Avenida Canadá toward Avenida Javier Prado is the most residential and affluent section of all the district. The areas around the mountain, Cerro San Cosme and El Pino, are integrated into the hills in the northeast part of the district, sometimes counted as part of Victoria, but they design their own street; this sector is known as The Parade, from the nickname of the popular market products wholesale as well as several bus terminals located there now. La Victoria is home to one of the most popular football teams in Peru: Alianza Lima, it has the Estadio Alejandro Villanueva, allowing you to play at home, is located near the housing project Hooch in the southern part of La Victoria. La Victoria is historical and located in downtown Lima. Today's La Victoria offers its residents and visitors to the satisfaction of visiting its stately parks and enjoy the wonders of their culture, thereby imparting values among younger generations, it must be emphasized that La Victoria is a busy public district.
November: Lord of Miracles Alianza Lima La Parada Official district's web site
San Borja District
San Borja is a district of the Lima Province in Peru, one of the upscale districts that comprise the city of Lima. Part of the district of Surquillo and San Isidro, it became established as a separate district on June 1, 1983; the new district took its name from a former hacienda. The district's postal code is 41; the current mayor is Alberto Tejada. San Borja is one of the few districts of Lima, planned from the beginning and developed in an orderly fashion; this happened in a short time, during the 1970s the area underwent massive population growth and by the early 1980s all the land had been built up. The district's parks and green areas can be seen on the satellite photographs, it is considered a middle to high-class district. San Borja can be accessed using Javier Prado Avenue, Angamos Avenue or Aviación Avenue; the Panamerican Highway marks the eastern border of the district and is the most direct route if coming from the north or the south of the country. Most of the residential streets in this district are named after famous painters, philosophers and, in general, such tasks, the case with calle Miguel Angel, calle Millet, calle Redon, calle Monet, calle Rousseau, calle Van Gogh, to name just a few.
San Borja is bordered by the districts of San Luis and La Victoria on the north, Santiago de Surco on the east and south, Surquillo on the southwest and San Isidro on the west. The Rio Surco traverses the district in a north-south direction; this is not an actual river, it is a canal fed from the Rimac river and used to irrigate public parks. San Borja is 150 metres above sea level; the terrain is flat, with a gentle downward east-west slope. San Borja has a climate typical of the Peruvian coastal area; the weather is mild, with warm summers and cool winters, humid all year round. It never rains but during the months from June to October its streets dampen due to a fine drizzle, called "garúa" in Spanish. During this period, the sky is overcast. Average temperatures in San Borja range between 18 to 22 °C; the summer season lasts from December to April. During this time temperatures can reach highs of 28 to 30 °C. Winter lasts from May to November with temperatures as low as 12 to 15 °C. San Borja, as most of the rest of Metropolitan Lima, is built on the alluvial fan formed by the Rimac river during the Quaternary Period.
The river deposited up to 300 metres of rounded pebbles, coarse sand and small amounts of fine sand and silt in the valley. Geologists call this type of soil conglomerate; the probable earthquake intensity in the San Borja area is Grade VII in the Modified Mercalli scale. This compares favourably with Grade IX in some areas of La Molina and Chorrillos. San Borja has many well maintained and watered parks and green areas, there are about 10 square metres per person. Royal poinciana and eucalyptus trees are common in the district. There is a large and varied bird population that include west Peruvian doves, barn swallows, hummingbirds, Peruvian sheartails, American robins, falcons, common kestrels, black vultures and parrots. According to the Peruvian Institute of Statistics, the age distribution of the population of San Borja is as follows: There are two archaeological remains in San Borja: Huaca San Borja and Huaca Limatambo; these were built in pre-Inca times. The Surco river, which traverses the district in a northeast to southwest direction, is pre-Inca.
The Huaca San Borja was built by the Ichma culture, a loosely organised kingdom that developed in the Lurin and Rimac valleys, during the Late Intermediate Period. It is believed; this huaca is an 8 metre high truncated pyramid made of dried mud. It is surrounded by a mud wall enclosing three out of the four sides of the huaca; the perimeter wall was painted white originally. There is a second inner perimeter wall that encloses rooms and platforms at different levels; the site was abandoned at the beginning of the colonial period. During the Republic, a house was built on top; the huaca is now open for guided visits. The Huaca Limatambo is as old as the Huaca San Borja. However, Limatambo is not open to the public and archaeological studies are ongoing. After the Spanish conquest and the foundation of the city of Lima in 1535, the land that includes modern San Borja was given to Antonio Picado, secretary of Francisco Pizarro. After many change of hands, in 1568 the land was given to the Jesuit Order.
The Jesuits had an hacienda called "San Francisco de Borja y Aragon" known as Hacienda "San Borja". They grew potatoes, maize and vegetables for their own sustenance and to fund their charities, they donated 2% of their land to the Government. During the War of the Pacific a line of defense between Miraflores and the area known as Monterrico Grande was constructed; this line was the capital, Lima. It was formed by a series of "reductos", numbered from 1 to 10 and located at 800 metre intervals. Reductos Nos 6, 7 and 8 were located along the Surco river; the battle took place on 15 January 1881, it involved the areas between Reducto No 1 to Reducto No 5. The Peruvian army was defeated. Except for Reducto No 2 in Miraflores and Reducto No 5 in nearby Surquillo there are no visible remains of them. After this battle, the Hacienda San Borja w
Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of more than 9 million, Lima is the most populous metropolitan area of Peru and the third-largest city in the Americas, behind São Paulo and Mexico City. Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes in the agricultural region known by the Indians as Limaq, name that acquired over time, it became most important city in the Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru. Around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area. Lima is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World; the National University of San Marcos, founded on 12 May 1551, during the Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas.
Nowadays the city is considered as the political, cultural and commercial center of the country. Internationally, it is one of the thirty most populated urban agglomerations in the world. Due to its geostrategic importance, it has been defined as a "beta" city. Jurisdictionally, the metropolis extends within the province of Lima and in a smaller portion, to the west, within the constitutional province of Callao, where the seaport and the Jorge Chávez airport are located. Both provinces have regional autonomy since 2002. In October 2013, Lima was chosen to host the 2019 Pan American Games, it hosted the United Nations Climate Change Conference in December 2014 and the Miss Universe 1982 contest. According to early Spanish articles the Lima area was once called Itchyma, after its original inhabitants; however before the Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century, a famous oracle in the Rímac valley had come to be known by visitors as Limaq. This oracle was destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but the name persisted: the chronicles show "Límac" replacing "Ychma" as the common name for the area.
Modern scholars speculate that the word "Lima" originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq. Linguistic evidence seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish rejects stop consonants in word-final position. Non-Peruvian Spanish speakers may mistakenly define the city name as the direct Spanish translation of "lime", the citrus fruit; the city was founded in 1535 under the name City of the Kings because its foundation was decided on 6 January, date of the feast of the Epiphany. This name fell into disuse and Lima became the city's name of choice; the river that feeds Lima is called Rímac and many people erroneously assume that this is because its original Inca name is "Talking River". However, the original inhabitants of the valley were not Incas; this name is an innovation arising from an effort by the Cuzco nobility in colonial times to standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua. As the original inhabitants died out and the local Quechua became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed.
Nowadays, Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name of their city and the name of the river that runs through it. They assume that the valley is named after the river; the Flag of Lima has been known as the "Banner of Peru's Kings' City". It is embroidered in the center is its coat of arms. Lima's anthem was heard for the first time on 18 January 2008, in a formal meeting with important politicians, including Peruvian President Alan García, other authorities; the anthem was created by Euding Maeshiro and record producer Ricardo Núñez. In the pre-Columbian era, what is now Lima was inhabited by indigenous groups under the Ychsma policy, incorporated into the Inca Empire in the 15th century. In 1532 a group of Spanish conquistadors, led by Francisco Pizarro, defeated the Inca ruler Atahualpa and took over his empire; as the Spanish Crown had named Pizarro governor of the lands he conquered, he chose the Rímac Valley to found his capital on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes.
In August 1536, rebel Inca troops led by Manco Inca Yupanqui besieged the city but were defeated by the Spaniards and their native allies. Lima gained prestige after being designated capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and site of a Real Audiencia in 1543. During the next century it flourished as the centre of an extensive trade network that integrated the Viceroyalty with the rest of the Americas and the Far East. However, the city was not free from dangers; the 1687 Peru earthquake destroyed most of the city buildings. In 1746, another p
San Martín de Porres District
San Martín de Porres is a district in Lima, located in the area known as Cono Norte. It is bordered by the district of Callao on the west; the Rímac River marks its natural border with downtown Lima and Callao province's district of Carmen de la Legua Reynoso on the south. Since 1945, continuous invasions of territory in what was part of the Carabayllo District ended up in the creation of the Distrito Obrero Industrial 27 de Octubre on May 22, 1950, still celebrated as the district's anniversary; the district was composed of the following haciendas: Chuquitanta, Naranjal, Santa Rosa, Garagay Alto, G. Bajo, Chavarría, Mulería, Condevilla, San José, the Huerta Sol. In 1962, after the canonization of St. Martin de Porras, the name of the district was changed to its current name. Although historians have shown that the saint's actual last name was Porras, the district has retained the original spelling; the Barrio Obrero Industrial name is unofficially kept for the downtown area. The district of Los Olivos was created in 1989, stripping some of San Martín de Porres' northeastern territory.
A prominent geographical feature of the district is the isolated La Milla hill, north of Ave. José Granda. 2019-2022: Julio Chávez Chiong 2015-2018: Bobby Mattos 2011-2014: Freddy Ternero † 2015-2018: Adolfo Israel Mattos Piaggio Universidad Cayetano Heredia Avenida Caquetá Avenida Zarumilla Avenida Eduardo de Habich Avenida Túpac Amaru Avenida Canta Callao Avenida Naranjal Avenida Carlos Izaguirre Avenida Bocanegra Avenida Angélica Gamarra Avenida Tomás Valle Avenida Universitaria Avenida Germán Aguirre Avenida José Granda Avenida Lima Avenida Pacasmayo Avenida Perú Avenida Los Próceres Avenida 12 de Octubre Avenida Salaverry Avenida Quilca Urb Barrio Obrero Urb Caquetá Urb Miguel Grau Urb Zarumilla Urb Ingenieria Urb Palao Urb Los Jardines Urb Fiori Urb Perú Urb Condevilla Señor Urb San Germán Urb Antares Urb Los Libertadores Urb El Pacífico Urb Garagay Huaca El Paraiso Huaca Garagay Huaca Palao Administrative divisions of Peru Largest cities in the Americas List of districts of Lima List of metropolitan areas of Peru List of people from Lima List of sites of interest in the Lima Metropolitan area Ancient Buildings in Coast of Peru www.mdsmp.gob.pe/ Municipalidad Distrital de San Martín de Porres] - San Martín de Porres district council official website http://www.cayetano.edu.pe/cayetano/es/ Universidad Cayetano Heredia]
Ate known as Ate-Vitarte, is a district of the Lima Province in Peru. Located in the eastern part of the province, it is one of the districts that comprise the city of Lima; the district has a total land area of 77.72 km². Its administrative center is located 355 meters above sea level. North: Lurigancho East: Santa Anita, Cieneguilla South: Santiago de Surco, La Molina West: San Borja, San Luis According to the 2007 census by the INEI, the district has 478,278 inhabitants and a population density of 6,154 persons/km². In 2005, there were 105,190 households in the district, it is the 13th most populated district in Lima. Stadium "Estadio Monumental de Universitario de Deportes", home of one of the most popular football teams in Perú. Puruchuco Archeological Site Huaycan Archeological Site Cahuide Park Administrative divisions of Peru Official web site of the Ate district Estadísticas de Ate Ate News