San Francisco International Airport
San Francisco International Airport is an international airport 13 miles south of downtown San Francisco, United States, near Millbrae and San Bruno in unincorporated San Mateo County. It has flights to points throughout North America and is a gateway to Europe. SFO is the largest airport in Northern California and the second busiest in California, in 2014, it was the seventh busiest in the United States and the twenty-first busiest airport in the world by passenger count. It is the fifth largest hub for United Airlines and functions as United Airliness primary transpacific gateway and it serves as Virgin Americas principal base of operations. It is the sole hub of United Airlines, and houses the Louis A. Turpen Aviation Museum. SFO is owned and policed by the City and County of San Francisco, between 1999 and 2004 the San Francisco Airport Commission operated city-owned SFO Enterprises, Inc. to oversee its business purchases and operations of ventures. San Francisco held a ceremony for Mills Field Municipal Airport on May 7,1927 on 150 acres of cow pasture.
The land was leased from Ogden L. Mills who had leased it from his grandfather Darius O. Mills, San Francisco International Airport was named Mills Field Municipal Airport until 1931, when it became San Francisco Municipal Airport. Municipal was replaced by International in 1955, United Airlines served SFO and Oakland Municipal Airport beginning in the 1930s. The March 1939 Official Aviation Guide shows 18 airline departures on weekdays— seventeen United flights, the aerial view c.1940 looks west along the runway that is now 28R, the seaplane harbor at right is still recognizable north of the airport. Earlier aerial looking NW1943 vertical aerial The August 1952 chart shows runway 1L7000 feet long, 1R7750 feet, 28L6500 feet and 28R8870 feet. Competition with United led Pacific Seaboard to move all of its operations to the eastern U. S. and rename itself Chicago and it became a large domestic and international air carrier. Chicago & Southern was acquired by and merged into Delta Air Lines in 1953 thus providing Delta with its first international routes, United Airlines Douglas DC-6 propliners flying to and from Hawaii used the Pan American World Airways terminal beginning in 1947.
The first nonstops to the U. S. east coast were flown by United with Douglas DC-7 propliners in 1954, in 1954 the airports Central Passenger Terminal opened on August 27 of that year. Included in the static display of aircraft on that day was a Convair B-36 Peacemaker bomber. The Central Passenger Terminal was heavily rebuilt as the terminal in 1984. As for international flights, Pan American had 21 departures a week, Japan Airlines had five, the jet age arrived at SFO in March 1959 when TWA introduced Boeing 707-131 jetliners with nonstop service to New York Idlewild Airport. United constructed a large facility at San Francisco for its new Douglas DC-8 jets
San Francisco Public Library
The San Francisco Public Library is the public library system of the city of San Francisco. The Main Library is located at Civic Center, at 100 Larkin Street, in 1877 a residents meeting was called by Andrew Smith Hallidie who advocated the creation of a public library for San Francisco. A board of trustees for the Library was created in 1878 through the Rogers Act, signed by Governor of California William Irwin, the San Francisco Public Library opened in 1879 on Bush Street at Kearny Street and hired Albert Hart as the first librarian. In 1888 the Library moved to the Larkin Street wing of City Hall at Civic Center, the first three branches opened from 1888 to 1889, in the Mission, in North Beach, and in Potrero Hill. In 1889 the Library became a Federal depository by nomination of Senator George Hearst, in 1906, architect Daniel Burnham presented his plans for a new Civic Center for San Francisco, including a new library building. These plans were put on hold after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the library moved to temporary quarters while a new building was designed and built.
In 1917, the new library building, designed by George W. Kelham. Ten major murals by California Tonalist Gottardo Piazzoni were installed in 1931-1932, four more were completed in 1945, but left uninstalled until the 1970s. In 1986, a force was set up to complete the design of the Civic Center, including the use of Marshall Square, next to the main library at the time. Construction on the current Main Library began on March 15,1993, the building was completed in 1995 and opened a year on April 18,1996. The old main library, which was damaged in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, was rebuilt as the new Asian Art Museum. At over 376,000 square feet and with six floors above ground and one below, the new library features over 300 computer terminals, room for 1100 laptops, and a new wing for children. The city spent $104.5 million on the new library. San Francisco Public Library/Other Facts about the Building, Library visitations doubled in its first year open, from 1.1 million to 2.1 million, and the number of library card holders nearly tripled.
Nonetheless, the Main Library has its critics, in October 1996 author Nicholson Baker wrote a scathing article in The New Yorker about the weeding of books from the library as it moved to the new building. He was critical about the elimination of the catalog when the computerized catalog was introduced. Due to this publicity, the library released an official response to Nicholsons New Yorker article. Later, under pressure that included Mayor Willie Brown, City Librarian Ken Dowlin whose policy it was to weed. The library was used in the 1998 film City of Angels
San Francisco Fire Department
The San Francisco Fire Department provides fire and emergency medical services to the City and County of San Francisco, California. Volunteer companies were first formed in the city in 1850, Fire Chief Dennis T. Sullivan suffered mortal wounds in his home by a falling chimney early in the disaster and subsequently died in the hospital. They have recently gotten another fireboat, the SFFD has two fireboats that are docked at Pier 22 1⁄2. Fireboat 1, the Phoenix, was constructed in 1954 and is fitted with three monitors, a water town and two under pier monitors. Fireboat 2, the Guardian, was constructed in 1950 and is the oldest fireboat in the fleet, both boats are 89-foot and outfitted with two 500 horsepower engines giving them top speeds of 12.5 knots and 15 knots. A third new 85-foot fireboat is as yet unnamed and it was delivered to SFFD on July 25,2016 and is planned to be unveiled and put into service sometime in October 2016. A contest for children Grades K-8 was held to name the vessel, below is a full listing of all fire station and company locations in the City & County of San Francisco according to division and battalion.
There are three SFFD-operated fire stations located at the San Francisco International Airport in San Mateo County, all apparatus at SFO go by the Rescue call sign, whether Engine, Truck, ARFF Crash, Medic Unit, or Command SUV. The film cast many actual firefighters from the department and used many actual SFFD fire trucks during the filming, Fire Station 38 was shown in the filming. The exterior shots were done at the Bank of America Building,555 California, the SFFD was used in the Dirty Harry film series, particularly Rescue Squad 2 in Dirty Harry. The depicted fire station, Fire Station 53, is a fictitious station, the exterior of the station was represented by Fire Station 1 of the Los Angeles Fire Department. The SFFD was featured in two Emergency, Television movies in 1978 and 1979, where L. A. County firefighter/paramedics Gage and DeSoto run calls with the firefighters of Rescue Squad 2, the NBC Television show Trauma followed the fictional lives of SFFD paramedics, EMTs and flight medics.
The department is featured in the 1985 James Bond film A View to a Kill, the station was Station #9, built in 1915. San Francisco Fire Department official website San Francisco Fire Museum History of the San Francisco Fire Department at the SF Museum SFFD Fire Reserve website
San Francisco Recreation & Parks Department
The San Francisco Recreation & Parks Department is the city agency responsible for governing and maintaining all city owned parks and recreational facilities in San Francisco, California. The Recreation & Parks Department runs Sharp Park in Pacifica and Camp Mather in Tuolumne County, current facilities include 4,113 acres of total recreational and open space with 3,400 acres of that land within San Francisco. As San Francisco grew over of the years and facilities were added all over the city, separately the city was running playgrounds, athletic fields, and recreational facilities under the direction of the Recreation Commission. In 1950 the two commissions were merged and the San Francisco Recreation & Park Department was born, the General Manager is appointed by the mayor of San Francisco. The Recreation & Parks Department is governed by a commission who are appointed by the mayor of San Francisco to 4 year terms. The Commission President is elected by fellow Commissioners, Commission meetings are held once a month at San Francisco City Hall.
Mark Buell, Allan Low, Gloria Bonilla, Tom Harrison, Meagan Levitan, in the past, there have been efforts to change the selection process for commissioners. This proposal had 5 votes on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors but was not able to get the vote necessary to put it on the ballot. The Department is responsible for over 220 neighborhood parks and Golden Gate Park, the largest, the Golden Gate National Recreation Area is federal and is administered by the National Park Service. Golden Gate Park is San Franciscos premier municipal park, planted in 1871 the park covers 1,017 acres of land across the western edge of San Francisco. Configured as a rectangle the park is three miles long east to west and about half a mile north to south. McLaren Park is the second largest municipal park in San Francisco, located in south-east San Francisco, the park is surrounded by the Excelsior, Crocker-Amazon, Visitacion Valley and University Mound neighborhoods. Dolores Park is a city park located two blocks south of Mission Dolores at the edge of the Mission District.
Dolores Park is bounded by 18th Street on the north, 20th Street on the south, Dolores Street on the east, coit Tower is a 210-foot tower in the Telegraph Hill neighborhood. The tower, in the citys Pioneer Park, was built in 1933 using Lillie Hitchcock Coits bequest to beautify the city of San Francisco, the tower was proposed in 1931 as an appropriate use of Coits gift. The Zoo is owned by the Recreation & Parks Department and managed by its partner non-profit San Francisco Zoological Society, Candlestick Park was home of the San Francisco 49ers through the 2013 season and was home of the San Francisco Giants until 2000. In 2014 the 49ers moved to the new Levis Stadium and Candlestick Park is being torn down, Kezar Stadium is and outdoor 10,000 seat multi-purpose stadium located in the southeastern corner of Golden Gate Park. Before being renovated and downsized in 1989 it was the home of the San Francisco 49ers
Government of San Francisco
It is the only consolidated city-county in California, and one of only thirteen charter counties of California. The fiscal year 2007–08 city and county budget was approximately $6 billion, San Francisco utilizes the strong mayor form of mayoral/council government, composed of the mayor, Board of Supervisors, several elected officers, and numerous other entities. San Francisco voters use ranked-choice voting to elect the mayor, the Mayor of San Francisco is the head of the executive branch of the city and county government. The mayor serves a term and is limited to two successive terms. If the mayor dies or resigns, the President of the Board of Supervisors assumes the office, the Board of Supervisors is headed by a president and is responsible for passing laws and budgets. Proposition K - 2009-2034, Different formula for local streets and local and regional public transit, pursuant to its charter, San Francisco causes to be published several codified version of its ordinances and regulations, the San Francisco Municipal Codes.
Every act prohibited or declared unlawful, and every failure to perform an act required, by the ordinances are misdemeanor crimes, San Franciscans make use of direct ballot initiatives to pass legislation. In addition, several regional governmental units in San Francisco operate independently of the municipal government, there are several school districts that are co-extensive with San Francisco. The San Francisco Unified School District is governed by the elected seven-member San Francisco Board of Education, the community college district of the City College of San Francisco is governed by an elected seven-member Board of Trustees. Also notable are the independent police forces of the University of California, San Francisco and the Park Police of the Presidio Trust and the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. The San Francisco Democratic Central Committee, the body of the San Francisco Democratic Party, is a county central committee of the California Democratic Party for San Francisco. The SFDCC is elected from the two Assembly districts in San Francisco and consists of 24 members, with a 14/10 member split between the two Assembly districts based on number of registered Democrats
San Francisco Police Department
The San Francisco Police Department is the city police department of the City and County of San Francisco, California. The departments motto is the same as that of the city and county, Oro en paz, fierro en guerra, archaic Spanish for Gold in peace, iron in war. The SFPD should not be confused with the San Francisco Sheriffs Department and it is the 11th largest police department in the United States. The SFPD began operations on August 13,1849, during the Gold Rush under the command of Captain Malachi Fallon, at the time, Chief Fallon had a force of one deputy captain, three sergeants and thirty officers. In 1851, Albert Bernard de Russailh wrote about the nascent San Francisco police force, As for the police, the police force is largely made up of ex-bandits, and naturally the members are interested above all in saving their old friends from punishment. Policemen here are quite as much to be feared as the robbers and you pay them well to watch over your house, and they set it on fire. In short, I think that all the people concerned with justice or the police are in league with the criminals, the city is in a hopeless chaos, and many years must pass before order can be established.
In a country where so many races are mingled, a severe and inflexible justice is desirable, on October 28,1853, the Board of Aldermen passed Ordinance No. 466, which provided for the reorganization of the police department, sections one and two provided as follows, The People of the City of San Francisco do ordain as follows, Sec.1. The Police Department of the City of San Francisco, shall be composed of a day and night police, consisting of 56 men, each to be recommended by at least ten tax-paying citizens. There shall be one Captain and one assistant Captain of Police, who shall be elected in joint convention of the Board of Aldermen and assistant Aldermen. The remainder of the force, viz.54 men, shall be appointed as follows, By the Mayor,2, by the City Marshal,2, by the City Recorder,2, in July 1856, the Consolidation Act went into effect. This act abolished the office of City Marshal and created in its stead the office of Chief of Police, the first Chief of Police elected in 1856 was James F.
Curtis a former member of the San Francisco Committee of Vigilance. The SFPD is known for being one of the forces for modern law enforcement. In early August 1975, the SFPD went on strike over a pay dispute, the city quickly obtained a court order declaring the strike illegal and enjoining the SFPD back to work. The court messenger delivering the order was met with violence and the SFPD continued to strike, only managers and African-American officers remained on duty, with 45 officers and 3 fire trucks responsible for a city population of 700,000. Supervisor Dianne Feinstein pleaded Mayor Joseph Alioto to ask Governor Jerry Brown to call out the National Guard to patrol the streets, when enraged civilians confronted SFPD officers at the picket lines, the officers arrested them. Again, the SFPD ignored the court order, on August 20 a bomb detonated at the Mayors home with a sign reading Dont Threaten Us left on his lawn
San Francisco County Superior Court
The San Francisco County Superior Court is a branch of the California Superior Court with jurisdiction over the City and County of San Francisco. Katherine Feinstein had been the judge of the court for twelve years. Judge Cynthia Ming-Mei Lee was elected the new presiding judge on June 27,2012, the court is composed of 52 judges and twelve commissioners. The court currently has two commissioners and we got a lot of criticism, but we thought it was the right thing to do. ”
Culture of San Francisco
The culture of San Francisco is major and diverse in terms of arts, cuisine, festivals and architecture. San Franciscos diversity of cultures along with its eccentricities are so great that they have influenced the country. In 2012, Bloomberg Businessweek voted San Francisco as Americas Best City, the Museum of Modern Art contains 20th Century and contemporary pieces. It moved to its building in South of Market in 1995, the California Palace of the Legion of Honor contains primarily European works. The De Young Museum and the Asian Art Museum have significant anthropological, the California Academy of Sciences is a natural history museum and hosts the Morrison Planetarium and Steinhart Aquarium. The Asian Art Museum of San Francisco has one of the most comprehensive collections of Asian art in the world, from 1958 until 2003 the collection was housed in a wing of at the original de Young in Golden Gate Park. The San Francisco Zoo cares for a total of about 250 animal species,39 of which have been deemed endangered or threatened.
Other museums include the Museum of the African Diaspora, the Contemporary Jewish Museum, the Museum of Craft & Folk Art, the Cartoon Art Museum, and the Mexican Museum. The Haas-Lilienthal House is the only intact private Victorian-era home in San Francisco that is open to the public year-round and Opera venues in San Francisco include the San Francisco Symphony, the San Francisco Opera and the San Francisco Ballet. They all perform at the San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts Center, San Franciscos Ballet and Opera are some of the oldest continuing performing arts companies in the United States. San Francisco is the birthplace and home city of the vocal ensemble Chanticleer, the city is home to the American Conservatory Theater, known as A. C. T. which has been routinely staging original productions since its arrival in San Francisco in 1967. Additionally, the New Conservatory Theatre Center is known for being an intimate theater that routinely stages original productions by the local, hundreds of smaller, alternative theatres attract a significant portion of the audience given their historical role in the San Francisco performing arts culture.
The oldest of these are Intersection for the Arts, founded in 1965, a major player in the promotion of theater in the Bay Area is Theatre Bay Area. The Herbst Theatre stages a mix of music performances, as well as public radios City Arts & Lectures. The Fillmore is a venue located in the Western Addition. Beach Blanket Babylon is a musical revue and a civic institution that has performed to sold-out crowds in North Beach since 1974. Bimbos 365 Club, in North Beach, is one of the citys oldest entertainment venues, two additional gay choruses, the Lesbian/Gay Chorus of San Francisco and Golden Gate Mens Chorus, perform throughout the year. San Francisco has a number of theaters and live performance venues
It includes an extensive network of Thruway Motorcoach bus connections, operated by private companies under contract. The three lines shared the use of state-owned Amtrak California branded Thruway buses and trainsets, the National Railroad Passenger Corporation assumed operation of almost all intercity passenger rail in the United States in 1971. Service in California, as in most of the United States, was basic, in 1976 California began providing financial assistance to Amtrak. At the same time, Caltrans Division of Rail was formed to oversee state-financed rail operations, in 1990, California passed Propositions 108 and 116, providing $3 billion for transportation projects, with a large portion going to rail service. As a result, new locomotives and passenger cars were purchased by the state, a more distinct image for Amtrak California, such as painting locomotives and passenger cars in California Color of blue and yellow, was established with the arrival of new rolling stock. In 1998, while still funded by the state, the management of the Capitol Corridor was transferred to the Capitol Corridor Joint Powers Authority, as a result, the Amtrak California brand become less prominent in the websites and marketing materials.
Amtrak California operates a fleet of EMD F59PHI and GE P32-8WH locomotives that are used on San Joaquin and these locomotives are owned by Caltrans and carry the CDTX reporting marks. The Pacific Surfliner trains use a fleet of 15 EMD F59PHI locomotives that are painted to match the livery of the Surfliner passenger cars. Locomotives from Amtraks national fleet such as P42DC are often used as substitutes when the Amtrak California dedicated fleet of locomotives undergoes maintenance, twenty-two additional locomotives built by Siemens will join Amtrak Californias locomotive fleet starting from 2017. These locomotives, named Charger, were parts of a multi-state order funded by a combination of federal, illinois Department of Transportation, acting as the leading agency, awarded the order to Siemens on December 18,2013. Caltrans ordered the first six with the order in 2013. Two additional locomotives were ordered in 2016, Amtrak Californias routes typically use bi-level, high-capacity passenger cars, dubbed the Surfliner and California Car.
All of the California Cars are owned by the California Department of Transportation, most of the Surfliner cars are owned by Amtrak with some owned by Caltrans. The design of the cars is based on Amtraks Superliner bi-level passenger cars, additionally and California Car coaches are equipped with higher-density seating and bicycle racks to permit transport of unboxed bicycles. Consists on the San Joaquin, Capitol Corridor, and Pacific Surfliner routes usually include between four and six cars, with one locomotive and a cab car on the rear end. Four of the cars have been painted to match the California car livery, each car has the current Amtrak logo on the middle left side of each car. Superliner I/II coaches from Amtraks national fleet are used on some due to shortages of inter-city Surfliner & California cars. Increasing ridership on the San Joaquin led Amtrak California to purchase 14 Comet IB rail cars from New Jersey Transit in 2008 for $75,000 per car
1906 San Francisco earthquake
The 1906 San Francisco earthquake struck the coast of Northern California at 5,12 a. m. on April 18 with an estimated moment magnitude of 7.8 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI. Severe shaking was felt from Eureka on the North Coast to the Salinas Valley, devastating fires soon broke out in the city and lasted for several days. As a result, about 3,000 people died and over 80% of the city of San Francisco was destroyed, the events are remembered as one of the worst and deadliest natural disasters in the history of the United States. The death toll remains the greatest loss of life from a disaster in Californias history. The San Andreas Fault is a transform fault that forms part of the tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate. The strike-slip fault is characterized by mainly lateral motion in a dextral sense, the 1906 rupture propagated both northward and southward for a total of 296 miles. This fault runs the length of California from the Salton Sea in the south to Cape Mendocino in the north, the maximum observed surface displacement was about 20 feet, geodetic measurements show displacements of up to 28 feet.
The 1906 earthquake preceded the development of the Richter magnitude scale by three decades. The most widely accepted estimate for the magnitude of the quake on the moment magnitude scale is 7.8. According to findings published in the Journal of Geophysical Research, severe deformations in the earths crust took place both before and after the earthquakes impact. Accumulated strain on the faults in the system was relieved during the earthquake, the main shock epicenter occurred offshore about 2 miles from the city, near Mussel Rock. Shaking was felt from Oregon to Los Angeles, and inland as far as central Nevada, a strong foreshock preceded the main shock by about 20 to 25 seconds. The strong shaking of the main shock lasted about 42 seconds, there were decades of minor earthquakes – more than at any other time in the historical record for northern California – before the 1906 quake. For years, the epicenter of the quake was assumed to be near the town of Olema, in the Point Reyes area of Marin County, because of evidence of the degree of local earth displacement.
In the 1960s, a seismologist at UC Berkeley proposed that the epicenter was more likely offshore of San Francisco, at the time,375 deaths were reported, partly because hundreds of fatalities in Chinatown went ignored and unrecorded. The total number of deaths is uncertain today, and is estimated to be roughly 3,000 at minimum. Most of the deaths occurred in San Francisco itself, but 189 were reported elsewhere in the Bay Area, nearby cities, such as Santa Rosa and San Jose, in Monterey County, the earthquake permanently shifted the course of the Salinas River near its mouth. Where previously the river emptied into Monterey Bay between Moss Landing and Watsonville, it was diverted 6 miles south to a new channel just north of Marina
San Francisco Department of Public Works
San Francisco Public Works is responsible for the care and maintenance of San Francisco’s streets and infrastructure. Public Works serves San Francisco residents and visitors 24 hours a day, San Francisco Public Works was officially created on January 8,1900 with the name of Board of Public Works. Its first task was to organize and regulate street construction and paving projects throughout the city, the original four bureaus were, Lighting and Light & Water Services. Over the next century and nearly two decades later, the roles have shifted and expanded dramatically, in 2014, after a year-long rebranding process, the department switched its name from the San Francisco Department of Public Works, or DPW, to San Francisco Public Works. The budget for the first year of operations was $637,194.00, the operating budget for Fiscal Year 2015-16 is approximately $256 million. 1969 - The Gateway Arch to Chinatown, San Francisco was completed in September at a project cost of $76,790. ”1974 - DPW implemented the Controlled Parking Program and it began as a pilot program in the Richmond District.
The Board of Supervisors approved $56,700 for 2,200 signs to be posted throughout the neighborhoods, the program eventually expanded to a new district each year after. 1976 - San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center opens and this $30 million construction project was awarded in 1971. After many construction difficulties the medical facility eventually opens,1980 - Bureau of Engineering completes a $726,382 contract to develop and rehabilitate the music concourse in Golden Gate Park. The estimated costs at the time were $800 million by 1985,1988 - Voters pass $27 million Street Improvement Bond Issue to improve streets and traffic signals. 1989 - Within 72 hours of the October 17th San Francisco earthquake, in all that year, over 15,000 inspections were made, classifying buildings Red and Green. 1994 - The graffiti abatement program begins with two painters from the Bureau of Building repair and ten young people form the Mayors Youth Worker Program,1997 - $70.5 million Civic Center Courthouse for the San Francisco Superior and Municipal Civil Courts is completed.
1998 - The $56 million War Memorial Opera House Seismic Upgrade, San Francisco Department of Public Works Official Site