A post office is a public department that provides a customer service to the public and handles their mail needs. Post offices offer mail-related services such as acceptance of parcels. In addition, many post offices offer additional services: providing and accepting government forms, processing government services and fees, banking services; the chief administrator of a post office is called a postmaster. Prior to the advent of postal and ZIP codes, postal systems would route items to a specific post office for receipt or delivery. During the nineteenth-century, in the United States, this led to smaller communities being renamed after their post offices; the term "Post-Office" has been in use since the 1650's, shortly after the legalization of private mail services in England in 1635. In early Modern England, post riders – mounted couriers – were placed every few hours along post roads at posting houses known as post houses, between major cities; these stables or inns permitted important correspondence to travel without delay.
In early America, post offices were known as "stations". This term and "post house" fell from use as horse and coach service was replaced by railways and automobiles. Today, the term "Post Office" refers to postal facilities providing customer service; the term "General Post Office" is sometimes used for the national headquarters of a postal service if it does not provide customer service within the building. A postal facility, used for processing mail is instead known as sorting office or delivery office, which may have a large central area known as a "sorting" or "postal hall". Integrated facilities combining mail processing with railway stations or airports are known as mail exchanges. There is evidence of corps of royal couriers disseminating the decrees of the Egyptian pharaohs as early as 2,400 BC and the service may precede that date. Organized systems of post houses providing swift mounted courier service seems quite ancient, although sources vary as to who initiated the practice. By the time of the Persian Empire, a system of Chapar-Khaneh existed along the Royal Road.
The 2nd-Century BC Mauryan and Han dynasties established similar systems in China. Suetonius credited Augustus with regularizing the Cursus Publicus. Local officials were obliged to provide couriers who would be responsible for their message's entire course. Locally maintained post houses owned rest houses were obliged or honored to care for them along their way. Diocletian established two parallel systems: one providing fresh horses or mules for urgent correspondence and another providing sturdy oxen for bulk shipments. Procopius, though not unbiased, records that this system remained intact until it was dismantled in the surviving empire by Justinian in the 6th Century; the Princely House of Thurn and Taxis family initiated regular mail service from Brussels in the 16th century, directing the Imperial Post of the Holy Roman Empire. The British Postal Museum claims that the oldest functioning post office in the world is on High Street in Sanquhar, Scotland; this post office has functioned continuously since 1712, an era in which horses and stage coaches were used to carry mail.
In parts of Europe, special postal censorship offices censor mail. In France, such offices were known as cabinets noirs. In many jurisdictions, mail boxes and post office boxes have long been in widespread use for drop-off and pickup of mail and small packages outside post offices or when offices are closed. Deutsche Post introduced the Pack-Station for package delivery in 2001. In the 2000s, the United States Postal Service began to install Automated Postal Centers in many locations both in post offices and in retail locations. APCs can accept mail and small packages. General Post Office Dublin, headquarters of the Irish post and headquarters of the 1916 Easter Uprising First Toronto Post Office General Post Office, erected on the site of the Black Hole of Calcutta General Post Office in Chennai, India General Post Office in Lahore, Pakistan General Post Office, the headquarters of the Sri Lankan Post General Post Office, headquarters of the Croatian post Istanbul Main Post Office, home of the Istanbul Postal Museum James Farley Post Office, America's largest operating post office, the main office for New York City.
It bears the famous translation of Herodotus's description of the Persian postal system along its front facade: "Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds". General Post Office, the main post office of Mumbai and one of the world's largest Polish Post Office, the scene of intense fighting during the 1939 German invasion of Danzig General Post Office Building, former headquarters of the Chunghwa Post and present home of the Shanghai Postal Museum Manila Central Post Office Taipei Post Office, the headquarters of Taiwan Post General Post Office, the headquarters of Hongkong Post Bandinelli Palace, a former post office in Lviv in the Ukraine General Post Office, the city's first "all-marbl
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon
Darlington, South Australia
Darlington is a suburb of Adelaide, South Australia part of, in the City of Onkaparinga and the City of Marion. For many years, Darlington was the southern entrance to Adelaide's urban area on Main South Road, it hosted many service stations of different brands. It represents the convergence of Flagstaff Road to Main South Road from the south, with Seacombe Road to the west, Diagonal Road to the northwest and Marion Road to the north with South Road continuing northeast. In about 1851 the village of Darlington was created and named by Samuel William Lewis, the licensed victualler of the Flagstaff Inn, after the market town in County Durham in North East England named Darlington. Lewis was the licensed victualler of the Flagstaff Inn during these years 1848-1853 - 1858 - 1860-1864. Lewis was a stone mason by trade and he was contracted to erect the first two public memorials in the colony; the first was a memorial to Colonel William Light erected in 1843 over the site of his grave in Light Square.
The second was the monument to Matthew Flinders at Stamford Hill near Port Lincoln in 1844. List of Adelaide suburbs
Electoral district of Davenport
Davenport is a single-member electoral district for the South Australian House of Assembly. It is named after politician Sir Samuel Davenport. Davenport is a 57.7 km² electorate covering part of outer suburban Adelaide and the southern foothills of the Adelaide Hills. It takes in the suburbs of Aberfoyle Park, Bedford Park, Bellevue Heights, Chandlers Hill, Cherry Gardens, Flagstaff Hill. Davenport consists of a series of suburbs which have been safe for conservative parties since its creation at the 1969 redistribution, it was won by Joyce Steele for the Liberal and Country League. She was succeeded after one term by Dean Brown. Brown, a prominent moderate in the party, represented Davenport for 12 years before being challenged for preselection at the 1985 election by Stan Evans, a member of the conservative wing of the renamed Liberal Party. Evans' former seat of Fisher a comfortably safe Liberal seat, had been made more marginal by the 1983 redistribution. A large slice of Evans' former territory was shifted to Davenport, prompting Evans to challenge Brown.
Brown fended off Evans' challenge and retained his preselection, but Evans contested the election as an independent Liberal and defeated Brown, preventing Brown's then-likely ascension to the Liberal leadership after the election. Evans rejoined the parliamentary Liberal Party not long after the 1985 election, was re-elected at the 1989 election, he retired at the 1993 election, endorsing his son, for preselection. Iain Evans was a member of the Olsen and Kerin ministries, he was opposition leader for one year following the Liberal loss at the 2006 election. At the 2014 election, Evans suffered a 2.8 percent two-party swing against him, a reduced margin of 8.1 percent, with two-party swings against him of up to 8 percent in some booths, including the Liberal-voting booth of Belair which Labor won by three votes. On 6 June 2014 he announced he would stand down from the shadow ministry and parliament within a year and prior to the next election. There was speculation that Evans was asked to delay his resignation and the by-election for a year due to federal Liberal government budget cuts and that there could be a "super Saturday" of by-elections in up to five Liberal-held seats.
Evans resigned from parliament on 30 October 2014. A 2015 Davenport by-election was held on 31 January 2015. Liberal Sam Duluk won the seat despite a five percent two-party swing, turning the safe seat of Davenport in to a two-party marginal seat for the first time. After a redistribution transferred a large block of Davenport constituents to nearby Waite, Duluk opted to transfer to Waite. Steve Murray retained Davenport for the Liberals. Davenport state by-election, 2015 ECSA profile for Davenport: 2018 ABC profile for Davenport: 2018 Poll Bludger profile for Davenport: 2018
A liquor store is a retail shop that predominantly sells prepackaged alcoholic beverages — in bottles — intended to be consumed off the store's premises. Depending on region and local idiom, they may be called bottle store, off licence, bottle shop, bottle-o, package store party store, ABC store, state store, or other similar terms. Many states and jurisdictions have an alcohol monopoly. In South Africa and Zimbabwe, these stores are called bottle stores. In the United Kingdom and Ireland the corresponding term is off licence, which refers to the fact that alcohol may be bought on the licensed premises, but must be consumed off the premises. All supermarkets and groceries, many petrol stations, have an off-licence; the price of alcohol in off licence establishments is lower than in on-licence establishments. Australia – Regulation of alcoholic beverage sales is a state responsibility. Beer and spirits must be purchased at a bottle shop, colloquially known as a bottle-o; these may be a separate section of a supermarket or an individual shop – major retail corporations have their own bottle shop franchises located close to their supermarket operations.
Drinking establishments may sell liquor for off-site consumption. Drive-through alcoholic retail outlets are common; the state of Victoria and the Australian Capital Territory permit the sale of alcoholic beverages from supermarkets and convenience shops. New Zealand – Supermarkets may sell beer and wine with no more than 15% ABV only. Spirits, including ready to drink mixed spirits, must be purchased at bottle shops. Note: All Nordic countries, except Denmark, have government-owned alcohol monopolies. Denmark – Alcoholic beverages can be bought at any grocery store or kiosk. There are several dedicated stores specialised in certain types of alcohol, typical wine or beer from special breweries or worldwide brands; some of these specialize in tobacco. Some have permission to serve alcohol because of the option of free samples "try before you buy" and special events; some have a concept of a Liquor store in the daytime, a bar and restaurant opening in the evening. Faroe Islands – Alcoholic beverages above 1.8% ABV can be bought in Rúsdrekkasøla Landsins known as Rúsan Finland – As of 2018, grocery stores may sell beer and other alcoholic beverages, including alcopops made with distilled alcohol, no higher than 5.5% alcohol by volume.
All other alcohol must be purchased in the Alko store. Iceland – Can only be bought at hard-liquor stores. Vínbúð stores. Norway – Alcoholic beverages above 4.8% ABV can only be bought at Vinmonopolet stores. Sweden – Grocery stores may sell beer no higher than 3.5% ABV. All other alcohol must be purchased in the state-run Systembolaget stores known as Bolaget or Systemet. In Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, France, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Spain all supermarkets, convenience stores, gas stations may sell beer and liquors only if they possess a licence; the consumption of alcohol on premises is frowned upon. In the Netherlands supermarkets are allowed to sell alcoholic beverages up to 15% ABV, hard liquor is only sold from specialized bottle shops; the Twenty-first Amendment of the United States Constitution allows states to regulate the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages. State regulations vary widely; the majority of the U. S. states have laws specifying which alcoholic beverages must be sold in specialty liquor stores and which may be sold in other venues.
In seventeen alcoholic beverage control states, the specialty liquor stores are owned and operated by the state government, where liquor stores sell only spirits or sometimes sell spirits and wine but not beer. ABC-run stores may be called state stores. In Alabama, Georgia, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Texas, liquor stores are known as package stores, locally in Connecticut and areas bordering these states the term pack or packie is used as well, because purchased liquor must be packaged in sealed bottles or other containers when it is taken from the store. In five states, only low-point beer may be sold in supermarkets or gas stations. In Utah, stores not owned and operated by the state are known as Package Agencies; these are liquor outlets operated by private individuals or corporate entities under contract with the state for the purpose of selling packaged liquor and beer to the general public for off-premise consumption. Package Agencies are located in communities too small to warrant the establishment of a state store, in resorts and hotels where the outlets exist for the benefit of their guests.
In Minnesota there are city-owned municipal liquor stores. They are sometimes known as "Off Sales", meaning purchase for off-premises consumption, similar to "Off-license" in the UK. A bar or tavern is an "On Sale". Municipal liquor stores are sometimes called "Munis."In some states, all alcoholic beverages can be sold anywhere, including drug stores and gas stations. In Washington state, all beer and wine are available in specialty stores, grocery stores, convenience stores, department stores, tav
O'Halloran Hill, South Australia
O'Halloran Hill is a suburb in the south of Adelaide, South Australia, situated on the hills south of the O'Halloran Hill Escarpment, which rises from the Adelaide Plains and located 18 km from the city centre via the Main South Road. The suburb is split between the Cities of Marion and Onkaparinga, it neighbours Happy Valley, Hallett Cove, Trott Park and Darlington. Located on the foothills of the Mount Lofty Ranges bordering the Adelaide plains, the suburb was named after Major Thomas O'Halloran, the first Police Commissioner of South Australia. O'Halloran was the second son of Major-General Sir Joseph O'Halloran. Majors Road, which runs through the suburb was named in his honour. In pre-European times this area, along with most of the Adelaide plains, was inhabited by the Kaurna tribe. During the suburbs early years there was conflict with the local Kaurna due to their tradition of burning off scrub in the foothills to encourage game, as the fires tended to cause considerable damage to local farmland.
In an official report, Major Thomas O'Halloran claimed the Kaurna used this as a weapon against the colonists by lighting fires to deliberately destroy fences, survey pegs and to scatter livestock. Due to this regular burning, the foothills' original Stringybark forests had been replaced with grassland by the time the first Europeans arrived. Since the late 1960s, restrictions on subdivision and development have allowed regeneration of native trees and bush to a "natural" condition that would never have existed. North of Majors Road and extending into the adjacent suburbs of Trott Park and Seaview Downs is the 293 hectares O'Halloran Hill Recreation Park which contains walking trails through remnant bush and farm ruins. East of Main South Road is a large area of owned land used for horse agistment. West of South Road is 200 hectares of farm land and commercial vineyards now owned by the University of Adelaide. O'Halloran Hill housing is a wedge shaped division which, apart from its southern boundary with Reynella East is isolated from other suburban housing by the Glenthorne Estate and the Happy Valley Reservoir that has resulted in a low crime rate in comparison to surrounding suburbs.
The Glenthorne Estate was a farm and horse stud owned by Major Thomas O'Halloran, who lived on a property nearby named Lizard Lodge. Thomas O'Halloran was buried in a cemetery situated on the western side of South Road, his tomb can still be found there. At the beginning of World War I the property was purchased by the Australian Army to be used as a horse stud and army remount depot. In 1947 the Federal government took over the property and established the Glenthorne CSIRO Research Station, closed in 1998 with the property subsequently sold to the State government. In 2001 the State government handed the property to the University of Adelaide for use as a vineyard and wine research facility in partnership with BRL Hardy, the world's largest wine company. O'Halloran Hill was the former site of the Greater Union Drive-in known as the'Star-line', the only drive-in theatre to overlook the lights of Adelaide, closing on the 4th of April 1984. Next to the drive-in was the Kingston TAFE College, which closed in 2014 and the site is now occupied by the IQRA Islamic College.
From 1986 to 1998 the TAFE College was home to community radio station Coast FM. List of Adelaide suburbs
Electoral district of Fisher
Fisher was an electoral district of the House of Assembly in the Australian state of South Australia. It was created in 1970 and named after Sir James Fisher, a colonial politician and the first mayor of Adelaide, it was abolished in a 2016 redistribution and its last MP, Nat Cook was elected to represent its replacement, Hurtle Vale, at the 2018 state election. It covers a 94.2 km2 suburban and semi rural area on the southern fringes of Adelaide, taking in the suburbs of Aberfoyle Park, Chandlers Hill, Cherry Gardens, Coromandel East, Happy Valley, Reynella East and parts of Clarendon, O'Halloran Hill and Woodcroft. Before the 1983 electoral redistribution, Fisher took in the Blackwood area and was a safe Liberal seat, held by Stan Evans; the redistribution turned it into a marginal "mortgage belt" seat on a notional Liberal 2.1 percent two-party margin. With the bulk of his base shifted to the neighbouring seat of Davenport, Evans chose to challenge Dean Brown for Liberal preselection in Davenport.
Evans chose to stand as an independent and was elected. With no sitting member at the 1985 election, Fisher was won by Philip Tyler and became Labor's second-most marginal seat; the seat returned to the Liberal Party in 1989 when Bob Such won the seat, which he held for the following 25 years. Such increased his margin at the 1993 election landslide. Changes in demographics during the 1990s made Fisher a marginal to safe Liberal seat, but the Liberals lost control of the seat when Such resigned from the party to sit as an independent MP from October 2000; such retained his seat with an increased margin at the 2002 election and served as Speaker of the South Australian House of Assembly from 2005 to 2006 in the Mike Rann Labor government. He subsequently retained his seat with another margin increase to 16.7 percent at the 2006 election, despite early reports that the seat may fall to either the Labor or Liberal parties. The outcome of the 2006 election saw Such face former President of Australian Young Labor Amanda Rishworth on the two-candidate vote as opposed to a Liberal candidate in 2002, Labor finished ahead of the Liberals on a 59.4 percent two-party vote from a 15.1 percent two-party swing, marking the first time since the 1985 election that Labor won the two-party vote in Fisher.
Rishworth went on to win the federal seat of Kingston at the 2007 election, which takes in suburbs to the south west of Fisher. At the 2010 election, Such was re-elected with a unchanged margin of 17.4%, which fell to 9.4% at the 2014 election. Such was died on 11 October. A 2014 Fisher by-election occurred on 6 December. Labor's Nat Cook won the by-election by nine votes from a 7.3 percent two-party swing, giving Labor a majority by one seat. On a margin of 0.02% margin, Fisher became the most marginal seat in parliament. Fisher was abolished as an electoral district as part of the mandatory redistribution following the 2014 state election; the South Australian Electoral Districts Boundaries Commission has designated the new seat of Hurtle Vale as its successor, with the new boundaries coming into effect from the 2018 state election. The name was chosen to retain the connection with Sir James Fisher. Only the areas bounded by Reynella East and Happy Valley, were moved into the new seat, which takes in much more of the old district of Reynell.
Suburbs including Cherry Gardens, Chandlers Hill, Aberfoyle Park, parts of Happy Valley were moved into the re-drawn Davenport. The majority of Davenport electors from the 2014 boundaries were moved into Waite, which gained the parts of Fisher east of Coromandel Valley; the southern parts of Fisher centred around Clarendon were moved to into Heysen. The sitting member chose to contest the 2018 election as a candidate in Hurtle Vale