Flag of the Soviet Union
The State Flag of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The flag's design and symbolism are derived from several sources, but emerged during the Russian Revolution; the flag is an international symbol of the communist movement as a whole. The nicknames for the flag were The Red Banner; the design is a solid field of red adorned with a unique gold emblem in the upper hoist quarter. The red flag was a traditional revolutionary symbol long before 1917, its incorporation into the flag paid tribute to the international aspect of workers' revolution; the iconic hammer and sickle design was a modern industrial touch adopted from the Russian Revolution. The union of the hammer and the sickle represents the victorious and enduring revolutionary alliance; the famous emblem is topped by a gold-bordered red star representing the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The first flag with the gold border star and sickle was adopted on 13 November 1923. In 1955, a statute on the flag was adopted which resulted in a change of the hammer's handle length and the shape of the sickle.
This was the final modification to the flag and it continued to be the official national flag until the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Its imagery is now the basis for the flags of many communist parties: a yellow hammer and sickle on a red background; the flag of the Soviet Union consisted of a plain red flag with a gold hammer crossed with a gold sickle placed beneath a gold-bordered red star. This symbol is in the upper left canton of the red flag; the colour red honours the red flag of the Paris Commune of 1871 and the red star and hammer and sickle are symbols of communism and socialism. The hammer symbolises urban industrial workers while the sickle symbolises agricultural workers —who together, as the Proletarian class, form the state; the red star represents the Communist Party, its position over hammer and sickle symbolises its leading role in socialist society to unify and enlighten the workers and peasants in the building of communism. The flag's design was legislated in 1955, which gave a clear way to create the flag.
This resulted in the shape of the sickle. The adopted statute stated that: The ratio of width to length of the flag is 1:2; the hammer and sickle are in a square with sides equal to 1⁄4 of the flag's height. The sharp tip of the sickle lies in the center of the upper side of the square, the handles of the hammer and sickle rest in the bottom corners of the square; the length of the hammer and its handle is 3⁄4 of the square diagonal. The five-pointed star is inscribed into a circle with a diameter of 1⁄8 of the flag's height, the circle being tangent to the upper side of the square; the distance of the vertical axis of the star and sickle from the hoist is 1⁄3 of the flag's height. The distance from the upper side of the flag to the center of the star is 1⁄8 of the flag's height. Since 1980, the reverse side of the flag was a plain red field without the hammer and sickle. In practice however, this was commonly disregarded by flag makers as it was far easier and less costly to print the flag through and through, with the obverse design mirrored on the reverse.
It was common to see the reverse of the flag bear the hammer and sickle in the obverse formation. An example of the flag demonstrating its de jure status as being only one-sided is that of the Soviet flag atop the Moscow Kremlin which bore the single-side official design. For vertical display, the flag was made with the distinct difference of having the hammer and sickle rotated 90 degrees in order to compensate for the change in dimensions; this was common in official practice, however the common flag owner would hang the standard design of the flag by the hoist. During the establishment of the Russian SFSR, Vladimir Lenin and his comrades had considered the inclusion of a sword symbol in addition to the hammer and sickle as part of the state seal on which the flag was based; the idea was dismissed. Lenin said "A sword is not one of our symbols."The first official flag was adopted in December 1922 at the First Congress of Soviets of the USSR. It was agreed that the red banner'was transformed from the symbol of the Party to the symbol of a state, around that flag gathered the peoples of the soviet republics to unite into one state — the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics'.
On 30 December 1922, the Congress adopted a Declaration and Agreement on the establishment of the USSR. Article 22 of the Agreement states:'the USSR has a flag, coat of arms and a state seal.' The description of the first flag was given in the 1924 Soviet Constitution, accepted in the second session of the Executive Committee of the USSR on 6 July 1923. The text of article 71 states:'The state flag of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics consists of a red or scarlet field with states coat of arms', it was ordered with the unusual ratio of 4:1 in proportion and consisted of a red flag with the state coat of arms in the center. However, such a flag was never mass-produced; this flag was the official flag for four months, was replaced as the official flag by the more familiar hammer and sickle design during the third session of the CIK of the USSR on 12 November 1923. In the third session of the CIK of the USSR, the description of Soviet flag in the Constitution was changed, article 71 wa
Flag of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
The flag of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic was adopted by the Georgian SSR on April 11, 1951. The flag was designed by the artist Severian Maysashvili Davidovich. On the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR in which the new national flag was adopted with the description: The national flag of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic is of red cloth ratio of width to length is 1:2 In the upper corner near the staff box blue, the side of, half the width of the flag in the middle of the square a circle whose radius is equal to one-third of the square in. Range of hammer and sickle, above them a five-pointed star. From the circle to the square sides disagree 24 beam; the hammer and sickle, red star and red rays. From the middle of the right side of the square departs the band of blue across the flag length, width one-third of the square" It was the only Union Republic flag in which the hammer and sickle was not gold in colour. Before 1937 the flag was red with the Georgian characters სსსრ in gold in the top-left corner.
Between 1922 and 1937, the flag was red, with the Cyrillic characters ССРГ in the top left-hand corner. Between 1937 and the adoption of the above flag in the 1940s, the flag was red, with the Georgian characters საქართველოს სსრ in gold in the top-left corner; the 1951 flag fell into disuse in November 1990 when the flag based on the Democratic Republic of Georgia was introduced until the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Flag of the Soviet Union Coat of arms of the Georgian SSR Flag of Georgia Georgia in the Soviet Union Georgia in the Soviet Union
The Latin or Roman alphabet is the writing system used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language. Due to its use in writing Germanic and other languages first in Europe and in other parts of the world, due to its use in Romanizing writing of other languages, it has become widespread, it is used in China and has been adopted by Baltic and some Slavic states. The Latin alphabet evolved from the visually similar Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, itself descended from the Phoenician abjad, which in turn derived from Egyptian hieroglyphics; the Etruscans, who ruled early Rome, adopted the Cumaean Greek alphabet, modified over time to become the Etruscan alphabet, in turn adopted and further modified by the Romans to produce the Latin alphabet. During the Middle Ages, the Latin alphabet was used for writing Romance languages, which are direct descendants of Latin, as well as Celtic, Germanic and some Slavic languages. With the age of colonialism and Christian evangelism, the Latin script spread beyond Europe, coming into use for writing indigenous American, Austronesian and African languages.
More linguists have tended to prefer the Latin script or the International Phonetic Alphabet when transcribing or creating written standards for non-European languages, such as the African reference alphabet. The term Latin alphabet may refer to either the alphabet used to write Latin, or other alphabets based on the Latin script, the basic set of letters common to the various alphabets descended from the classical Latin alphabet, such as the English alphabet; these Latin-script alphabets may discard letters, like the Rotokas alphabet, or add new letters, like the Danish and Norwegian alphabets. Letter shapes have evolved over the centuries, including the development in Medieval Latin of lower-case, forms which did not exist in the Classical period alphabet. English is the only major modern European language requiring no diacritics for native words, it is believed that the Romans adopted the Cumae alphabet, a variant of the Greek alphabet, in the 7th century BC from Cumae, a Greek colony in Southern Italy.
The Ancient Greek alphabet was in turn based upon the Phoenician abjad. From the Cumae alphabet, the Etruscan alphabet was derived and the Romans adopted 21 of the original 27 Etruscan letters: Latin included 21 different characters; the letter ⟨C⟩ was the western form of the Greek gamma, but it was used for the sounds /ɡ/ and /k/ alike under the influence of Etruscan, which might have lacked any voiced plosives. During the 3rd century BC, the letter ⟨Z⟩ – unneeded to write Latin properly – was replaced with the new letter ⟨G⟩, a ⟨C⟩ modified with a small vertical stroke, which took its place in the alphabet. From on, ⟨G⟩ represented the voiced plosive /ɡ/, while ⟨C⟩ was reserved for the voiceless plosive /k/; the letter ⟨K⟩ was used only in a small number of words such as Kalendae interchangeably with ⟨C⟩. After the Roman conquest of Greece in the 1st century BC, Latin adopted the Greek letters ⟨Y⟩ and ⟨Z⟩ to write Greek loanwords, placing them at the end of the alphabet. An attempt by the emperor Claudius to introduce three additional letters.
Thus it was during the classical Latin period that the Latin alphabet contained 23 letters: The Latin names of some of these letters are disputed. In general the Romans did not use the traditional names as in Greek: the names of the plosives were formed by adding /eː/ to their sound and the names of the continuants consisted either of the bare sound, or the sound preceded by /e/; the letter ⟨Y⟩ when introduced was called "hy" /hyː/ as in Greek, the name upsilon not being in use yet, but this was changed to "i Graeca" as Latin speakers had difficulty distinguishing its foreign sound /y/ from /i/. ⟨ Z ⟩ was given zeta. This scheme has continued to be used by most modern European languages that have adopted the Latin alphabet. For the Latin sounds represented by the various letters see Latin pronunciation. Diacritics were not used, but they did occur sometimes, the most common being the apex used to mark long vowels, which had sometimes been written doubled. However, in place of taking an apex, the letter i was written taller: ⟨á é ꟾ ó v́⟩.
For example, what is today transcribed Lūciī a fīliī was written ⟨lv́ciꟾ·a·fꟾliꟾ⟩ in the inscription depicted. The primary mark of punctuation was the interpunct, used as a word divider, though it fell out of use after 200 AD. Old Roman cursive script called majuscule cursive and capitalis cursive, was the everyday form of handwriting used for writing letters, by merchants writing business accounts, by schoolchildren learning the Latin alphabet, emperors issuing commands. A more formal style of writing was based on Roman square capitals, but cursive was used for quicker, informal writing, it was most c
A flag is a piece of fabric with a distinctive design and colours. It is used for decoration; the term flag is used to refer to the graphic design employed, flags have evolved into a general tool for rudimentary signalling and identification in environments where communication is challenging. The study of flags is known as "vexillology" from the Latin vexillum, meaning "flag" or "banner". National flags are patriotic symbols with varied interpretations that include strong military associations because of their original and ongoing use for that purpose. Flags are used in messaging, advertising, or for decorative purposes; some military units are called "flags" after their use of flags. A flag is equivalent to a brigade in Arab countries. In Spain, a flag is a battalion-equivalent in the Spanish Legion. In antiquity, field signs or standards were used in warfare that can be categorised as vexilloid or'flag-like'; this is considered originated in Assyria. Examples include the Sassanid battle standard Derafsh Kaviani, the standards of the Roman legions such as the eagle of Augustus Caesar's Xth legion, or the dragon standard of the Sarmatians.
Flag as recognized today, made of a piece of cloth representing a particular entity, is considered invented in the Indian subcontinent or Chinese Zhou dynasty. Chinese flags depicted animals decorated in certain colors. A royal flag is considered being used as well, required to be treated with a similar level of respect attributed to the ruler. Indian flags were triangular shaped and decorated with attachments such as yak's tail and the state umbrella; these usages spread to Southeast Asia as well, considered transmitted to Europe through the Muslim world where plainly colored flags were being used due to Islamic prescriptions. In Europe, during the High Middle Ages, flags came to be used as a heraldic device in battle, allowing more to identify a knight than only from the heraldic device painted on the shield. During the high medieval period, during the Late Middle Ages, city states and communes such as those of the Old Swiss Confederacy began to use flags as field signs. Regimental flags for individual units became commonplace during the Early Modern period.
During the peak of the age of sail, beginning in the early 17th century, it was customary for ships to carry flags designating their nationality. Flags became the preferred means of communications at sea, resulting in various systems of flag signals. Use of flags outside of military or naval context begins only with the rise of nationalist sentiment by the end of the 18th century. One of the most popular uses of a flag is to symbolise a country; some national flags have been inspirational to other nations, countries, or subnational entities in the design of their own flags. Some prominent examples include: The flag of Denmark, the Dannebrog, is attested in 1478, is the oldest national flag still in use, it inspired the cross design of the other Nordic countries: Norway, Finland and regional Scandinavian flags for the Faroe Islands, Åland and Bornholm, as well as flags for the non-Scandinavian Shetland and Orkney. The flag of the Netherlands is the oldest tricolour, its three colours of red and blue go back to Charlemagne's time, the 9th century.
The coastal region of what today is the Netherlands was known for its cloth in these colours. Maps from the early 16th century put flags in these colours next to this region, like Texeira's map of 1520. A century before that, during the 15th century, the three colours were mentioned as the coastal signals for this area, with the three bands straight or diagonal, single or doubled; as state flag it first appeared around 1572 as the Prince's Flag in orange–white–blue. Soon the more famous red–white–blue began appearing, becoming the prevalent version from around 1630. Orange made a comeback during the civil war of the late 18th century, signifying the orangist or pro-stadtholder party. During World War II the pro-Nazi NSB used it. Any symbolism has been added to the three colours, although the orange comes from the House of Orange-Nassau; this use of orange comes from Nassau, which today uses orange-blue, not from Orange, which today uses red-blue. However, the usual way to show the link with the House of Orange-Nassau is the orange pennant above the red-white-blue.
It is said that the Dutch Tricolour has inspired many flags but most notably those of Russia, New York City, South Africa. As the probable inspiration for the Russian flag, it is the source too for the Pan-Slavic colours red and blue, adopted by many Slavic states and peoples as their symbols; the national flag of France was designed in 1794. As a forerunner of revolution, France's tricolour flag style has been adopted by other nations. Examples: Italy, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Haiti and Mexico; the Union Flag of the United Kingdom is the most used. British colonies flew a flag bas
Flag of Estonia
The national flag of Estonia is a tricolour featuring three equal horizontal bands of blue and white. The normal size is 105 by 165 centimetres. In Estonian it is colloquially called the "sinimustvalge", after the colors of the bands. First adopted on 21 November 1918 after its independence, it was used as a national flag until 1940 when the Soviet Union occupied Estonia. After World War II, from 1944 to 1990, the Soviet Estonian flag consisted first of a generic red Soviet flag with the name of the republic changed to the red flag with a band of blue water waves near the bottom; the Estonian flag, used by the Estonian government-in-exile, was re-adopted 7 August 1990 one year before its official restoration of independence. The story of the flag begins 17 September 1881, when the constituent Assembly of the first Estonian national student Corps "Vironia" in the city of Tartu was identified in color became national; the flag became associated with Estonian nationalism and was used as the national flag when the Estonian Declaration of Independence was issued on February 24, 1918.
The flag was formally adopted on November 21, 1918. December 12, 1918, was the first time the flag was raised as the national symbol atop of the Pikk Hermann Tower in Tallinn; the invasion by the Soviet Union in June 1940 led to the flag's ban. It was taken down from the most symbolic location, the tower of Pikk Hermann in Tallinn, on June 21, 1940, when Estonia was still formally independent. On the next day, 22 June, it was hoisted along with the red flag; the tricolour disappeared from the tower on July 27, 1940, was replaced by the flag of the Estonian SSR. During the German occupation from 1941 until 1944, the flag was accepted as the ethnic flag of Estonians but not the national flag. After the German retreat from Tallinn in September 1944, the Estonian flag was hoisted once again; when the Red Army arrived on 22 September 1944, the red flag was just added at first. Soon afterwards, the blue-black-white flag disappeared. In its place from February 1953, the Estonian SSR flag was redesigned to include the six blue spiked waves on the bottom with the hammer and sickle with the red star on top.
The flag remained illegal until the days of perestroika in the late 1980s. 21 October 1987 was the first time. 24 February 1989 the blue-black-white flag was again flown from the Pikk Hermann tower in Tallinn. It was formally re-declared as the national flag on 7 August 1990, little over a year before Estonia regained full independence. A symbolism-interpretation made popular by the poetry of Martin Lipp says the blue is for the vaulted blue sky above the native land, the black for attachment to the soil of the homeland as well as the fate of Estonians — for centuries black with worries, white for purity, hard work, commitment; the shade of blue is defined in the Estonian flag law as follows: PANTONE color 285 C. CMYK equivalents: C=91, M=43, Y=0, K=0 RGB equivalents: R=0, G=114, B=206 The most recent Estonian Flag Act was passed 23 March 2005 and came into force on 1 January 2006, it has been amended several times since then. The Act specifies the colors in Pantone and CMYK formats, as well as specifying when it can be hoisted and how it can be used and by whom.
The Act specifies that the flag is "the ethnic and the national flag". More the Flag Act specifies that the flag be hoisted on the Pikk Hermann tower in Tallinn every day at sunrise, but not earlier than 7.00 a.m. and is lowered at sunset". The lawful flag days are as follows: 3 January – Commemoration Day of Combatants of the Estonian War of Independence 2 February – Anniversary of Tartu Peace Treaty 24 February – Independence Day 14 March – Mother Tongue Day 23 April – Veterans’ Day The second Sunday of May – Mothers’ Day 9 May – Europe Day 4 June – Flag Day 14 June – Day of Mourning 23 June – Victory Day 24 June – Midsummer Day 20 August – Day of Restoration of Independence 1 September – Day of Knowledge The third Saturday of October – Finno-Ugric Day The second Sunday of November – Fathers’ Day The day of election of the Riigikogu In 2001, politician Kaarel Tarand suggested that the flag be changed from a tricolour to a Scandinavian-style cross design with the same colours. Supporters of this design claim that a tricolour gives Estonia the image of a post-Soviet or Eastern European country, while a cross design would symbolise the country's links with Nordic countries.
Several Nordic cross designs were proposed in 1919, when the state flag was adopted, three of which are shown here. As the tricolour is considered an important national symbol, the proposal did not achieve the popularity needed to modify the national flag. Advocates for a Nordic flag state that Estonians consider themselves a Nordic nation rather than Baltic, based on their cultural and historical ties with Sweden and Finland. In December 1999 Estonian foreign minister—later the Estonian president from 2006 to 2016—Toomas Hendrik Ilves delivered a speech entitled "Estonia as a Nordic Country" to the Swedish Institute for International Affairs. Diplomat Eerik-Niiles Kross suggested changing the country's official name in English and several other foreign languages from Estonia to Estland. Flags of Estonian counties List of Estonian flags Coat of arms of Estonia Estonia at Flags of the World Estonian Flag: History
A red star, five-pointed and filled, is an important symbol associated with communist ideology in combination with the hammer and sickle. It has been used in flags, state emblems, monuments and logos. Red Star is Alexander Bogdanov's 1908 science fiction novel about a communist society on Mars; the five-pointed red star has served as a symbol of communism. One interpretation sees the five points as representing the five fingers of the worker's hand, as well as the five continents. A lesser-known suggestion is that the five points on the star were intended to represent the five social groups that would lead Russia to communism: the youth, the military, the industrial labourers, the agricultural workers or peasantry and the intelligentsia. A red star became one of the emblems and signals representing the Soviet Union, alongside the hammer and sickle. In Soviet heraldry, the red star symbolized the Red Army and military service, as opposed to the hammer and sickle, which symbolized peaceful labour.
Different countries across Europe treat the symbol differently: some have passed laws banning it by claiming that it represents "a totalitarian ideology", but other countries hold a positive view of it as a symbol of antifascism and resistance against Nazi occupation. The star's origins as a symbol of communist mass movements dates from the time of the Bolshevik Revolution and the Russian Civil War, but the precise first use remains unknown. On the other hand one account of the symbol's origin traces its roots to the Moscow troop garrison toward the end of World War I. At this time, many troops were fleeing from the Austrian and German fronts, joining the local Moscow garrison upon their arrival in the city. To distinguish the Moscow troops from the influx of retreating front-liners, officers gave out tin stars to the Moscow garrison soldiers to wear on their hats; when those troops joined the Red Army and the Bolsheviks they painted their tin stars red, the color of socialism, thus creating the original red star.
Another claimed origin for the red star relates to an alleged encounter between Leon Trotsky and Nikolai Krylenko. Krylenko, an Esperantist, wore a green-star lapel badge. On hearing that, Trotsky specified that soldiers of the Red Army should wear a similar, star. However, the most logical and plausible possibility is that the symbol is originates from the novel Red Star. Red Star is Alexander Bogdanov's 1908 science fiction novel about a communist society on Mars; the first edition publication appeared in St. Petersburg in 1908, before being republished in Moscow and Petrograd in 1918, again in Moscow in 1922. Set in early Russia during the Revolution of 1905 and additionally on a fictional socialist society based on Mars, the novel tells the story of Leonid, a Russian scientist-revolutionary who travels to Mars to learn and experience their socialist system and to teach them of his own world. In the process, he becomes enamoured by the people and technological efficiency that he encounters in this new world.
Regardless of the star's exact origin, it was incorporated into the Red Army's uniforms and heraldry as early as 1918. Shortly before the founding of the Soviet Union, in mid-March 1916 the U. S. Army Signal Corps' aviation section used the red star for the national insignia for U. S. aircraft on the aircraft of the Signal Corps' 1st Aero Squadron during the Pancho Villa Expedition to apprehend the Mexican revolutionary. Joseph Stalin was known for wearing a pendant resembling the red star, as he did at the Tehran Conference in 1943; the symbol became one of the most prominent of the Soviet Union, adorning nearly all official buildings and insignia. Sometimes the hammer and sickle appeared below the star. In 1930 the Soviet Union established the Order of the Red Star and awarded its insignia to Red Army and Soviet Navy personnel for "exceptional service in the cause of the defense of the Soviet Union in both war and peace"; the Soviet and Russian Federation military newspaper bears the name Red Star.
During the 1930s, Soviet publications encouraged the practice of decorating a New Year's tree, known as a yolka. These trees were decorated with a red star, a practice that has continued in Russia since the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union. Following its adoption as an emblem of the Soviet Union, the red star became a symbol for communism around the world. Several Communist states subsequently adopted the red star symbol placing it on their respective flags and coats of arms - for example on the flag of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Separatist and socialist movements sometimes adopted the red star, as on the Estelada flag in the Catalan countries; the red star was a common element of the flags and heraldry of socialist states in the Eastern Bloc, appearing on heraldry for all of the countries, on the flags of Bulgaria, Hungary and Albania. In former Yugoslavia the red star was not only a communist symbol, but as a more generic symbol of resistance against Fascism and Nazi occupation of Yugoslavia, as well as its associated ethnic policies.
Tito's partisans wore the red star as an identification symbol. As communist movements spread across Asia, while some states kept the star as it was, others used a yellow star on a red field, with the same symbolism; the Far Eastern Republic of 1920 to 1922 used a yellow star on its military uniforms, the flag of the People's Republic of China has five yellow stars on a red field. The flag of Vietnam has a yellow star on a red field. North Korea's Red Star oper
The Estonian government-in-exile was the formally declared governmental authority of the Republic of Estonia in exile, existing from 1944 until the reestablishment of Estonian sovereignty over Estonian territory in 1991–92. It traced its legitimacy through constitutional succession to the last Estonian government in power prior to the Soviet invasion of 1940. During its existence, it was the internationally recognized government of Estonia; the USSR illegally annexed Estonia on June 14, 1940. Soviet authorities arrested President Konstantin Päts and deported him to the USSR where he died in prison in 1956. Many members of the current and past governments were deported or executed, including eight former heads of state and 38 ministers; those who survived went underground. Jüri Uluots was the last constitutional prime minister at the time of Soviet occupation. With the loss of Päts, Uluots, as the head of the Estonian government in accordance with Section 46 the Estonian Constitution, which specified that in the case that the President vacated the office or was otherwise unable to execute his duties, those duties were to be assumed by the Prime Minister, who carries duties of the Prime Minister to the Acting Prime Minister, became acting head of State.
Uluots attempted to appoint a new Estonian government in July 1941, at the beginning of the German occupation, but German authorities refused to recognize Estonia as a sovereign state. The National Committee of the Republic of Estonia was formed from individuals engaged in the Estonian government during the German occupation of Estonia; the Committee was led from March 23, 1944, by Kaarel Liidak from August 15 or 16, by Otto Tief. The Committee proclaimed itself the supreme power of the Republic of Estonia on August 1, 1944. In June 1942 political leaders of Estonia who had survived Soviet repressions held a meeting hidden from the occupying powers in Estonia where the formation of an underground Estonian government and the options for preserving continuity of the republic were discussed. On January 6, 1943, a meeting was held at the Estonian foreign delegation in Stockholm. In order to preserve the legal continuation of the Republic of Estonia, it was decided that the last constitutional prime minister, Jüri Uluots, had to continue to fulfill his responsibilities as prime minister.
On April 20, 1944, the Electoral Committee of the Republic of Estonia held a clandestine meeting in Tallinn. The participants included: Jüri Uluots, the last Prime Minister of Estonia before the Soviet occupation, Johan Holberg, the substitute for Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, Otto Pukk, the Chairman of the Chamber of Deputies, Alfred Maurer, the Second deputy Vice-Chairman of the National Council, Mihkel Klaassen, Justice of the Supreme Court of Estonia; the Committee determined that the Soviet-era appointment of Johannes Vares as Prime Minister by Konstantin Päts had been illegal and that Uluots had assumed the President's duties from June 21, 1940, onwards. On June 21, 1944, Jüri Uluots appointed Otto Tief as deputy prime minister. On September 18, 1944, suffering from cancer, named Otto Tief the Acting Prime Minister and appointed a Government which consisted of 11 members. On September 20, 1944, Uluots, in failing health, departed for Sweden. Tief assumed office in accordance with the constitution and took the opportunity with the departure of the Germans to declare the legitimate Estonian government restored.
Most of members of this government left from Tallinn on September 21 and Tief on September 22. As reported by the Royal Institute of International Affairs: on September 21 the Estonian national government was proclaimed, Estonian forces seized the government buildings in Toompea and ordered the German forces to leave; the flag of Germany was replaced with the Estonian tricolour in the Pikk Hermann flag tower. Tief's government, failed to keep control, as Estonian military units led by Johan Pitka clashed with both Germans and Soviets. On September 22 the Soviets took the Estonian flag down; the Tief government fled Tallinn. The last meeting was held in Põgari village on September 22. However, the boat, to rendezvous to evacuate them across the Baltic developed engine trouble and failed to arrive in time. Most of the members and officials, including Tief, were caught, deported, or executed by the advancing Soviets. Tief managed to survive a decade in Siberia and died back in Estonia in 1976. Only Kaarel Liidak, Minister of Agriculture, died in hiding on January 16, 1945.
After Uluots died on January 9, 1945, August Rei, as the most senior surviving member of the government, assumed the role of acting head of state. Rei was supported by the surviving members of the Tief government in Sweden. Rei was the last Estonian envoy in Moscow before the Soviet annexation and had managed to escape from Moscow through Riga to Stockholm in June 1940. Rei declared an official Estonian government in exile on January 12, 1953, in Norway. However, another group of Estonian politicians believed a president should be elected through some representative body; this group was led by Alfred Maurer, second deputy chairman of the National Council of Estonia prior to 1940. Maurer was elected Acting President of the Republic in exile on March 3, 1953, in Augustdorf, Germany. While Maurer's lineage had more support among the exile community, he never appointed any new government (stating that Tief's government is still in office and there is no need f