1. National flag – A national flag is a flag that symbolizes a country. The flag is flown by the government, but usually can also be flown by citizens of the country, historically, flags originate as military standards, used as field signs. The practice of flying flags indicating the country of origin outside of the context of warfare became common with the flag, introduced during the age of sail. Most countries of Europe adopted a flag in the course of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The specifications of the flag of Denmark were codified in 1748, the flag of Switzerland was introduced in 1889, also based on medieval war flags. The Netherlands introduced two national flags in 1813, the Ottoman flag was adopted in 1844. Other non-European powers followed the trend in the late 19th century, the flag of Japan being introduced in 1870, the Flag of the United States is not defined in the constitution but rather in a separate Flag Resolution passed in 1777. Minor design changes of national flags are passed on a legislative or executive level. A change in national flag is due to a change of regime. In such cases, the origins of the national flag. In such cases national flags acquire the status of a political symbol, the flag of Germany, for instance, was a tricolour of black-white-red under the German Empire, inherited from the North German Confederation. The Weimar Republic that followed adopted a black-red-gold tricolour, nazi Germany went back to black-white-red in 1933, and black-red-gold was reinstituted by the two successor states, West Germany and East Germany following World War II. Similarly the flag of Libya introduced with the creation of the Kingdom of Libya in 1951 was abandoned in 1969 with the coup led by Muammar Gaddafi. It was used again by National Transitional Council and by anti-Gaddafi forces during the Libyan Civil War in 2011 and officially adopted by the Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration. There are three types of national flag for use on land, and three for use at sea, though many countries use identical designs for several of these types of flag. On land, there is a distinction between civil flags, state flags, and war or military flags, state flags are those used officially by government agencies, whereas civil flags may be flown by anyone regardless of whether they are linked to government. War flags are used by organisations such as Armies, Marine Corps. In practice, many countries have identical flags for these three purposes, national flag is used as a vexillological term to refer to such a three-purpose flagNational flag
2. Oceania – Oceania, also known as Oceanica, is a region centred on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean. The term is used more specifically to denote a continent comprising Australia. The term was coined as Océanie circa 1812 by geographer Conrad Malte-Brun, the word Océanie is a French word derived from the Latin word oceanus, and this from the Greek word ὠκεανός, ocean. Natives and inhabitants of this region are called Oceanians or Oceanicans, as an ecozone, Oceania includes all of Micronesia, Fiji, and all of Polynesia except New Zealand. New Zealand, along with New Guinea and nearby islands, part of the Philippine islands, Australia, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, in geopolitical terms, however, New Zealand, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and New Caledonia are almost always considered part of Oceania. Australia and Papua New Guinea are usually considered part of Oceania along with the Maluku Islands, puncak Jaya in Papua is often considered the highest peak in Oceania. Oceania was originally conceived as the lands of the Pacific Ocean and it comprised four regions, Polynesia, Micronesia, Malaysia, and Melanesia. The area extends to Sumatra in the west, the Bonin Islands in the northwest, the Hawaiian Islands in the northeast, Rapa Nui and Sala y Gómez Island in the east, and Macquarie Island in the south. Not included are the Pacific islands of Taiwan, the Ryukyu Islands and the Japanese archipelago, all on the margins of Asia, and the Aleutian Islands of North America. The islands at the extremes of Oceania are Bonin, a politically integral part of Japan, Hawaii, a state of the United States. There is also a geographic definition that excludes land on the Sunda Plate. Biogeographically, Oceania is used as a synonym for either the Australasian ecozone or the Pacific ecozone, Oceania is one of eight terrestrial ecozones, which constitute the major ecological regions of the planet. The Oceania ecozone includes all of Micronesia, Fiji, and all of Polynesia except New Zealand, New Zealand, New Guinea, Melanesia apart from Fiji, and Australia constitute the separate Australasian ecozone. The Malay Archipelago is part of the Indomalaya ecozone, related to these concepts are Near Oceania, that part of western Island Melanesia which has been inhabited for tens of millennia, and Remote Oceania which is more recently settled. The term is used to denote a continent comprising Australia. New Zealand forms the corner of the Polynesian Triangle. Its indigenous Māori constitute one of the cultures of Polynesia. It is also, however, considered part of Australasia, the history of Oceania in the medieval period was synonymous with the history of the indigenous peoples of Australasia, Micronesia, Melanesia, PolynesiaOceania – A map of Oceania from the CIA World Factbook
3. Flag of Brunei – The flag of Brunei has a centered crest of Brunei on a yellow field cut by black and white diagonal stripes. The yellow field represents the sultan of Brunei, the crest consists of a crescent facing upwards, joined with a parasol, with hands on the sides. Black and white stripes run across the flag, the crescent symbolizes Islam, the parasol symbolizes monarchy, and the hands at the side symbolize the benevolence of the government. The black and white stripes represent Bruneis chief ministers who were once joint-regents and then – after the sultan came of age – senior advisors, the Pengiran Bendahara, on the crescent is the national motto in Arabic, “Always render service with Gods guidance”. Below this is a banner inscribed with Brunei Darussalam, the flag in its present form, except for the crest, has been in use since 1906 when Brunei became a British protectorate, following the signing of an agreement between Brunei and Great Britain. Even though Brunei was only nominally independent after this, Bruneians retained certain symbols like the flag, the crest was superimposed in 1959 after the promulgation of the Constitution of 29 September 1959. The design was retained when the country gained independence on 1 January 1984 as Brunei Darussalam. The standard of Her Majesty the Raja Isteri is light yellow, the Perdana Wazir has also a personal standard granted to him by His Majesty the Sultan. The standard is white superimposed in the centre with the state crest in light yellow, the crest is supported by si kikil, a kris crossed by its sheath. The personal standards of the Pengiran Bendahara, Pengiran Digadong, Pengiran Pemancha and Pengiran Temenggong are white, green, black, the Sultan had also bestowed personal flags to lesser officials known as Pengiran Cheteria and to Pengiran and other subjects. Their personal standards incorporate the state crest in red on a background at the top left corner of the flags. Brunei at Flags of the World National Flag and Crest Government of Brunei Darussalam National Flag and Crest, Prime Ministers Office Flag and Crest Description History Brunei FlagFlag of Brunei – Brunei
4. Flag of East Timor – The national flag of East Timor was adopted in 2002. It is the same as the flag originally adopted when the country declared its independence from Portugal in 1975, nine days before being invaded by Indonesia. At midnight on 19 May 2002, and during the first moments of Independence Day the next day, the United Nations flag was lowered, as per the Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, the yellow triangle represents the traces of colonialism in East Timors history. One triangle is black and its height is equal to one-third of the length overlapped to the yellow triangle, in the centre of the black triangle there is a white star of five ends, meaning the light that guides. The white star has one of its ends turned towards the side end of the flag. The remaining part of the flag is red, a different flag had been suggested by the representatives of the Timorese political parties and organisations during the first East Timorese National Convention held in April 1998 in Portugal. This flag was originally the flag of CNRT Conselho Nacional de Resistência Timorense, because of CNRTs popularity, there was a consensus of the participants of the Convention to adopt their flag as a temporary flag for East Timor. It was replaced by the design of 1975 in 2002. East Timor at Flags of the WorldFlag of East Timor – Flying flag of East Timor
5. Flag of Indonesia – The Flag of Indonesia is a simple bicolour with two equal horizontal bands, red and white with an overall ratio of 2,3. It was introduced and hoisted in public at the Indonesian Independence declaration ceremony on 17 August 1945 in Pegangsaan Timur street, the design of the flag has remained the same since. The flag of Indonesia is graphically identical to the Flag of Monaco, the Naval Jack of Indonesia is reserved for sole use by the Indonesian Navy. It flies from every active Indonesian war ship mast, the design of the jack is described as nine alternating stripes of red and white. It is nicknamed Ular-ular Perang, probably due to the stripes design, the naval jack dates to the age of Majapahit Empire. The Majapahit Empire, renowned for its maritime strength, flew similar jacks on its vessels. The flags colours are derived from the banner of the 13th century Majapahit Empire, however it has been suggested that the red and white symbolism can trace its origin to the older common Austronesian mythology of the duality of Mother Earth and Father Sky. This is why these colours appear in so many flags throughout Austronesia and this suggests that even before the Majapahit era, the red and white colours were already revered and used as the kingdoms banner in the Kediri era. Red and white textile colouring was available in ancient Indonesia and it was not only the Javanese kingdoms that used red and white. The battle flag of King Sisingamangaraja IX of Batak lands bore an image of white twin swords called piso gaja dompak against a red background. During the Aceh War of 1873-1904, Aceh warriors used a flag with the image of a sword, star and crescent, sun. The red and white flag of of the Buginese Bone kingdom in South Sulawesi is called Woromporang, the Balinese Badung royal banner is red, white, and black, probably of Majapahit origin. During the Java War Prince Diponegoro also used a red and white banner, in the early 20th century these colours were revived by students and then nationalists, as an expression of nationalism against the Dutch. The modern red and white flag which was first flown in Java in 1928, was prohibited under Dutch rule, upon Indonesias declaration of independence on 17 August 1945 it was adopted as the national flag, and has been in use ever since. There is another story about the flag of Indonesia, which is related to the flag of the Netherlands. Under the colonial rule of the Dutch, the Netherlands flag was flown over Indonesia, while the flag of Indonesia, the blue element in the Dutch flag was understood as representing the blue-blooded aristocracy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official name of the flag is Sang Merah-Putih according to Article 35 of the 1945 Constitution, the flag is commonly called Bendera Merah-Putih. Occasionally, it is also called Sang Dwiwarna, Sang Saka Merah-Putih refers to the historical flag called Bendera Pusaka and its replicaFlag of Indonesia – Hoisting of the original flag moments after the declaration of independence on 17 August 1945.
6. Flag of Malaysia – In blazon, the Malaysian flag is described as, A banner Gules, seven bars Argent, the canton Azure charged with decrescent and mullet of fourteen points Or. This means a red flag with seven white stripes, the upper-left quarter is blue with a yellow waning crescent. The flag of Malaysia, which was first raised on 16 September 1963, prior to the creation of the national flag, each state in Malaya had its own flag, many of which are unchanged in design to this day. When the Federation of Malaya replaced the short lived Malayan Union, three flags were forwarded to the public. The first flag had 11 white stars with two Malay kris in the middle against a blue backdrop, the second flag concentric circle of 11 stars around crossed keris on a blue field. The third had 11 alternate red and white stripes and a yellow crescent, the third design, by Mohamad Hamzah of the Public Works Department, was chosen as the winner through a public poll held by The Malay Mail. Since Malaya was fighting the communists during the Malayan Emergency, the star had an ironic resemblance to the communists symbols. Therefore, the star was modified to six more points. The Malayan flag was approved by King George VI on 19 May 1950 and was first raised in front of Istana Selangor on 26 May 1950, on 31 August 1957, it was raised upon independence at Merdeka Square in place of the British Union Flag. The Malayan flag was designed by Mohamed Hamzah, a 29-year-old architect working for the Public Works Department in Johor Baharu and he entered the Malayan flag design competition in 1947 with two designs that he completed within two weeks. The first design was a flag with blue kris in the middle. The second design, which was among the three finalists, was similar to the current flag but with a five-pointed star and it borrows major design elements from the East India Company flag, notably the red and white stripes. The competition attracted 373 entries and voting was made by the public via post. Malayan senior statesman Dato Onn Jaafar met with Mohamed Hamzah after he won the competition, Mohamed Hamzah died just short of his 75th birthday on 13 February 1993 in Jalan Stulang Baru, Kampung Melayu Majidee, Johor. Following the formation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963, the design of the Malayan flag was modified to reflect and honour the new states in the federation. When Kuala Lumpur was designated a Federal Territory on 1 February 1974, the additional stripe, during the National Day celebrations, everyone is encouraged to fly the Jalur Gemilang at their homes, office buildings, shops and corporate premises. If the flag is fixed at home, it is to be raised pointing towards the road. If the flag is put in a group of flags with state and private company flags, the flag anthem is written as dedication and pride of the Malaysian national flagFlag of Malaysia – The Malaysian flag flying above the Tourism Malaysia office in Trafalgar Square, London. The flag of Uganda is seen by its side over Uganda House.
7. Flag of the Philippines – The National Flag of the Philippines is a horizontal flag bicolor with equal bands of royal blue and scarlet, and with a white, equilateral triangle at the hoist. In the center of the triangle is a sun with eight primary rays. Panay, which recent interpretations call as as representative of the entire Visayas region, a unique feature of this flag is its ability to indicate a state of war if it is displayed with the red side on top. The flags length is twice its width, giving it a ratio of 1,2. The length of all the sides of the triangle are equal to the width of the flag. Each star is oriented in such manner that one of its tips points towards the vertex at which it is located. Moreover, the gap-angle between two neighbours of the 8 ray-bundles is as large as the angle of one ray-bundle, with each ray having double the thickness of its two minor rays. The golden sun is not exactly in the center of the triangle and this flag is waved when having ceremonies The shade of blue used in the flag has varied over time, beginning with the original color lazuli Rosco. The exact nature of this shade is uncertain, but a candidate is the blue of the Cuban flag. Specifications for the colors with shades matching those used in the American flag were adopted by the National Historical Institute in 1955. For the 1998 independence centennial celebrations, the Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines was passed, the flags colors are specified by Republic Act 8491 in terms of their cable number in the system developed by the Color Association of the United States. The official colors and their approximations in other spaces are listed below. The Philippines does not utilize a separate war flag, instead, to indicate a state of war, the red field is flown upwards and is placed on the right if it is in a hanging position. In times of peace, however, the area is the superior field. The only time that the flag was not oriented in a state of war was during the Battle of Alapan in 1898,15 days before the Philippine Declaration of Independence in Kawit, Cavite. During the 2010 US-Association of Southeast Asian Nations summit in New York City, the U. S. Embassy in Manila apologized for the mistake, and the Philippines Department of Foreign Affairs accepted the apology. In the center of the triangle is an eight-rayed golden sun symbolizing unity, freedom, peoples democracy. Three five-pointed stars, one for each of the triangles points, the flags original symbolism is enumerated in the text of the independence proclamation, which makes reference to an attached drawing, though no record of the drawing has surfacedFlag of the Philippines – 2012 cupcake flag, SM City Baliwag.
8. Flag of Singapore – The national flag of Singapore was adopted in 1959, the year Singapore became self-governing within the British Empire. It was reconfirmed as the flag when the republic gained independence on 9 August 1965. Prior to its independence, it was the state flag in Malaysia not to have a 1,2 ratio. The design is a bicolour of red above white, overlaid in the canton by a white crescent moon facing a pentagon of five small white five-pointed stars. The elements of the flag denote a young nation on the ascendant, universal brotherhood and equality, vessels at sea do not use the national flag as an ensign. Merchant vessels and pleasure craft fly a civil ensign of red charged in white with a variant of the crescent and stars emblem in the centre. Non-military government vessels such as coast guard ships fly a state ensign of blue with the flag in the canton, charged with an eight-pointed red. Naval warships fly a naval ensign similar to the state ensign, Rules defined by the Singapore Arms and Flag and National Anthem Act govern the use and display of the national flag. These have been relaxed to allow citizens to fly the flag from vehicles during national holidays, Singapore was under British rule in the 19th century, having been amalgamated into the Straits Settlements together with Malacca and Penang. The flag that was used to represent the Settlements was a British Blue Ensign containing three gold crowns—one for each settlement—separated by a red inverted pall, which resembles an inverted Y. The Settlement of Singapore had no flag, although the city was granted a coat of arms which featured a lion in 1911. During the occupation of Singapore by the Japanese during the Second World War, soon after the Second World War, Singapore became an independent Crown colony and adopted its own flag. It was modified from the Straits Settlements flag to reduce the number of crowns from three to one, Singapore became self-governing within the British Empire on 3 June 1959. Part from the anthem we have to produce the flag and the crest, we insisted that it was a Singapore state flag, the design of the flag was completed in two months by a committee headed by Toh. He initially wanted the entire background to be red, but the Cabinet decided against this. Both of these symbols were combined to create the flag of Singapore. The possession of a flag and crest is, for a people. In September 1962, the people of Singapore voted to join the Federation of Malaysia, the process was completed on 16 September 1963, when the Malaysian flag was hoisted on Singapore by Prime Minister Lee Kuan YewFlag of Singapore – The waving national flag at half mast in February 2002 to mourn the death of the late President Ong Teng Cheong
9. Flag of Australia – The flag of Australia is a defaced Blue Ensign, a blue field with the Union Jack in the canton, and a large white seven-pointed star known as the Commonwealth Star in the lower hoist quarter. The fly contains a representation of the Southern Cross constellation, made up of five white stars – one small five-pointed star and four, larger, there are other official flags representing Australia, its people and core functions of government. A slightly different design was approved by King Edward VII in 1903, the seven-pointed commonwealth star version was introduced by a proclamation dated 23 February 1908. The dimensions were formally gazetted in 1934, and in 1954 the flag recognised by, and legally defined in. Constituent parts of the flag of Australia The Australian flag uses three prominent symbols, the Union Flag, the Commonwealth Star and the Southern Cross, the Commonwealth Star, also known as the Federation Star, originally had six points, representing the six federating colonies. In 1908, a point was added to symbolise the Papua. Another rationale for the change was to match the star used on the Coat of Arms, the Southern Cross is one of the most distinctive constellations visible in the Southern Hemisphere, and has been used to represent Australia since the early days of British settlement. Ivor Evans, one of the designers, intended the Southern Cross to also refer to the four moral virtues ascribed to the four main stars by Dante, justice, prudence, temperance. The stars are named after the first five letters of the Greek alphabet, in order to simplify manufacture, the British Admiralty standardised the four larger outer stars at seven points each, leaving the smaller, more central star with five points. This change was gazetted on 23 February 1903. A complete specification for the design was published in the Commonwealth Gazette in 1934. The location of the stars is as follows, Commonwealth Star – 7-pointed star, alpha Crucis – 7-pointed star, straight below centre fly 1⁄6 up from bottom edge. Beta Crucis – 7-pointed star, 1⁄4 of the way left, gamma Crucis – 7-pointed star, straight above centre fly 1⁄6 down from top edge. Delta Crucis – 7-pointed star, 2⁄9 of the way right, Epsilon Crucis – 5-pointed star, 1⁄10 of the way right and 1⁄24 down from the centre fly. The outer diameter of the Commonwealth Star is 3⁄10 of the width, while that of the stars in the Southern Cross is 1⁄7 of the flags width, except for Epsilon. Each stars inner diameter is 4⁄9 of the outer diameter, the flags width is the measurement of the hoist edge of the flag. The colours of the flag, although not specified by the Flags Act, have been given Pantone specifications by the Awards and Culture Branch of the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. The Australian Governments Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers also gives CMYK and RGB specifications for depicting the flag in print and on screen respectivelyFlag of Australia – The flag flying
10. Flag of Christmas Island – The flag of Christmas Island was unofficially adopted in 1986 after being chosen the winner in a competition for a flag for the territory. It was designed by Tony Couch of Sydney, Australia, the flag was made official on Australia Day,2002 when the administrator of the territory, Bill Taylor, presented the flag to the Christmas Island Shire. The flag of Christmas Island consists of a green and blue background and these colours are intended to represent the land and sea respectively. The Southern Cross constellation appears in the left of the flag in the same manner as it appears on the flag of Australia. In the top right, the bosun bird appears. It is considered to be a symbol of the Island, the last motif appears in the centre of the flag on a golden disc is the map of the island in green. The disc itself was only included to offset the green colour of the map. In 1986, the Christmas Island Assembly announced a competition to both a flag and a coat of arms for the territory. There was a fund of $100, and some 69 entries were submitted. The winning submission was created by Tony Couch, a resident of Sydney, the new flag was announced on April 14,1986 by the Christmas Island Assembly. Although this was agreed, the declaration never took place, councillor Mariam Kawi accepted the flag as a representative of the Shire of Christmas Island. Christmas Island at Ausflag Christmas Island at Flags of the WorldFlag of Christmas Island – Christmas Island
11. Australia – Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states. The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, health, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia. The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828. Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South AustraliaAustralia – Aboriginal rock art in the Kimberley region of Western Australia
12. Flag of Norfolk Island – The flag of Norfolk Island was approved by the Norfolk Island Council on 6 June 1979. It became the flag on the commencement date of the Norfolk Island Flag. The flag depicts the Norfolk Island Pine in a white stripe between two green stripes. The flags geometry is a triband, with a ratio of 1,2. The central stripe is wider than the two stripes, the ratio being 7,9,7. Norfolk Island Flag and Public Seal Act 1979 Retrieved 27 December 2013 Norfolk Island at Flags of the WorldFlag of Norfolk Island – Flag ratio: 1:2
13. Flag of Fiji – The national flag of Fiji was adopted on 10 October 1970. The state arms have been modified but the flag has remained the same as during Fijis colonial period. It is a defaced sky-blue Blue Ensign and it has remained unchanged since Fiji was declared a republic in 1987, despite calls from some politicians for changes. In 2013, Prime Minister Frank Bainimarama announced plans of replacing the flag with a new design that would not include the Union Jack. The flags bright blue background symbolizes the Pacific Ocean, which plays an important part in the lives of the islanders, the Union Jack reflects the countrys links with the United Kingdom. The shield is derived from the coat of arms, which was granted by Royal Warrant in 1908. It is a shield with a red cross and a red chief. The images depicted on the shield represent agricultural activities on the islands, at the top of the shield, a British lion holds a cocoa pod between its paws. The upper left is sugar cane, upper right is a palm, the lower left a dove of peace. While some reformists have called for the removal of the Union Flag, seeing it a British colonial emblem, the flags of five other independent countries retain the Union Flag in their national flags. But of these, only Fiji is a republic, some influential Fijians have called for the restoration of the full coat of arms to the flag. The coat of arms is very significant because it has the word of God, I think that the council members prefer that the full coat of arms be included in the Fiji flag, said Asesela Sadole, General Secretary of the Great Council of Chiefs. Prior to ceding the country to British rule in 1874, the government of Fiji adopted a flag featuring blue and white vertical stripes. This flag ceased to be used when the era began. Fiji was a British colony from 1874 to 1970, the country, a republic, had removed Queen Elizabeth II from its currency a few weeks earlier. On 3 February 2015, Bainimarama confirmed that the flag of Fiji would be replaced and he announced that a national competition to design the new flag would be held, with the aim of hoisting this flag on 11 October 2015, the 45th anniversary of independence. During the competition, over 2,000 designs were submitted and it was intended to submit these designs to the Cabinet for consideration on 30 June 2015, following a brief public feedback period. However, on 30 June, Bainimarama announced that this period was to be extended to 31 December 2015, sayingFlag of Fiji – Fiji
14. Flag of New Caledonia – However, in July 2010 the Congress of New Caledonia voted in favour of a motion to fly the Kanak flag alongside the French tricolor. In 2008 the government of New Caledonia debated the introduction of a regional flag and anthem. In July 2010 the Congress of New Caledonia voted in favour of a motion to fly the Kanak flag alongside the French tricolor in the territory. On 17 July 2010, French Prime minister François Fillon took part in a ceremony in Nouméa where the FLNKS flag was hoisted alongside the French tricolor, however, the debate on finding a permanent official regional flag continued. The adoption of the Kanak flag proved controversial, some New Caledonians argued for a completely new flag for New Caledonia, which would incorporate designs from both the French tricolor and the Kanak flags. Such new flag would aim to promote a common destiny for ethnic Kanaks, the disc is fibrated black and defaced with a vertical symbol, also black. The blue symbolizes both the sky and more importantly the ocean surrounding New Caledonia, the red symbolizes the blood shed by the Kanaks in their struggle for independence, socialism, and unity. The green symbolizes the land itself and by extension the ancestors buried within it, the yellow disc is a representation of the sun and the symbol upon it consists of a flèche faitière, a kind of arrow which adorns the roofs of Kanak houses thrust through tutut shells. New Caledonia is divided into three provinces, each with its own flag, emblem of New Caledonia Media related to Flags of New Caledonia at Wikimedia Commons Kanak Socialist National Liberation Front at Flags of the WorldFlag of New Caledonia – French tricolour defaced with New Caledonia's emblem
15. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural, political, and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is also a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the FranksFrance – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
16. Flag of Papua New Guinea – The flag of Papua New Guinea was adopted on 1 July 1971. In the hoist, it depicts the Southern Cross, in the fly, the designer of the flag was 15-year-old schoolgirl Susan Karike, now Mrs Susan Huhume, who won a nationwide competition for a new flag design in 1971. Red and black have long been traditional colors of many Papua New Guinean tribes, black-white-red was the color of the German Empire flag, which had colonized New Guinea prior to 1918. The bird-of-paradise is also found on the national coat-of-arms, prior to independence, the Australian administration proposed a vertical tricolor flag with blue, yellow and green bands, along with the bird of paradise and southern cross, designed by a Mr. Holman. It had a negative reception, due to its appearance as that of a mechanically contrived outcome. The Southern Cross shows that it is a country in the Southern Hemisphere and can be seen in Papua New GuineaFlag of Papua New Guinea – Papua New Guinea
17. Flag of the Solomon Islands – The national flag of Solomon Islands was adopted officially on 18 November 1977, one year before independence. The design was the result of a competition in the lead up to independence and this flag was not the initial competition winner but was another submission by a New Zealand expatriate then the visual arts master at the King George VI school. According to the designer, The upper left triangle was blue, the triangle was green. A cluster of stars in the top left corner signified the provinces, the civil ensign and state ensign are red and blue flags, respectively, with the national flag in the canton. The naval ensign is based on the British white ensign, a red cross on a white field, Solomon Islands at Flags of the WorldFlag of the Solomon Islands – Solomon Islands
18. Flag of Vanuatu – The flag of Vanuatu was adopted on 18 February 1980. When the Vanuaaku Pati led the New Hebrides to independence as Vanuatu in 1980, a parliamentary committee chose the final design based on submissions from local artists. The green represents the richness of the islands, the red symbolises the blood of wild boars and men, the Prime Minister of Vanuatu, Father Walter Lini, requested the inclusion of yellow and black fimbriations to make the black stand out. The yellow Y-shape represents the light of the going through the pattern of the islands in the Pacific Ocean. The emblem in the black is a boars tusk — the symbol of prosperity worn as a pendant on the islands — along with two leaves of the local namele Cycad. The leaves are supposed to be a token of peace, with a flag width of 180 units, the width of the triangle, from hoist to point, should be 84 units. Coat of arms of Vanuatu Flag of Tuva which closely resembles the flag of Vanuatu, Flag of South Africa which also closely resembles the flag of VanuatuFlag of Vanuatu – Vanuatu
19. Flag of Guam – The flag of the United States territory of Guam was adopted on February 9,1948. The territorial flag is blue with a narrow red border on all sides. In the center of the flag is the coat of arms, an almond shaped emblem, which depicts a sailing in Agana Bay near Hagåtña. The shape of the emblem recalls the slingshot stones used by the islanders ancestors, the landform at the back depicts the Punta Dos Amantes cliff on Guam. Charles Alan Pownall approved the flags shape in 1948, as a complement to the Guam flag design, and in response to Guam law providing for municipal flags, efforts were made to depict the culture of each Guam municipality on their own flag. These efforts to design 19 unique municipal flags were collaborated through the Mayors Council with the assistance of illustrative artist Gerard Aflague and these municipal flag designs reflect unique aspects of each of Guams municipal villages. The length of the flag is forty inches and the width is seventy-eight inches, around each side of the flag, there is a two-inch red border. The coat of arms in the center is twenty-four inches tall, seal of Guam Flags of the U. S. states Guam at Flags of the World Municipal flags of GuamFlag of Guam – The flag of the Territory of Guam Flag ratio: 22:41
20. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
21. Flag of Kiribati – The 17 rays of the sun represent the 16 Gilbert Islands and Banaba. The badge was designed by Sir Arthur Grimble in 1932 for the Gilbert, kiribatis flag is an armorial banner, a flag having a design corresponding exactly to that of the shield in the coat of arms. The coat of arms dates back to May 1937 when it was granted to the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, as Kiribati, the shield was incorporated into the centre of the fly half of a British Blue Ensign as the state ensign of the colony. Shortly before independence was granted in 1979, a competition was held to choose a new national flag. The College of Arms decided to modify this design, both the golden frigatebird and the sun were enlarged to occupy more of the top of the flag, and the width of the blue and white wavy bands was reduced. The new flag was hoisted during the independence day celebrations in the capital, Tarawa, the flag bears a very slight resemblance to the flag of the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, as well as to the flag of British Columbia, and the flag of the Company of ScotlandFlag of Kiribati – Kiribati
22. Flag of the Marshall Islands – The flag of the Marshall Islands, an island nation in the Pacific, was adopted upon the start of self-government, May 1,1979. The flag was designed by Emlain Kabua, who served as the first First Lady of the republic, rules and specifications regarding the flag are set forth in the Official Flag of the Marshall Islands Act 1979. The Marshall Islands were part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands administered by the United States, from which the Marshall Islands, Palau, in common with other island nations in the region, this flag features the symbolic representation of the islands place within the ocean. The rising diagonal band represents the equator, the star above representing this Northern Hemisphere archipelago, the white and orange portions of the band represent, respectively, the Ratak Chain and the Ralik Chain, as well as symbolizing peace and courage. The suns 24 points represent the number of districts, while the four elongated points represent the principal cultural centers of Majuro, Jaluit, Wotje. Marshall Islands at Flags of the WorldFlag of the Marshall Islands – Marshall Islands
23. Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands – The flag of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands was adopted in July 1985, by the Second Northern Marianas Constitution. The NMI flag was designed by Taga during the year 1985. Later during that year, they finalized the draft of the flag in the last CNMI constitutional convention and this was the most symbolic moment of the annexation of the CNMI. The flag consists of three symbols, the star for the USA, the latte stone for the chamorros, and the mwarmwar for the carolinians, and the mostly shaded blue areas for the ocean of the Marianas trench. Seal of the Northern Mariana Islands Flags of the U. S. states The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana IslandsFlag of the Northern Mariana Islands – The flag of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
24. Flag of the Federated States of Micronesia – The flag of the Federated States of Micronesia was adopted on 30 November 1978. The blue field represents the Pacific Ocean, while the four stars represent the states in the federation, Chuuk, Pohnpei, Kosrae, a similar design with six stars was in use from 1965 for the flag of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. Kosrae was then part of Pohnpei so both were represented by one star, the three extra stars representing Palau, the Marshall Islands and Northern Mariana, which chose not to participate in the Federation. The flag, adopted in 1978, is in the colors of the UN flag, the light blue also represents the Pacific OceanFlag of the Federated States of Micronesia – Federated States of Micronesia
25. Flag of Nauru – Following the independence of Nauru, the flag of Nauru was raised for the first time. The flag, chosen in a design competition, was adopted on independence day,31 January 1968. It depicts Naurus geographical position, one degree below the Equator, a gold horizontal stripe representing the Equator runs across a blue field for the Pacific Ocean. Nauru itself is symbolized by a white 12-pointed star, each point represents one of the 12 indigenous tribes on the island. The flag displays the location of the island nation. The narrow gold stripe with a width of 1⁄24 of the length of the flag represents the Equator, the twelve-pointed white star signifies the location of the island in the blue waters of the Pacific Ocean just south of the Equator. The separation of the blue flag cloth into two equal parts recalls the saga, that the first inhabitants were to have brought to Earth from two boulders. The twelve points on the represent the islands twelve original tribes. The white represents the phosphate, through which the islands residents acquired wealth from mining, the flag was created by a resident employed by the Australian flag manufacturer Evans. It was officially adopted on 31 January 1968, unlike some flags of Pacific nations, Naurus flag has evoked little controversyFlag of Nauru – Nauru
26. Flag of Palau – The flag of Palau was adopted on 1 January 1981, when the island group separated from the United Nations Trust Territory. As with the flags of several other Pacific island groups, blue is the used to represent the ocean. The current flag was introduced in 1981 when Palau became a republic, previously, the flag of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands was flown jointly with the United Nations and American flags. The flags very simple design belies the depth of meaning attributed to it, the explanation for the choice of colours is rooted in the history and customs of the Palauan people. The bright blue of the field, which might be assumed to be symbolic of the Pacific Ocean, is in fact a representation of the transition from foreign domination to self-government, the golden disk, which sits slightly off-centre toward the hoist, represents the full moon. The Palauans consider the moon to be the optimum time for human activity. At this time of the month, celebrations, fishing, sowing, harvesting, tree-felling, the moon is a symbol of peace, love, and tranquility. Futaranosuke Nagoshi, a Japanese professor who studies international relations, made mention of a relation between flag of Palau and that of Japan. According to his idea, the motif of the moon is a kind of homage to the Rising-Sun flag, in a related matter, former Palauan President Kuniwo Nakamura once said with an ironical smile, Thats one way of putting it. Palau at Flags of the World Republic of Palau Convention History of the National FlagFlag of Palau – Palau
27. Chuuk State – Chuuk State is one of the four states of the Federated States of Micronesia. The other states are Kosrae State, Pohnpei State, and Yap State, Chuuk Lagoon is where most people live. Weno island in the Lagoon functions as capital and is FSMs biggest city. The termination of U. S. administration of the Chuuk, Yap, Kosrae, Pohnpei, the Federated States of Micronesia, including Chuuk, Yap, Kosrae, and Pohnpei, was established in 1979 and signed a Compact of Free Association with the U. S. On July 2,2002, heavy rains from Tropical Storm Chataan caused more than thirty landslides that killed people and injured dozens others. The landslides occurred throughout the day, some within just minutes of each other, to the west is Yap State. To the east are Pohnpei State and Kosrae State is further east, the main population center of Chuuk State is the Chuuk Lagoon, a large archipelago with mountainous islands surrounded by a string of islets on a barrier reef. The two major geographical and dialectic divisions of the Chuuk Lagoon are Faichuuk, the islands, and Namoneas. The Pattiw Region is of particular interest in that it has some of the most traditional islands in the Pacific and is related to outer islands of Yap. This group includes the islands of Pollap, Tamatam, Poluwat, today you can still find traditional master navigators—Poluwat and Pollap are considered to have some of the best navigators and ocean-going outrigger canoes in the Pacific. In the islands of the Pattiw Region, and some of the Islands of Yap, visiting the Pattiw Region in the west, however, is difficult due to the lack of reliable transportation. Houk probably has the most accessible airstrip in the Pattiw Region, Chuuk is the most populous of the FSMs states. The New York Province of the Society of Jesus maintains a school on the island of Weno in Chuuk. Xavier High School is housed at the former Japanese communications center and it is a coeducational institution, drawing students from all the island groups of the Federated States of Micronesia, as well as Palau and the Marshall Islands. Teachers are both Jesuit and lay and come from Micronesia, the U. S. Indonesia, Japan, although Chuuk is an overwhelmingly Christian society, traditional beliefs in spirit possession by the dead still exist. Allegedly, these spirits overwhelmingly possess women, and spirit possession is usually brought on by family conflicts, the spirits, speaking through the women, typically admonish family members to treat each other better. Of the 40 municipalities of the state,16 fall within the Chuuk Lagoon and 24 in the Outer Islands, in the table below, each is followed by its population at the Census held on 1 April 2000Chuuk State – Map of Chuuk State
28. Kosrae – Kosrae, formerly known as Kusaie, is an island in Federated States of Micronesia. Kosraes land area is 110 square kilometres, sustaining 6,600 people, mt. Finkol is the highest point at 634 metres. Kosrae, the easternmost of the Caroline Islands, has a population of 6,616 and it is located approximately 600 km north of the equator, between Guam and the Hawaiian Islands. It has an area of approximately 110 km2. Some parts of the island are experiencing coastal erosion, Kosrae is a high island that is largely unspoiled. It is becoming a destination for divers and hikers. The reefs are largely untouched, and contain miles of hard corals, dense vegetation and steep mountains keep the island largely undeveloped. Viewed from the ocean, the distinct shape resembles a female body. This has led to the island being called the island of the sleeping lady and it is served by United Air Lines Island Hopper 737–800 flights between Hawaii and Guam, stopping at other FSM and Marshallese destinations on the way. Nauru Airlines also connect weekly with their fleet of 737–300 jets to Brisbane in Australia and Nadi in Fiji. There is one significant nearshore island within the reef around Kosrae, which is Lelu Island, and it is only 2 square kilometres in area. It belongs to Lelu municipality, which includes the area around Tofol, other very small, uninhabited islands within the fringing reef are, Yen Yen and Yenasr, the airport island, Kiul, Mutunyal, Sroansak, and Srukames. The Kosrae Department of Education operates six elementary schools and one high school. There is also one private school, in July 2011, Kosrae DOE embraced the One Laptop per Child programme, distributing 720 XO computers to children in its public elementary schools, becoming the first State of Micronesia to do so. The official language of Kosrae is Kosraean, although the English language may also be used in government discourse, according to the Constitution of Kosrae, English is held to have equal authority to Kosraean. However, the language of the FSM is English. Archaeological evidence shows that the island was settled at least by the years of the first millennium AD. This includes the city of Leluh that existed from about 1250 AD and it featured burial pyramids for the nobilityKosrae – Detail Map of Kosrae State
29. Pohnpei – Pohnpei upon a stone altar is an island of the Senyavin Islands which are part of the larger Caroline Islands group. It belongs to Pohnpei State, one of the four states in the Federated States of Micronesia, major population centers on Pohnpei include Palikir, the FSMs capital, and Kolonia, the capital of Pohnpei State. Pohnpei Island is the largest, highest, most populous, the islanders of Pohnpei have a reputation as being the most welcoming of outsiders among residents of the island group. Pohnpei also contains a wealth of biodiversity and it is also one of the wettest places on Earth with annual recorded rainfall exceeding 7,600 millimetres each year in certain mountainous locations. It is home to the ka tree found only in Pohnpei, the highest point of the island is Mount Nanlaud at 772 or 782 metres. Pohnpei is home to several bird species including four endemic species, the Pohnpei lorikeet, the Pohnpei fantail, the Pohnpei flycatcher. A fifth endemic, the Pohnpei starling, is thought to have gone extinct. The only land reptiles are a few species of lizard, originally, only three mammals existed, rats, bats and dogs. Pigs were introduced, some are now feral, as are the deer brought during German times, the lagoons are rich in fish, mollusks, turtles and other marine fauna. Pohnpei belongs to the Tropical rainforest climate zone and it is also one of the wettest places on earth with annual recorded rainfall exceeding 7,600 millimetres each year in certain mountainous locations. Pohnpeian legend recounts that the Saudeleur rulers, the first to bring government to Pohnpei, were of foreign origin, the Saudeleur centralized form of absolute rule is characterized in Pohnpeian legend as becoming increasingly oppressive over several generations. Arbitrary and onerous demands, as well as a reputation for offending Pohnpeian deities, the Saudeleur Dynasty ended with the invasion of Isokelekel, another semi-mythical foreigner, who replaced the Saudeleur rule with the more decentralized nahnmwarki system in existence today. Pohnpeian historic society was structured into five tribes, various clans and sub-clans. The tribes were organized on a feudal basis, in theory, all land belonged to the chiefs, who received regular tribute and whose rule was absolute. Punishments administered by chiefs included death and banishment, tribal wars included looting, destruction of houses and canoes and killing of prisoners. Pre-Spanish population estimates are deemed unreliable, pohnpeis first European visitor was Álvaro de Saavedra on 14 September 1529 shortly before his death, when trying to find the way back to New Spain. He charted it as San Bartolomé and called this one and the islands as Los Pintados because the natives were frequently tattooed. It was later visited by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, on 23 December 1595, his description is brief, he made no attempt to landPohnpei – Detailed map of Pohnpei, showing the borders of the five 'independent tribes'
30. Flag of American Samoa – Adopted in April 1960 to replace the Stars and Stripes as the official flag of the territory, it has been the flag of the Territory of American Samoa since that year. The colors used epitomize the traditional colors of the United States, before the first Europeans set foot on the islands in the 18th century, Samoa did not use any flags. They first utilized flags during the 1800s, although it is unclear which ones were due to partial documentation. As a result, the United States took control over the half of Samoa. It went on to be the official flag of American Samoa until 1960. In the mid-20th century, Samoans began to take an active role in the local government. Consequently, deliberations began over a new flag and the Samoans were invited to propose ideas. Local government leaders and the U. S. Army Institute of Heraldry then designed the flag while incorporating these ideas into it, the flag was officially adopted April 27,1960, sixty years to the day the U. S. first raised the American flag over Samoa. The colors and symbols of the flag carry cultural, political, the red, white and blue represent the colors traditionally utilized by both the United States and Samoa. The bald eagle represents the U. S. and features on the flag and it clutches two Samoan symbols, alluding to Americas guardianship over American Samoa, as well as evoking the Great Seal of the United States. The symbols are a uatogi and a fue, Seal of American Samoa Flags of the U. S. states The Territory of American SamoaFlag of American Samoa – American Samoa
31. New Zealand – New Zealand /njuːˈziːlənd/ is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Māui, and the South Island, or Te Waipounamu—and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal, the countrys varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealands capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland, sometime between 1250 and 1300 CE, Polynesians settled in the islands that later were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand, in 1840, representatives of Britain and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands. In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire, today, the majority of New Zealands population of 4.7 million is of European descent, the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealands culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers. The official languages are English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language, New Zealand is a developed country and ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as health, education, economic freedom and quality of life. Since the 1980s, New Zealand has transformed from an agrarian, Queen Elizabeth II is the countrys head of state and is represented by a governor-general. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes, the Realm of New Zealand also includes Tokelau, the Cook Islands and Niue, and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealands territorial claim in Antarctica. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Pacific Islands Forum, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and called it Staten Landt, in 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand, Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand. It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the country before the arrival of Europeans. Māori had several names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North, Middle and South, in 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907, this was the accepted norm. The New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised and this set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, and South Island or Te WaipounamuNew Zealand – The Waitangi sheet from the Treaty of Waitangi
32. Flag of the Cook Islands – The flag of the Cook Islands, officially known as the Cook Islands Ensign, is based on the traditional design for former British colonies in the Pacific region. It is a blue ensign containing the Union Flag in the upper left, the Union Flag is symbolic of the nations historic ties to the United Kingdom and to the Commonwealth of Nations. The stars stand for the fifteen islands that make up the Cook Islands, the blue represents the ocean and the peaceful nature of the inhabitants. From 1973 to 1979, the flag was green with the stars in yellow shifted towards the fly, the green colour represented the continuous growth and life of the islands, the yellow represented the faith, love, happiness, and commitment shown by the islanders. The circle represented the union of the islands and the union between the islanders and the land itself, list of New Zealand flags Cook Islands at Flags of the World World Statesmen - Cook IslandsFlag of the Cook Islands – The Cook Islands
33. Chile – Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes, the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands. Spain conquered and colonized Chile in the century, replacing Inca rule in northern and central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a relatively stable authoritarian republic, in the 1960s and 1970s the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010. Chile is today one of South Americas most stable and prosperous nations and it leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, state of peace, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption. It also ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile, another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a locally known as trile. The Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, ultimately, Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such. The older spelling Chili was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching over to Chile, stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settled in fertile valleys, settlement sites from very early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodon and the Pali Aike Craters lava tube. They fought against the Sapa Inca Tupac Yupanqui and his army, the result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. The next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, the Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting. The conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarros lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541. Although the Spanish did not find the gold and silver they sought, they recognized the agricultural potential of Chiles central valleyChile – The Mapuche people were the original inhabitants of southern and central Chile.
34. Flag of Hawaii – The flag of the state of Hawaii is the official flag symbolizing Hawaii as a U. S. state. The same flag had previously been used by the kingdom, protectorate, republic. It is the only U. S. state flag to feature the flag of a country which is the Union flag of the United Kingdom. The canton of the flag of Hawaii contains the Union Flag of the United Kingdom, the field of the flag is composed of eight horizontal stripes, symbolizing the eight major islands. Other versions of the flag have only seven stripes, probably representing the islands with the exception of Kahoʻolawe or Niʻihau. The color of the stripes, from the top down, follows the sequence, white, red, blue, white, red, blue, white, the colors were standardized in 1843, although other combinations have been seen and are occasionally still used. In 2001, a survey conducted by the North American Vexillological Association placed Hawaiis flag 11th in design quality out of the 72 Canadian provincial, U. S. state, there are various accounts of the earliest history of the flag of Hawaii. One relates how King Kamehameha I flew a British flag, probably a Red Ensign, subsequent visitors reported seeing the flag flying from places of honor. This explains why the flag of Hawaii was a deliberate hybrid of the two nations flags. In 1816, Kamehameha commissioned his own flag to avoid this conflict and it was probably designed by one of the commanders of the Royal Hawaiian Navy, former officers of the British Royal Navy, who advised Kamehameha, based on a form of the British naval flag. There is debate as to the designer, some credit Alexander Adams. It was very similar to the flag of the British East India Company in use about this time which had only red, Captain Adams used this flag for the first time on a Hawaiian trade mission to China in 1817. The original flag was designed to feature stripes alternating in the order red-white-blue, there may have been possibly different versions of the flag with different numbers of stripes and colors. The number of stripes also changed, originally, the flag was designed with seven or nine horizontal stripes. The latter arrangement was adopted and is used today, in 1990, Governor of Hawaii John Waihee proclaimed July 31 to be Ka Hae Hawaii Day, the Hawaiian Flag Day. It has been celebrated each year since then, the flag used by the governor of Hawaii is a red and blue bi-color. In the middle of the eight white stars appears the name of the state in all capital letters, during the time Hawaii was a United States territory, the letters in the middle of the flag were TH, which stood for Territory of Hawaii. List of Hawaii state symbols Seal of Hawaii Constitutional Provisions for the Display of Ka Hae Hawaii Hawaii at Flags of the WorldFlag of Hawaii – The flag of Hawaii flying in Haleakalā National Park
35. Flag of New Zealand – The flag of New Zealand is a defaced Blue Ensign with the Union Flag in the canton, and four red stars with white borders to the right. The stars pattern represents the asterism within the constellation of Crux, chosen by an assembly of Māori chiefs at Waitangi in 1834, the flag was of a St Georges Cross with another cross in the canton containing four stars on a blue field. After the formation of the colony in 1840, British ensigns began to be used, the current flag was designed and adopted for use on Colonial ships in 1869, was quickly adopted as New Zealands national flag, and given statutory recognition in 1902. For several decades there has been debate about changing the flag, in 2016, a two-stage binding referendum on a flag change took place with voting on the second final stage closing on 24 March. In this referendum, the country voted to keep the flag by 57% to 43%. The need for a flag of New Zealand first became clear when the trading ship Sir George Murray, the ship had been sailing without a flag, a violation of British navigation laws. New Zealand was not a colony at the time and had no flag, among the passengers on the ship were two high-ranking Māori chiefs, believed to be Patuone and Taonui. The ships detention was reported as arousing indignation among the Māori population, unless a flag was selected, ships could continue to be seized. The first flag of New Zealand was adopted 9 March 1834 by a made by the United Tribes of New Zealand. The United Tribes later made the Declaration of Independence of New Zealand at Waitangi in 1835, three flags were proposed, all designed by the missionary Henry Williams, who was to play a major role in the translation of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. The flag is flown on the flag pole at Waitangi. After the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi, the British Union Flag was used, although the former United Tribes flag was used by a number of ships from New Zealand. The New Zealand Company settlement at Wellington, for example, continued to use the United Tribes flag until ordered to replace it by Governor William Hobson in May 1840. New Zealand did not have a badge, or indeed a coat of arms of its own at this stage. In 1869 the First Lieutenant of the Royal Navy vessel Blanche, Albert Hastings Markham, submitted a design to Sir George Bowen and his proposal, incorporating the Southern Cross, was approved. It was initially used only on government ships, but was adopted as the de facto national flag, one of the first recorded accounts of the New Zealand national Blue Ensign flag being flown in battle was at Quinns Post, Gallipoli, in 1915. It was not, however, flown officially, the flag was brought back to New Zealand by Private John Taylor, Canterbury Battalion. The first time the Flag of New Zealand was flown in a naval battle, the national flag is defined in legislation as the symbol of the Realm, Government, and people of New Zealand and like most other laws, can be changed by a simple majority in ParliamentFlag of New Zealand – The flag of New Zealand outside the Beehive in Wellington
36. Flag of Niue – The flag of Niue was adopted on 15 October 1975. It consists of the Union Jack in the left corner with a star in the middle of the Union Jack. It is very unusual for a flag based on a British ensign design, in having not only a yellow background, the symbolism represented by the flag is described in the Act. The Union Jack symbolises the protection granted by the United Kingdom in 1900 after petitioning by the Kings, the golden yellow is inspired by the bright sunshine of Niue and also said to symbolise the warm feelings of the Niuean people towards New Zealand and his people. The association with New Zealand, which took responsibility and administration of Niue in 1901, is also represented by the four small stars that depict the Southern Cross. Finally the blue disc containing a star represents the deep blue sea surrounding the self-governing island of Niue. Seal of Niue List of New Zealand flags Flags of the World - Niue Niue Flag Act 1975Flag of Niue – Niue
37. Flag of the Pitcairn Islands – The flag of the Pitcairn Islands was adopted on April 2,1984. The design was suggested by the Pitcairn Island Council in December 1980, the flag was flown on Pitcairn for the first time in May 1984, during a visit by the then Governor, Sir Richard Stratton. The coat of arms of the Pitcairn Islands was granted by Royal Warrant dated November 4,1969, the coat of arms of the Pitcairn Islands features a shield depicting the anchor and Bible from HMS Bounty. This represents the history of the islanders, most of whom are descended from the sailors who mutinied on the Bounty in 1789. The design of the shield is green and blue representing the island rising from the ocean, the helmet and crest are a flowering slip of miro and a Pitcairn Island wheelbarrow. The flag of the Pitcairn Islands is a Blue Ensign with the Union Flag in the canton, the Governor of the Pitcairn Islands maintains a separate flag. This flag of the Governor consists of the Union Flag defaced with the coat of arms, List of flags of the United Kingdom List of coats of arms of the United Kingdom and dependencies Media related to Flags of the Pitcairn Islands at Wikimedia CommonsFlag of the Pitcairn Islands – Flag of the Pitcairn Islands
38. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, together, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index. It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have devolved self-governmentUnited Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
39. Flag of Samoa – The flag of Samoa was first adopted from February 24,1949 for UN Trusteeships, and continuously applied for the states independence on January 1,1962. It consists of a red field with a rectangle in the canton. The blue rectangle bears the constellation Southern Cross, four white stars. It was designed by O Au O Faleicia, prior to the First World War, Samoa was a colony of the German Empire. German colonies used the flag of the Imperial Colonial Office, a black-white-red tricolour defaced with the Imperial Eagle, New Zealand occupied German Samoa in 1914 and officially gained control of the territory in 1919. From the capture by New Zealand forces on August 29,1914, the defaced Blue Ensign was used by vessels owned by the mandate government, or those operated in the government service, while the defaced Red Ensign was used by locally registered civilian ships. Samoa at Flags of the World World Statesmen – SamoaFlag of Samoa – Samoa
40. Flag of Tokelau – As Tokelau is a non-self-governing territory of New Zealand, the flag of New Zealand has been used as the official flag for Tokelau. However, in May 2008 the local parliament, the General Fono, approved a distinctive flag and this flag has not yet been widely used for official purposes, but an official launch of the new flag was planned for October 2009. The Governor-General presented the flag to the Ulu-o-Tokelau as Tokelaus first official flag on 7 September 2009, a referendum on self-determination in 2006 failed to carry, and another one in October 2007 fell 16 votes short. An alternative and unofficial flag has been reported, the three stars in this flag represent the three atolls which make up the islands of Tokelau. In June 2007 the regional parliament decided over the flag, anthem. The proposed flag depicted a stylized Polynesian canoe and four stars, the stars represent the three main islands and also Swains Island, administered by the United States but claimed by Tokelau. As the required supermajority was not reached in the 2007 self-determination referendum, in May 2008, the General Fono approved the final versions of the national symbols of Tokelau. A national emblem was approved at this time. The flag was approved by the Genral Fono in February 2009, governor General presented the new flag to the Ulu as Tokelaus first official flag on 7 September 2009. An official launch of the new flag was planned for October 2009, badge of Tokelau Tokelau at Flags of the World Tokelau Flag and National Symbol Government of Tokelau College of Arms December 2009 Newsletter newsletterFlag of Tokelau – Flag selected by the General Fono in 2007
41. Flag of Tonga – The flag of Tonga consists of a red field with a white canton charged with a red couped cross. Adopted in 1875 after being enshrined into the nations constitution. The constitution stipulates that the flag can never be changed. The British first arrived in Tonga in the century, when Captain James Cook made three visits to the islands between 1773 and 1777. Approximately fifty years later, English Wesleyan Methodist missionaries came to Tonga, in 1831, they succeeded in converting paramount chief Taufaahau Tupou, who became King George Tupou I in 1845. It was during this time that the first Tongan flag was adopted and it consisted of a white field with a cross at all four corners, and the letters A and M at the centre that symbolise the king. Upon his accession to the throne, the sought to design a new flag for the nation. A new constitution for the kingdom was formulated and proclaimed on 4 November 1875 and it codified the new flag design, and marks when it was adopted as the national flag. Under Article 47 of the Constitution, this flag can never be altered, the colours and symbols of the flag carry cultural, political, and regional meanings. The red couped cross alludes to Christianity, the religion practised by approximately 97% of the countrys population, the white epitomises purity, while the red evokes the sacrifice of the Blood of Christ, which he shed during his Crucifixion. The previous design of the featured a plain white field charged with the red couped cross. However, it was discovered that this flag was almost identical to the emblem of the International Red Cross. As a result of finding, the Tongan flag was set at the canton of a red field instead. The previous design, nonetheless, remains a symbol of Tonga. The current flag of Tonga also has similarities with the flags of Switzerland. Tonga at Flags of the World Tonga Flag at World Flags 101Flag of Tonga – Tonga
42. Flag of Tuvalu – The current flag of Tuvalu was instated when the country became independent in 1978, after the separation from the Gilbert Islands in 1976. The previous flag was based on the Union Flag but with the coat of arms created by Sir Arthur Grimble in 1932. The stars represent the nine islands which comprise Tuvalu, the arrangement is geographically correct, the first inhabitants of Tuvalu were Polynesian people. The islands came within the British Empires sphere of influence in the late 19th century, the Ellice Islands were administered by Britain as part of a protectorate from 1892 to 1916 and as part of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony from 1916 to 1974. In 1974 the Ellice Islanders voted for separate British dependency status as Tuvalu, Tuvalu became a fully independent Commonwealth realm in 1978. The name Tuvalu means eight together, referring to the eight islands which were inhabited, in October 1995 one of the stars on the flag was removed to conform with the countrys name. By January 1996 the flag was replaced with a new one which was not based on the British flag and this flag, however, was not liked by the inhabitants, who felt that it was a move towards replacing the popular Tuvaluan monarchy with a republic. The old flag was re-instated in 1997, with all nine stars being restored, population pressures have since resulted in the ninth island being settled. Kamuta Latasi#Flag issue Bikenibeu Paeniu#Second term as Prime Minister and flag issue Tuvalu at Flags of the World Tuvalu National Flag Act 1995 paclii. org Tuvalu National Flag Act 1997 paclii. orgFlag of Tuvalu – Tuvalu