Godthul is a bay 1 mile long entered between Cape George and Long Point, on the north coast of South Georgia, between Cumberland East Bay and Ocean Harbour. Szielasko Ice Cap sits on the south edge of the harbor; the name Godthul dates back to the period 1905–12, was applied by Norwegian sealers and whalers working in the area. It operated between 1908–1929, was only a rudimentary land base, with main operations on a factory ship, it had an interruption between 1917–22 due to World War I
You may be looking for Leith, the port of Edinburgh, Scotland Leith Harbour known as Port Leith, was a whaling station on the northeast coast of South Georgia and operated by Christian Salvesen Ltd, Edinburgh. The station was in operation from 1909 until 1965, it was the largest of seven whaling stations, situated near the mouth of Stromness Bay. One man prominently involved in setting up Leith Harbour was William Storm Harrison, it is named after the harbour area of Edinburgh, Christian Salvesen's home town. South Georgia was once the world's largest whaling centre, with shore stations at Grytviken, Leith Harbour, Ocean Harbour, Husvik and Prince Olav Harbour; the Japanese companies Kokusai Gyogyo, Kabushike Kaisha and Nippon Suisan Kaisha sub-leased Leith Harbour in 1963–65, the last seasons of South Georgia whaling. In 1912 Leith Harbour was the site of the second introduction of reindeer to South Georgia, an attempt that failed when the entire herd was killed by an avalanche in 1918. During the Second World War the whaling stations were closed excepting Leith Harbour.
Most of the British and Norwegian whaling factories and catchers were destroyed by German raiders, while the rest were called up to serve under Allied command. The resident British Magistrates attended to the island’s defence throughout the War; the Royal Navy armed the merchant vessel Queen of Bermuda to patrol South Georgian and Antarctic waters, deployed two four-inch guns at key locations protecting the approaches to Cumberland Bay and Stromness Bay, i.e. to Grytviken and Leith Harbour respectively. These batteries were manned by volunteers from among the Norwegian whalers who were trained for the purpose. Prince Philip visited the settlement in 1957 in the only visit to South Georgia by any member of the Royal Family; the Falklands War was precipitated on March 1982 when a group of around fifty Argentines, posing as scrap metal merchants, occupied the abandoned whaling station at Leith Harbour. They were understood to have a commercial contract to remove scrap metal at Leith Harbour but they arrived aboard ARA Bahía Buen Suceso, a ship chartered by the Argentine Government.
32 special forces troops from Corbeta Uruguay were brought by the Argentine Navy ship Bahía Paraiso to South Georgia and landed at Leith Harbour on 25 March 1982. On 25 April 1982 the Royal Navy damaged and captured the Argentine submarine Santa Fé at South Georgia; the Argentine garrison in Grytviken surrendered without returning fire and so did the detachment in Leith Harbour — commanded by Captain Astiz — the following day. There is a gun emplacement on the hill behind the station, another at Hansen Point with the original 4-inch gun still in position. Leith Harbour boasted a hospital, a library, a cinema, a narrow gauge railway; the centre of Leith Harbour is occupied by the so-called Portuguese graveyard and there is a second, larger cemetery to the rear of the station. Due to its nature, the station contained a factory and a flensing plan or platform. Since 2010 access to the station has been prohibited due to the dangers posed by asbestos and collapsing buildings. Leith Harbour and the hardships endured by the Whalers in this inhospitable land are the subject of a stirring and beautiful song "The Little Pot Stove" most famously covered by Nic Jones and written by the former whaling engineer turned singer-songwriter Harry Robertson.
Christian Salvesen Ltd History of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Pictures by Jim McLaren More pictures On the narrow gauge railway Article in the Whaling Times Friends of the Island of South Georgia Legislation
Flag of the Falkland Islands
The current flag of the Falkland Islands was adopted on 25 January 1999 and consists of a defaced Blue Ensign, with the Union Flag in the canton and the Falkland Islands coat-of-arms in the fly. The Falkland Islands have been claimed and occupied by several nations throughout its history, who used their national flags on the islands, it wasn't until 1876 that the islands were given a flag of their own, which consisted of a Blue Ensign defaced with the seal of the islands - an image of HMS Hebe in Falkland Sound, overlooked by a bullock. A new coat-of-arms for the islands was introduced on 16 October 1925, consisting of the Desire and a sea lion in a shield surrounded by the motto of the islands, Desire the Right; this coat-of-arms replaced the image of the bullock and ship on the flag. On 29 September 1948 the flag was updated to include the new coat-of-arms superimposed upon a white disc; the flag was banned by the Argentine military junta from 2 April-14 June 1982, during their occupation of the islands, when it was replaced by the flag of Argentina.
In 1999 the size of the arms was increased and the white disc removed to create the current flag. The Falkland Islands Red Ensign was created by The Merchant Shipping Order 1998, No. 3147 of 1998, which came into force in 1999 and which contains a picture of the ensign containing the Falkland arms on a white disc. Red Ensign with the Falklands coat of arms superimposed is used as the islands' civil ensign; the plain red ensign was used by ships in the territorial waters around the Falklands. The Governor of the Falkland Islands uses a Union Flag defaced with the coat of arms, it was this flag, raised at Government House in Stanley by the Royal Marines at the end of the Falkland War, signifying the liberation of the islands. Since its approval, the Falklands flag has been used to represent the Falkland Islanders internationally. In 2011, in support of Argentina's claim to the islands, the members of Mercosur banned Falklands flagged vessels from entering their ports. Vessels flying the Falklands Civil Ensign are required to re-flag with the Red Ensign to enter Mercosur ports.
The flag was flown from several HM Government buildings in London, including 10 Downing Street and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in Whitehall, on 14 June 2012 to mark the 30th anniversary of the islands' liberation. For the majority of the Falkland Islands existence as a British territory, the appropriate civil ensign was the same as that of the United Kingdom, an undefaced red ensign; the first warrant issued for the use of a defaced red ensign was issued in 1998, to be effective on the 25th of January 1999. This warrant prescribed the coat of arms of the Falkland Islands within a white disc. However, a revision of territorial flags issued that year removed the white disc and enlarged the territorial emblems across the board. Coat of arms of the Falkland Islands List of Falkland Island flags List of flags of the United Kingdom
The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom. The flag has official status in Canada, by parliamentary resolution, where it is known as the Royal Union Flag. Additionally, it is used as an official flag in some of the smaller British overseas territories; the Union Flag appears in the canton of the flags of several nations and territories that are former British possessions or dominions, as well as the state flag of Hawaii. The claim that the term Union Jack properly refers only to naval usage has been disputed, following historical investigations by the Flag Institute in 2013; the origins of the earlier flag of Great Britain date back to 1606. James VI of Scotland had inherited the English and Irish thrones in 1603 as James I, thereby uniting the crowns of England and Ireland in a personal union, although the three kingdoms remained separate states. On 12 April 1606, a new flag to represent this regal union between England and Scotland was specified in a royal decree, according to which the flag of England, the flag of Scotland, would be joined together, forming the flag of England and Scotland for maritime purposes.
King James began to refer to a "Kingdom of Great Britaine", although the union remained a personal one. The present design of the Union Flag dates from a Royal proclamation following the union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801; the flag combines aspects of three older national flags: the red cross of St George for the Kingdom of England, the white saltire of St Andrew for Scotland, the red saltire of St Patrick to represent Ireland. Notably, the home country of Wales is not represented separately in the Union Flag, as the flag was designed after the invasion of Wales in 1282. Hence Wales as a home country today has no representation on the flag; the terms Union Jack and Union Flag are both used for describing the national flag of the United Kingdom. Whether the term Union Jack applies only when used as a jack flag on a ship is a matter of debate. According to the Parliament of the United Kingdom: "Until the early 17th century England and Scotland were two independent kingdoms; this changed in 1603 on the death of Elizabeth I of England.
Because the Queen died unmarried and childless, the English crown passed to the next available heir, her cousin James VI, King of Scotland. England and Scotland now shared the same monarch under what was known as a union of the crowns." In 1606, James VI gave orders for a British flag to be created which bore the combined crosses of St George and of St Andrew. The result was the Union Jack. According to the Flag Institute, a membership-run vexillological charity, "the national flag of the United Kingdom, the Crown Dependencies and Overseas Territories is the Union Flag, which may be called the Union Jack." The institute notes: it is stated that the Union Flag should only be described as the Union Jack when flown in the bows of a warship, but this is a recent idea. From early in its life the Admiralty itself referred to the flag as the Union Jack, whatever its use, in 1902 an Admiralty circular announced that Their Lordships had decided that either name could be used officially. In 1908, a government minister stated, in response to a parliamentary question, that "the Union Jack should be regarded as the National flag".
Notwithstanding Their Lordships' circular of 1902, by 1913 the Admiralty described the "Union Flag" and added in a foot note that'A Jack is a Flag to be flown only on the "Jack" Staff'. However, the authoritative A Complete Guide to Heraldry published in 1909 by Arthur Charles Fox-Davies uses the term "Union Jack"; the term "Union Flag" is used in King Charles I's 1634 proclamation:... none of Our Subjects, of any of Our Nations and Kingdoms shall from henceforth presume to carry the Union Flag in the Main top, or other part of any of their Ships St Georges cross and St Andrew's Cross joined together upon pain of Our high displeasure, but that the same Union Flag be still reserved as an ornament proper for Our own Ships and Ships in our immediate Service and Pay, none other." And in King George III's proclamation of 1 January 1801 concerning the arms and flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland: And that the Union Flag shall be Azure, the Crosses Saltires of St. Andrew and St. Patrick Quarterly per Saltire, counterchanged Argent and Gules.
When the first flag representing Britain was introduced on the proclamation of King James I in 1606, it became known as the "British flag" or the "flag of Britain". The royal proclamation gave no distinctive name to the new flag; the word "jack" was in use before 1600 to describe the maritime bow flag. By 1627 a small Union Jack was flown in this position. One theory goes that for some years it would have been called just the "Jack", or "Jack flag", or the "King's Jack", but by 1674, while formally referred to as "His Majesty's Jack", it was called the "Union Jack", this was acknowledged. Amongst the proclamations issued by King George III at the time of the Union of 1801 was a proclamation concerning flags at sea, which referred to "Ensigns, Flags and Pendants" and forbade merchant vessels from wearing "Our Jack called the Union Jack" nor any pendants or colours used by the King's ships. Reinforcing the d
Prince Olav Harbour
Prince Olav Harbour is small harbour in the south west portion of Cook Bay, entered between Point Abrahamsen and Sheep Point, along the north coast of South Georgia. Throughout the 19th century South Georgia was a sealers' base and, in the following century, became a whalers' base. Prince Olav Harbour is the site of one of the seven main whaling bases established on South Georgia. Prince Olav Harbour was the location of a former Norwegian whaling station operational dating from 1911; the whaling station was a floating factory site, a shore station being set up in 1916. The whaling station continued as a shore station until March 1931 and was closed; the name was in use as early as 1912 and was given by Norwegian whalers for Crown Prince Olav of Norway. The wreck of the ship Brutus remains, semi-submerged, where she was deliberately beached to serve as a coaling station; the ship was built in Glasgow in 1883 as the Sierra Pedrosa, measured 1,686 gross registered tons. Aftyer serving as a coal hulk at Cape Town, she was towed to South Georgia in about 1912.
Brutus Island in the harbour is named after it. Several locations in and around Prince Olav Harbour have been charted and named by various Antarctic survey and exploration groups by Discovery Investigations personnel in their 1929–30 expedition. Unless noted otherwise, the following locations were first named by DI. Point Abrahamsen separates Prince Olav Harbour from Lighthouse Bay on the north side of Prince Olav Harbour, it was named for Captain Abrahamsen, manager of the whaling station at Prince Olav Harbour at that time. Southwest of it sits Razor Point, first named on a 1938 British Admiralty chart. Fine Point and Sheer Point are found close by. Dinghy Point sits on the south side of the harbor. Sheep Point marks the south entrance to the harbour. Dinghy Point was called "Pram Point", but was renamed Dinghy Point by the UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee in 1991 to avoid duplication with Pram Point at Leith Harbour in Stromness Bay. Hay Peak sits at the head of the bay. Near the center of the harbour sits Brutus Island.
History of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Geological Survey. Plan of the Prince Olav Harbour whaling station Abandoned Whaling Station Prince Olav Harbour - South Georgia Prince Olav Harbour Whaling station
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is a British Overseas Territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean. It is a remote and inhospitable collection of islands, consisting of South Georgia and a chain of smaller islands known as the South Sandwich Islands. South Georgia is by far the largest island in the territory; the South Sandwich Islands lie about 700 km southeast of South Georgia. The territory's total land area is 3,903 km2; the Falkland Islands are about 1,300 km north-west from its nearest point. No permanent native population lives in the territory although a small non-permanent population does reside in South Georgia; the present inhabitants are three officers of the Government of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands along with scientists and support staff from the British Antarctic Survey who maintain scientific bases at Bird Island and at the capital, King Edward Point along with postal staff, as well as three museum staff at Grytviken. With an estimated minimum non-permanent population of around sixteen people in the winter months to a maximum of around thirty five people in the summer months it is the least populated of all the British Overseas Territories.
There are no scheduled passenger flights or ferries to or from the territory, although visits by cruise liners to South Georgia are popular, with several thousand visitors each summer. The United Kingdom claimed sovereignty over South Georgia in 1775 and the South Sandwich Islands in 1908; the territory of "South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands" was formed in 1985. Argentina claimed South Georgia in 1927 and claimed the South Sandwich Islands in 1938. Argentina maintained a naval station, Corbeta Uruguay, on Thule Island in the South Sandwich Islands from 1976 until 1982 when it was closed by the Royal Navy; the Argentine claim over South Georgia contributed to the 1982 Falklands War, during which Argentine forces occupied the island. Argentina continues to claim sovereignty over the South Sandwich Islands. Toothfish are vital to the islands' economy; the Island of South Georgia is said to have been first sighted in 1675 by Anthony de la Roché, a London merchant, was named Roche Island on a number of early maps.
It was sighted by the commercial Spanish ship León operating out of Saint-Malo on 28 June or 29 June 1756. At one time it was confused with Pepys Island, "discovered" by Dampier and Cowley in 1683 but proved to be a phantom island. Captain James Cook made the first landing, he claimed the territory for the Kingdom of Great Britain, named it "the Isle of Georgia" in honour of King George III. British arrangements for the government of South Georgia were established under the 1843 British Letters Patent. In 1882–1883, a German expedition for the First International Polar Year was stationed at Royal Bay on the southeast side of the island; the scientists of this group observed the transit of Venus and recorded waves produced by the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa. Seal hunting at South Georgia continued throughout the 19th century; the waters proved treacherous and a number of vessels were wrecked there, such as Earl Spencer, in late 1801. South Georgia became a base for whaling beginning in the 20th century, until whaling ended in the 1960s.
A Norwegian, Carl Anton Larsen, established the first land-based whaling station and first permanent habitation at Grytviken in 1904. It operated through his Argentine Fishing Company; the station operated until 1965. Whaling stations operated under leases granted by the Governor of the Falkland Islands; the seven stations, all on the north coast with its sheltered harbours, from the west to east: Prince Olav Harbour Leith Harbour Stromness Husvik Grytviken Godthul Ocean Harbour The whaling stations' tryworks were unpleasant and dangerous places to work. One was called "a charnel house boiling wholesale in vaseline" by an early 20th-century visitor. Tim Flannery wrote that its "putrid vapors the pong of bad fish, a tanning works mixed together", noted one bizarre peril: "A rotting whale could fill with gas to bursting, ejecting a fetus the size of a motor vehicle with sufficient force to kill a man." With the end of the whaling industry, the stations were abandoned. Apart from a few preserved buildings such as the museum and church at Grytviken, only their decaying remains survive.
From 1905, the Argentine Meteorological Office cooperated in maintaining a meteorological observatory at Grytviken under the British lease requirements of the whaling station until these changed in 1949. In 1908, the United Kingdom issued further letters patent that established constitutional arrangements for its possessions in the South Atlantic; the letters covered South Georgia, the South Orkneys, the South Shetlands, the South Sandwich Islands, Graham Land. In 1909, an administrative centre and residence were established at King Edward Point on South Georgia, near the whaling station of Grytviken. A permanent local British administration and resident magistrate
Grytviken was the largest whaling station on South Georgia, part of the British Overseas Territory of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in the South Atlantic. The settlement, located at the head of King Edward Cove within the larger Cumberland East Bay, was considered the best harbour on South Georgia Island, it was founded on November 1904, by Carl Anton Larsen of Sandefjord, Norway. Despite being founded by a Norwegian, the settlement's name, was named by Swedish archaeologist Johan Gunnar Andersson and means "the Pot Bay"; the name was coined in 1902 by the Swedish Antarctic Expedition and documented by the surveyor Johan Gunnar Andersson, after the expedition found old English try pots used to render seal oil at the site. Grytviken is built on a substantial area of sheltered, flat land and has a good supply of fresh water. Although it was the largest settlement on South Georgia, the island's capital and administration was based at the British Antarctic Survey research station at King Edward Point.
The station closed in December 1966. Grytviken no longer has permanent residents, it is temporarily inhabited during the summer months by a few staff who manage the South Georgia Museum. The settlement has become a popular attraction for Antarctic cruise lines, with many tourists visiting the resting places of polar explorers Ernest Shackleton and Frank Wild in Grytviken's graveyard; the settlement at Grytviken was established on 16 November 1904 by the Norwegian sea captain Carl Anton Larsen, as a whaling station for his Compañía Argentina de Pesca. It was successful, with 195 whales taken in the first season; the whalers used every part of the animals – the blubber, meat and viscera were rendered to extract the oil, the bones and meat were turned into fertiliser and fodder. Elephant seals were hunted for their blubber. Around 300 men worked at the station during its heyday, operating during the southern summer from October to March. A few remained over the winter to maintain factory; every few months a transport ship would bring essential supplies to the station and take away the oil and other produce.
The following year the Argentine Government established a meteorological station. Carl Anton Larsen, the founder of Grytviken, was a naturalised Briton born in Norway. In his application for British citizenship, filed with the magistrate of South Georgia and granted in 1910, Captain Larsen wrote: "I have given up my Norwegian citizen's rights and have resided here since I started whaling in this colony on the 16 November 1904 and have no reason to be of any other citizenship than British, as I have had and intend to have my residence here still for a long time." His family in Grytviken included three daughters and two sons. As the manager of Compañía Argentina de Pesca, Larsen organised the construction of Grytviken, a remarkable undertaking accomplished by a team of sixty Norwegians between their arrival on 16 November and commencement of production at the newly built whale-oil factory on 24 December 1904. Larsen chose the whaling station's site during his 1902 visit while in command of the ship Antarctic of the Swedish Antarctic Expedition led by Otto Nordenskjöld.
On that occasion, the name Grytviken was given by the Swedish archaeologist and geologist Johan Gunnar Andersson who surveyed part of Thatcher Peninsula and found numerous artefacts and features from sealers’ habitation and industry, including a shallop and several try-pots used to boil seal oil. One of those try-pots, having the inscription ‘Johnson and Sons, Wapping Dock, London’ is preserved at the South Georgia Museum in Grytviken. Managers and other senior officers of the whaling stations had their families living together with them. Among them was Fridthjof Jacobsen whose wife Klara Olette Jacobsen gave birth to two of their children in Grytviken. Several more children have been born on South Georgia: even aboard visiting private yachts; the whale population in the seas around the island was reduced over the following sixty years until the station closed in December 1966, by which time the whale stocks were so low that their continued exploitation was unviable. Now, the shore around Grytviken is littered with whale bones and the rusting remains of whale oil processing plants and abandoned whaling ships.
Grytviken is associated with the explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton. Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition set out from London on 1 August 1914, to reach the Weddell Sea on 10 January 1915, where the pack ice closed in on their ship, Endurance; the ship was broken by the ice on 27 October 1915. The 28 crew members managed to flee to Elephant Island off Antarctica, bringing three small boats with them. Shackleton and five other men managed to reach the southern coast of South Georgia in the James Caird, they arrived at Cave Cove, camped at Peggotty Bluff, from where they trekked to Stromness on the northeast coast. From Grytviken, Shackleton organised a rescue operation to bring home the remaining men, he again posthumously. In 1922 he had died unexpectedly from a heart attack at the beginning of another Antarctic expedition, his widow chose South Georgia as his final resting place. His grave is located south of Grytviken, alongside those of whalers. On 27 November 2011, the ashes of Frank Wild, Shackleton’s “right-hand man”, were interred on the right side of Shackleton’s grave-site.
The inscription on the rough-hewn granite block set to mark the spot reads “Frank Wild 1873–1939, Shac