Milwaukee City Hall
The Milwaukee City Hall is in Milwaukee, United States. It was finished in 1895, was Milwaukee's tallest building until completion of the First Wisconsin Center in 1973. Milwaukee City Hall was designed by architect Henry C. Koch in the Flemish Renaissance Revival style, based on both German precedent, local examples. Due to Milwaukee's historic German immigrant population, many of the surrounding buildings mirror this design; the foundation consists of 2,584 white pine piles that were driven into the marshy land surrounding the Milwaukee River. The upper part of the tower was rebuilt after a fire in October 1929; the bell in City Hall was named after Milwaukee's first mayor. It was designed and crafted by the Campbells, who were early pioneers in creating diving chambers and suits near the Great Lakes area during that time. City Hall was the marketing symbol of Milwaukee until the completion of the Calatrava wing of the Milwaukee Art Museum in 2001, but the bell tower continues to be used as a municipal icon and in some traffic and parking signs.
The tower had a Welcome Milwaukee Visitors message on the front three sides. From 2006 to 2008, the entire building was renovated, including a complete dis-assembly and reassembly of the bell tower, by J. P. Cullen & Sons, Inc. a construction manager and general contractor headquartered in Janesville, Wisconsin. Before the restoration began, the bell was rung because of seismic concerns, in the last few years an assembly of scaffolds with protective coverings had been in place around the building to protect pedestrians from falling stone and brickwork; the quality of the US$60,000,000 restoration was the subject of a lawsuit filed by the city of Milwaukee in 2012 against various parties involved in the work. City Hall was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973, declared a National Historic Landmark in 2005. List of skyscrapers List of tallest buildings in Milwaukee A brief history of Milwaukee and City Hall City Hall Restoration Project National Historic Landmark nomination Emporis page Fixing City Hall won't come easy Questioning the Merits of Propping Up City Hall
History of Milwaukee
Milwaukee, has a history of over 160 years of immigration and industry, which have given it a distinctive heritage. The first recorded inhabitants of the Milwaukee area are the Menominee, Mascouten, Potawatomi, Ojibwe and Ho-Chunk Native American tribes. Many of these people had lived around Green Bay before migrating to the Milwaukee area around the time of European contact; the name "Milwaukee" comes from an Algonquian word Millioke, meaning "Good", "Beautiful" and "Pleasant Land" or "Gathering place ". French missionaries and traders first passed through the area in the late 18th centuries. French explorer Robert La Salle was most the first white man to visit Milwaukee in October 1679. Although La Salle and others visited Milwaukee, prior to the 19th century, Milwaukee was inhabited by Native Americans; the Natives at Milwaukee tried to control their destiny by participating in all the major wars on the American continent. During the French and Indian War, a group of "Ojibwas and Pottawattamies from the far Michigan" joined the French-Canadian Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu at the Battle of the Monongahela.
In the American Revolutionary War, the Indians around Milwaukee were some of the few Indians who remained loyal to the American cause throughout the Revolution. As the 18th century came to a close, the first recorded white fur trader settled in Milwaukee; this was French Canadian Jean Baptiste Mirandeau who along with Jacques Vieau of La Baye, established a fur-trading post near the Menomonee River in 1795. Mirandeau remained all year with Vieau coming every spring with supplies. In 1820 or 1821 Mirandeau died and was the first white to be buried in the city in an Indian cemetery near Broadway and Wisconsin; the post was on the Chicago-Green Bay trail, located on the site of today's Mitchell Park. Vieau had at least twelve children. Vieau's daughter by another woman, would marry Solomon Juneau; these links established a Metis population, by 1820 Milwaukee was a Metis settlement. Milwaukee has three "founding fathers": Solomon Juneau, Byron Kilbourn, George H. Walker. Solomon Juneau, the first of the three to come to the area, arrived in 1818.
The French Canadian Juneau married Josette Vieau, daughter of Jacques Vieau, in 1820, Vieau sold the trading post to his son-in-law and daughter, the "founding mother of Milwaukee." The Juneaus moved the post in 1825 to the eastern bank of the Milwaukee River, where they founded the town called Juneau's Side, or Juneautown. This town soon attracted settlers from the Eastern United States and Europe. Soon after, Byron Kilbourn settled on the west side of the Milwaukee River. In competition with Juneau, Kilbourn established Kilbourntown there, making sure that the streets running toward the river did not match up with those on the east side; this accounts for the large number of angled bridges. Further, Kilbourn distributed maps of the area that showed only Kilbourntown, implying that Juneautown did not exist or that the east side of the river was uninhabited and thus undesirable; the third prominent builder, George H. Walker, claimed land to the south of the Milwaukee River, where he built a log house in 1834.
This area became known as Walker's Point. The proximity of the towns sparked tensions in 1845 after the completion of a bridge built between Kilbourntown and Juneautown. Kilbourn and his supporters viewed the bridge as a threat to their community and led to Kilbourn destroying part of the bridge. Over the next few weeks, skirmishes broke out between the inhabitants of the two towns. After this event, known as the Milwaukee Bridge War, the two towns made greater attempts at cooperation. By the 1840s, the three towns had grown to such an extent that on January 31, 1846 they combined to incorporate as the City of Milwaukee and elected Solomon Juneau as the city's first mayor. A great number of German immigrants had helped increase the city's population during the 1840s and continued to migrate to the area during the following decades. Milwaukee became known as the "Deutsches Athen", into the 20th century, there were more German speakers and German-language newspapers than there were English speakers and English-language newspapers in the city.
To this day, the Milwaukee phone book includes more than 40 pages of Schmitts or Schmidts, far more than the pages of Smiths. In the mid-19th century Milwaukee earned the nickname "Cream City," which refers to the large number of cream colored bricks that came out of the Menomonee River Valley and were used in construction. At its peak, Milwaukee produced 15 million bricks a year, with a third going out of the state. During the middle and late 19th century and the Milwaukee area became the final destination of many German immigrants fleeing the Revolution of 1848. In Wisconsin they found the inexpensive land and the freedoms they sought; the German heritage and influence in the Milwaukee area is widespread. On November 14, 1856 Solomon Juneau died at the age of 63; the Milwaukee Bar Association was founded in 1858. It now has over 2,600 members. On May 5, 1886 the Bay View Massacre occurred, in which strikin
Milwaukee Public Library
Milwaukee Public Library is the public library system in Milwaukee, United States, consisting of a central library and 13 branches, all part of the Milwaukee County Federated Library System. MPL is the largest public library system in Wisconsin; the Milwaukee Public Library can trace its lineage back to 1847 when the Young Men's Association started a subscription library that collected dues from its members. The group rented space for its library in a number of locations over the years and expanded into sponsoring a lecture series with such important speakers as Horace Mann, Horace Greeley and Ralph Waldo Emerson; the city-sponsored library began in 1878 when the state legislature authorized Milwaukee to establish a public library. At that time, it took over the association's rented quarters and the group's collection of 10,000 volumes, many in German. After several moves and several fires, the library moved into a new, block-long limestone building at what is now 814 W. Wisconsin Avenue; that building, which opened on Oct. 3, 1898, was shared with the Milwaukee Public Museum until the museum moved to its own building on West Wells Street in the mid-1960s.
In 1929 when it still shared the space with the museum, the Library was home to a lion named Simba, who lived in the taxidermy department on the fourth floor. Simba "The Library Lion" was known to play on the roof. In 1957, an addition to the Central Library building was opened on the Wells Street side, it included four fireproof levels of shelving below ground level. The library system expanded by establishing book depositories at locations around the city, first in grocery stores in rented store buildings. On June 16, 1910, the South Division branch opened in its own building at what is now 931 W. Madison Street. In the 1960s the library system began a program to replace the storefront libraries and the outdated South Division branch and build new branch buildings throughout the city. Today there are 12 neighborhood libraries, each of which serves a population of about 50,000; the most built branch library is the East Library, which re-opened in a new building to the public on November 22, 2014.
Since Milwaukee Public Library has remodeled the Tippecanoe neighborhood branch in 2015 and opened the Mitchell Street branch on October 7, 2017 in the historic Hills Building on the city's near-south side. The Mitchell Street branch replaces the Forest Home branch, which closed permanently in September of 2017; the Central Library is the headquarters for the Milwaukee Public Library System and houses the administrative offices of the Milwaukee County Federated Library System. Designated a Milwaukee Landmark in 1969, the building remains one of Milwaukee's most monumental public structures. Today, the Central Library occupies the entire building with 3 exceptions: the headquarters for the Milwaukee County Federated Library System. Atkinson Bay View Capitol Center Street East Martin Luther King Mill Road Mitchell Street MPL Express at Silver Spring Tippecanoe Villard Square Library Washington Park Zablocki Media related to Milwaukee Public Library at Wikimedia Commons Official website Milwaukee County Federated Library System
Milwaukee Fire Department
The Milwaukee Fire Department provides fire protection and emergency medical services to the city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The department is responsible for an area of 96.12 square miles with a population of 594,833. The department was ranked third in the U. S. for best medical emergency service by a USA Today study in 2003. List of fire stations and apparatus in the Milwaukee Fire Department as of June 2016: Several Fire Stations are closed including Fire Station 3, Fire Station 5, Fire Station 6, Fire Station 25, Fire Station 28, Fire Station 31. Several stations feature commissioned works of art, including: The Last Alarm Dauntless Guardian Fire and Water Spirit of the Firefighter On Watch Gear 23 R. HERO MFD Coloring Book By Reginald Baylor
Milwaukee County Stadium
Milwaukee County Stadium was a multi-purpose stadium in Wisconsin, located in the city of Milwaukee. Opened in 1953, it was a baseball park for the major league Milwaukee Braves and Brewers, it was used for football games, ice skating, religious services and other large events. Its final season was in 2000. Milwaukee County Stadium was built as a home for the Milwaukee Brewers of the minor league American Association, replacing the outdated and deteriorating Borchert Field. Both locations would be influenced by the future Milwaukee County freeway system, as Borchert Field's footprint would be cleared to make way for Interstate 43, with County Stadium located southwest of the interchange with the Stadium Freeway and Interstate 94. Several locations around the city, including the Wisconsin State Fair Park in West Allis were considered before the city settled on the defunct site of the Story Quarry, on the west side of Milwaukee near the Story Hill neighborhood. County Stadium was the first ballpark in the United States financed with public funds.
Construction began in October 1950 and, hampered by steel shortages during the Korean War, was completed in 1953. Construction cost was $5.9 million, with the bonds paid off in 1964. The city of Milwaukee hoped to use the new facility to attract a Major League Baseball franchise, in this respect their efforts were successful. In fact, the minor league Brewers would never get a chance to play at the new stadium. Before it was completed, the new "Milwaukee County Municipal Stadium" drew the interest of major league clubs; the St. Louis Browns, who had played in Milwaukee in 1901, the inaugural season of the American League, applied for permission to relocate back to the city they had left half a century before; the Boston Braves, the parent club of the Brewers, blocked the proposed move. The Braves had long been struggling at the gate in Boston, rumors of them relocating had been floating for some time; the move to keep Milwaukee available as a new home indicated to many observers that the Braves would move to Milwaukee themselves.
Three weeks before the beginning of the 1953 season, right before the new stadium was ready to open, the Braves made it official, applying for permission to relocate. The other National League owners agreed, with the team becoming the Milwaukee Braves; the Braves' first regular season home game was on April 14 against the St. Louis Cardinals. Bill Bruton hit. In their first season in Milwaukee, the Braves set the National League attendance record of 1.8 million. The first published issue of Sports Illustrated on August 16, 1954, featured County Stadium with Braves batter Eddie Mathews on its cover, along with New York Giants catcher Wes Westrum and home plate umpire Augie Donatelli. On July 12, 1955, County Stadium hosted the 22nd All-Star Game; the National League won, 6–5, on a 12th-inning home run by Stan Musial. The Braves hosted back-to-back World Series in 1958, both against the New York Yankees; the Braves defeated the Yankees in seven games in 1957, but the Yankees returned the favor the next year.
The stadium continued to be the National League's top draw until 1959 when the Dodgers, who had moved to Los Angeles two years before, overtook the Braves. In the early 1960s attendance fell, along with the Braves' standings, amid an unstable ownership situation; the Milwaukee Braves used the stadium through the 1965 season when new owners, seeking a larger television market, moved the team to Atlanta. In an effort to return Major League Baseball to Milwaukee after the departure of the Braves, local businessman and minority Braves owner Bud Selig brought other teams to play at County Stadium, beginning with a 1967 exhibition game between the Chicago White Sox and Minnesota Twins; the exhibition game attracted more than 51,000 spectators, so Selig's group contracted with Sox owner Arthur Allyn to host nine Chicago White Sox home games at County Stadium in 1968. Selig's experiment was successful – those nine games drew 264,297 fans; those games took place on May 15 vs. the California Angels, May 28 vs. the Baltimore Orioles, June 17 vs. the Cleveland Indians, June 24 vs. the Minnesota Twins, July 11 vs. the New York Yankees, July 22 vs. the Oakland A's, August 2 vs. Washington Senators, August 8 vs. the Boston Red Sox, August 26 vs. the Detroit Tigers.
In Chicago that season, the Sox drew 539,478 fans to their remaining 72 home dates. In just a handful of games, the Milwaukee crowds accounted for nearly one-third of the total attendance at White Sox games. In light of this success and Allyn agreed that County Stadium would host Sox home games again the next season. In 1969, the Sox schedule in Milwaukee was expanded to include 11 home games. Although those games were attended by fewer fans they represented a greater percentage of the total White Sox attendance than the previous year – over one-third of the fans who went to Sox home games in 1969 did so at County Stadium; those games took place on April 23 vs. the California Angels, May 22 vs. Detroit Tigers, May 28 vs. the New York Yankees, June 11 vs. the Cleveland Indians, June 16 vs. the Seattle Pilots, July 2 vs. the Minnesota Twins, July 7 vs. the Oakland A's, August 6 vs. the Washington Senators, August 13 vs. the Boston Red Sox, Septem
A service flag or service banner is a banner that family members of those serving in the United States Armed Forces can display. The flag or banner is defined as a white field with a red border, with a blue star for each family member serving in the Armed Forces of the United States during any period of war or hostilities. A gold star represents a family member; this includes those who lost their lives during World War I, World War II, or during any subsequent period of armed hostilities in which the United States was engaged before July 1, 1958. Based on the star symbols used on the service flag, the term "Blue Star" has come into use in the United States as a reference to having a family member in active military service, while the term "Gold Star" has come to refer to the loss of a family member in military service. For example, the mother of a person who died in service is referred to as a "Gold Star mother", the wife of an active service member is referred to as a "Blue Star wife". Charitable support organizations have been established for Gold Star mothers, Gold Star wives, Blue Star mothers, Blue Star wives.
The last Sunday in September is observed as Gold Star Mother's Day, Gold Star family members are entitled to wear a Gold Star Lapel Button, all 50 U. S. states and Guam offer some form of a specialty license plate for motor vehicles owned by Gold Star family members. The use of the terms has sometimes been restricted to refer to service during specific armed conflicts. For example, the service banner applied only to World War I, it was expanded to include service in World War II the Korean War other specific conflicts, "any period of war or hostilities". In some current uses of the "star" terminology, there is no longer any distinction made about the place or time or degree of hostility involved in the military service. For Gold Stars, the Department of Defense makes a distinction about the manner and place of death, but some other organizations do not; the Gold Star term is sometimes interpreted to apply to those missing in action and those who did not die during active service but died as a result of an in-service injury.
A lesser-known practice of using a silver star to indicate a service member, disabled is sometimes followed, although this practice is not recognized in federal law. The banner was designed in 1917 by U. S. Army Captain Robert L. Queisser of the Fifth Ohio Infantry, in honor of his two sons who were serving in World War I, it was adopted by the public and by government officials. On September 24, 1917, an Ohio congressman read into the Congressional Record: The mayor of Cleveland, the Chamber of Commerce, the Governor of Ohio have adopted this service flag; the world should know of those. The dearest thing in all the world to a father and mother—their children; these flags were first used in World War I, with subsequent standardization and codification by the end of World War II. They were not popular during the Vietnam War, but have come back into use since the first Gulf War / Operation Desert Storm. In modern usage, an organization may fly a service flag if one of its members is serving active duty.
Manufacture of these flags is only allowed by specific government license in the territories under U. S. jurisdiction. The same section of the United States Code that limits manufacture of the banner mentions lapel pins. There is no legal specification of the banner's size, but according to the DoD code, the flag size ratio must be 10:19, the same as the Flag of the United States; when displayed with the national flag, the latter should take the place of honor. If the flags displayed differ in size, the national flag should be larger. Blue and gold are the only colors specified for use, but silver stars are in use to represent those discharged from service because of wounds or being invalided home; the Silver Star Families of America is an organization attempting to encourage the U. S. Congress to make the Silver Star Service Banner official for those wounded or injured in a war zone. Forty-nine states, Saipan, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the Chickasaw Nation and over 2,700 cities and counties have issued proclamations in support of the Silver Star Banner and of Silver Star Service Banner Day on May 1 of every year.
On April 21, 2010, the United States House of Representatives passed House Resolution 855, a stand-alone resolution recognizing the Silver Star Service Banner and making May 1 Silver Star Service Banner Day. One state, took steps to make such recognition a state law. In World War II, the Brazilian Clube Militar and the Casino da Urca adopted the concepts of the U. S. service banner by giving posters to the family members of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force. On these posters the phrase Daqui saiu um Expedicionário was written, which means "From here came an Expeditionary". Although the design differs from the U. S. banners, the mothers
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.