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Flanders

Flanders is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium and one of the communities and language areas of Belgium. However, there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language and history, sometimes involving neighbouring countries; the demonym associated with Flanders is Fleming. The official capital of Flanders is the City of Brussels, although the Brussels Capital Region has an independent regional government, the government of Flanders only oversees the community aspects of Flanders life in Brussels such as culture and education. Flanders, despite not being the biggest part of Belgium by area, is the area with the largest population if Brussels is included. 7,797,611 out of 11,431,406 Belgian inhabitants live in the bilingual city of Brussels. Not including Brussels, there are five modern Flemish provinces. In medieval contexts, the original "County of Flanders" stretched around AD 900 from the Strait of Dover to the Scheldt estuary and expanded from there.

This county still corresponds with the modern-day Belgian provinces of West Flanders and East Flanders, along with neighbouring parts of France and the Netherlands. Although this original meaning is still relevant, in modern times the term "Flanders" came to refer to a larger area, is used to refer to the entire Dutch-speaking part of Belgium, stretching all the way to the River Meuse, as well as cultural movements such as Flemish art. In accordance with late 20th century Belgian state reforms the Belgian part of this area was made into two political entities: the "Flemish Community" and the "Flemish Region"; these entities were merged, although geographically the Flemish Community, which has a broader cultural mandate, covers Brussels, whereas the Flemish Region does not. Flanders, by every definition, has figured prominently in European history since the Middle Ages. In this period, cities such as Ghent and Antwerp made it one of the richest and most urbanized parts of Europe and weaving the wool of neighbouring lands into cloth for both domestic use and export.

As a consequence, a sophisticated culture developed, with impressive achievements in the arts and architecture, rivaling those of northern Italy. Belgium was one of the centres of the 19th-century industrial revolution but Flanders was at first overtaken by French-speaking Wallonia. In the second half of the 20th century, due to massive national investments in port infrastructure, Flanders' economy modernised and today Flanders and Brussels are much wealthier than Wallonia and are among the wealthiest regions in Europe and the world. Geographically, Flanders is flat, has a small section of coast on the North Sea. Much of Flanders is agriculturally fertile and densely populated, with a density of 483/km2, it touches the French department of Nord to the southwest near the coast, borders the Dutch provinces of Zeeland, North Brabant and Limburg to the north and east, the Walloon provinces of Hainaut, Walloon Brabant and Liège to the south. The Brussels Capital Region is an bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region.

Flanders has exclaves of its own: Voeren in the east is between Wallonia and the Netherlands and Baarle-Hertog in the north consists of 22 exclaves surrounded by the Netherlands. The term "Flanders" has several main modern meanings: The "Flemish community" or "Flemish nation", i.e. the social and linguistic, scientific and educational and political community of the Flemings. It comprises 6.5 million Belgians. The political subdivisions of Belgium: the Flemish Region and the Flemish Community; the first does not comprise Brussels, whereas the latter does comprise the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of Brussels. The political institutions that govern both subdivisions: the operative body "Flemish Government" and the legislative organ "Flemish Parliament"; the two westernmost provinces of the Flemish Region, West Flanders and East Flanders, forming the central portion of the historic County of Flanders. An ancien régime territory that existed from the 8th century until its absorption by the French First Republic.

Until the 1600s, this county extended over parts of what are now France and the Netherlands. One of the Flemish regions which are now part of France, in the Nord department; this is referred to as French Flanders, can be divided into two smaller regions: Walloon Flanders and Maritime Flanders. The first region was predominantly French-speaking in the 1600s, the latter became so in the 20th century; the city of Lille identifies itself as "Flemish", this is reflected, for instance, in the name of its local railway station TGV Lille Flandres. The Flemish region which became part of the Dutch Republic, now part of the Dutch province of Zeeland; the significance of the County of Flanders and its counts eroded through time, but the designation survived with a broader cultural meaning which could be applied to neighbouring areas. In the Early modern period, the term Flanders was associated with the southern part of the Low Countries: the Southern Netherlands. During the 19th and 20th centuries, it became common to refer to the whole Dutch-speaking part of Belgium as "Flanders".

The linguistic limit between French and Dutch was recorded in the early'60s, fr

Kaatsu

Kaatsu is a patented exercise method developed by Dr. Yoshiaki Sato, based on blood flow moderation exercise involving compression of the vasculature proximal to the exercising muscles by the Kaatsu Master device. In 1966 at the age of 18 while Yoshiaki Sato was attending a Buddhist ceremony in his native Japan, his legs went numb while sitting in the traditional Japanese posture on the floor, he could stand the pain any longer with his legs bent underneath him. Out of desperation, he began to massage his calves in an attempt to relieve the discomfort during the long ceremony, he realized that his blood circulation was blocked in his calves as he was sitting directly on his feet. This was. Over the next 7 years, he experimented on himself by applying different bicycle tubes and bands at different pressures on various parts of his body, he methodically kept track of what experiments did not. With years of detailed trial and error, Sato developed effective protocols to safely modify blood flow in his limbs.

By 1973 at the age of 25, Sato developed the details of Kaatsu as it is practiced. At that time, on a ski trip, he damaged the ligaments around his knee; the injuries were diagnosed and the doctors told Sato that it would take 6 months to heal. With a plaster cast on, Sato rehabilitated himself with Kaatsu Bands applied to his upper leg, he applied Kaatsu pressure on and off while doing isometric exercises for 30 seconds on and a few seconds off three times per day. The results of his regimen shocked his doctor when his muscles did not atrophy and he recovered within 6 weeks. Between 1973 and 1982, Sato conducted Kaatsu Training and developed protocols that worked best for people of all ages and with various kinds of afflictions. In 1994, Sato applied for his first patents in Japan, U. S. A. and Europe as he produced the first Kaatsu Training bands. In 1997, Sato introduced the Kaatsu Instructor educational program where his defined protocols were shared with coaches, physical therapists and physicians throughout Japan.

Over 3,000 Kaatsu Instructors were certified. Kaatsu Training was named one of the collaborative projects of the University of Tokyo Hospital’s 22nd Century Medical and Research Center. Sato began to offer an ischemic circulatory physiology course at the University of Tokyo Hospital and conducted joint development work with the Japan Manned Space Systems Corporation. In the 1990s, Sato began joint research with Professor Naokata Ishii of the Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, at The University of Tokyo. Other researchers in Japan started to explore the benefits of Kaatsu and various research results were submitted to peer-review publications. In 2009, Dr. Sato signed a joint development agreement at China’s Jilin University and the National Research Institute of Sports Science of China. In 2014, Dr Sato established the Kaatsu Research Foundation; the second generation of KAATSU equipment was launched in 2004 with the introduction of the KAATSU Master and the KAATSU Air Bands.

The KAATSU Master device quantified and monitored the precise pressure applied to users’ legs and arms. In 2006, Sato completed the design of a smaller, programmable KAATSU device called the KAATSU Master Mini. Sato developed other applications for KAATSU users like KAATSU for speed and stamina as well as KAATSU Beauty and stress relief, he designed the KAATSU Chair. KAATSU Cycle 2.0 KAATSU Master KAATSU Nano KAATSU Aqua Bands KAATSU Air Bands KAATSU Specialist certification program KAATSU Shaft Band Abe, Takashi. "Muscle size and strength are increased following walk training with restricted venous blood flow from the leg muscle, KAATSU-walk training". Journal of Applied Physiology. Retrieved 2008-01-31. Cook, Summer B.. "Effects of Exercise Load and Blood-Flow Restriction on Skeletal Muscle Function". Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 39: 1708–1713. Doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e31812383d6. PMID 17909396. Retrieved 2008-01-31. KAATSU International University KAATSU Global Japan Kaatsu Training Society Déjà Vu, Training Of Misty Hyman Redux KAATSU UK KAATSU Japan KAATSU equipment KAATSU Germany, Switzerland German speaking KAATSU Blog

San Severino (Centola)

San Severino is an Italian village and hamlet of the municipality of Centola in the Province of Salerno, Campania. As of 2011 its population was of 435. Known until 1861 as San Severino di Camerota, the village was founded in the 10th-11th century; the original settlement, located upon a hill, was abandoned during the end of the 19th century after the construction of a railway line. New houses were built just below the hill but closer to the railway. Nowadays the ancient village is a ghost town and a preserved heritage, because of the conservation status of its medieval structure. Located in the valley of Mingardo river, close to the mount Bulgheria, San Severino develops along the provincial road SP 109, in southern Cilento, it is 4 km far from Foria and Poderia, 6 from Celle di Bulgheria, 8 from Centola, 10 from Palinuro, 15 from Camerota and 16 from Marina di Camerota. The modern village is linked to the medieval one by a pedestrian trail. In San Severino is located the railway station of Centola, part of Salerno-Reggio Calabria line, that links the village to direct trains to Naples and Cosenza.

The village is served by a highway, at the exit of "Poderia-Palinuro", 2,5 km far. Cilentan dialect Cilentan Coast Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park Media related to San Severino at Wikimedia Commons