Minister-President of Flanders
The Minister-President of Flanders is the head of the Flemish Government, the executive branch of the Flemish Region and Flemish Community. The incumbent Minister-President is Geert Bourgeois, head of the Bourgeois Government since July 2014. Following the election of the Flemish Parliament, a Flemish Government is formed with a maximum of eleven ministers; the largest party in the government coalition may choose the minister-president. Following the oath of office of all ministers before the Flemish Parliament, the minister-president alone takes the oath of office before the King as well. Regional elections are held every 5 years; the Flemish Parliament was elected directly for the first time in 1995. Prior to 1995, the members of the Flemish Parliament were the members of the Dutch language group of the Federal Parliament of Belgium. Minister-Presidents go on to join the Federal Government: e.g. Patrick Dewael and Kris Peeters became federal Minister, Yves Leterme Prime Minister. Prime Minister of Belgium Minister-President of the Brussels Capital-Region Minister-President of the French Community Minister-President of the German-speaking Community Minister-President of the Walloon Region Politics of Flanders Flemish Parliament Flemish Government
An economy is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, consumption of goods and services by different agents. Understood in its broadest sense,'The economy is defined as a social domain that emphasize the practices and material expressions associated with the production and management of resources'. Economic agents can be individuals, organizations, or governments. Economic transactions occur when two parties agree to the value or price of the transacted good or service expressed in a certain currency. However, monetary transactions only account for a small part of the economic domain. Economic activity is spurred by production which uses natural resources and capital, it has changed over time due to technology, innovation such as, that which produces intellectual property and changes in industrial relations. A given economy is the result of a set of processes that involves its culture, education, technological evolution, social organization, political structure and legal systems, as well as its geography, natural resource endowment, ecology, as main factors.
These factors give context and set the conditions and parameters in which an economy functions. In other words, the economic domain is a social domain of human transactions, it does not stand alone. A market-based economy is one where goods and services are produced and exchanged according to demand and supply between participants by barter or a medium of exchange with a credit or debit value accepted within the network, such as a unit of currency. A command-based economy is one where political agents directly control what is produced and how it is sold and distributed. A green economy is low-carbon, resource efficient, inclusive. In a green economy, growth in income and employment is driven by public and private investments that reduce carbon emissions and pollution, enhance energy and resource efficiency, prevent the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. A gig economy is one in which short-term jobs are assigned via online platforms and a programmable economy is the set of revolutionary changes taking place in the global economy due to technology innovations.
✓. Today the range of fields of study examining the economy revolves around the social science of economics, but may include sociology, history and geography. Practical fields directly related to the human activities involving production, distribution and consumption of goods and services as a whole are engineering, business administration, applied science, finance. All professions, economic agents or economic activities, contribute to the economy. Consumption and investment are variable components in the economy that determine macroeconomic equilibrium. There are three main sectors of economic activity: primary and tertiary. Due to the growing importance of the economical sector in modern times, the term real economy is used by analysts as well as politicians to denote the part of the economy, concerned with the actual production of goods and services, as ostensibly contrasted with the paper economy, or the financial side of the economy, concerned with buying and selling on the financial markets.
Alternate and long-standing terminology distinguishes measures of an economy expressed in real values, such as real GDP, or in nominal values. The English words "economy" and "economics" can be traced back to the Greek word οἰκονόμος, a composite word derived from οἶκος and νέμω by way of οἰκονομία; the first recorded sense of the word "economy" is in the phrase "the management of œconomic affairs", found in a work composed in a monastery in 1440. "Economy" is recorded in more general senses, including "thrift" and "administration". The most used current sense, denoting "the economic system of a country or an area", seems not to have developed until the 1650s; as long as someone has been making and distributing goods or services, there has been some sort of economy. Sumer developed a large-scale economy based on commodity money, while the Babylonians and their neighboring city states developed the earliest system of economics as we think of, in terms of rules/laws on debt, legal contracts and law codes relating to business practices, private property.
The Babylonians and their city state neighbors developed forms of economics comparable to used civil society concepts. They developed the first known codified legal and administrative systems, complete with courts and government records; the ancient economy was based on subsistence farming. The Shekel referred to an ancient unit of currency; the first usage of the term came from Mesopotamia circa 3000 BC. and referred to a specific mass of barley which related other values in a metric such as silver, copper etc. A barley/shekel was both a unit of currency and a unit of weight, just as the British Pound was a uni
Dutch is a West Germanic language spoken by around 23 million people as a first language and 5 million people as a second language, constituting the majority of people in the Netherlands and Belgium. It is the third most spoken Germanic language, after its close relatives English and German. Outside the Low Countries, it is the native language of the majority of the population of Suriname where it holds an official status, as it does in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten, which are constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands located in the Caribbean. Historical linguistic minorities on the verge of extinction remain in parts of France and Germany, in Indonesia, while up to half a million native speakers may reside in the United States and Australia combined; the Cape Dutch dialects of Southern Africa have evolved into Afrikaans, a mutually intelligible daughter language, spoken to some degree by at least 16 million people in South Africa and Namibia. Dutch is one of the closest relatives of both German and English and is colloquially said to be "roughly in between" them.
Dutch, like English, has not undergone the High German consonant shift, does not use Germanic umlaut as a grammatical marker, has abandoned the use of the subjunctive, has levelled much of its morphology, including most of its case system. Features shared with German include the survival of two to three grammatical genders—albeit with few grammatical consequences—as well as the use of modal particles, final-obstruent devoicing, a similar word order. Dutch vocabulary is Germanic and incorporates more Romance loans than German but far fewer than English; as with German, the vocabulary of Dutch has strong similarities with the continental Scandinavian languages, but is not mutually intelligible in text or speech with any of them. In both Belgium and the Netherlands, the native official name for Dutch is Nederlands. Sometimes Vlaams is used as well to describe Standard Dutch in Flanders. Over time, the Dutch language has been known under a variety of names. In Middle Dutch Dietsc, Duutsc, or Duitsc was used.
It derived from the Old Germanic word theudisk, which means "popular" or "belonging to the populace". In Western Europe this term was used for the language of the local Germanic populace as opposed to Latin, the non-native language of writing and the Catholic Church. In the first text in which it is found, dating from 784, theodisce refers to Anglo-Saxon, the West Germanic dialects of Britain. Although in Britain the name Englisc replaced theodisce early on, speakers of West Germanic in other parts of Europe continued to use theodisce to refer to their local speech. With the rise of local powers in the Low Countries during the Middle Ages, language names derived from these local polities came in use as well i.e. Vlaemsch and Brabantsch; the more powerful the local polity, the wider the use of its name for the language became. These names still survive in the corresponding dialect groups spoken today. Owing to commercial and colonial rivalry in the 16th and 17th centuries between England and the Low Countries, a cognate of theodisk was borrowed into English and developed into the exonym Dutch, which came to refer to the people of the Netherlands.
In the Low Countries on the contrary, Dietsch or Duytsch as endonym for Dutch went out of common use and was replaced by the Dutch endonym Nederlands. This designation started at the Burgundian court in the 15th century, although the use of neder, laag and inferior to refer to the area known as the Low Counties goes back further in time; the Romans referred to the region as Germania Inferior. It is a reference to the Low Countries' downriver location at the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta near the North Sea. From 1551 the designation Nederlands received strong competition from the name Nederduits, it is a calque of the before mentioned Roman province Germania Inferior and an attempt by early Dutch grammarians to give their language more prestige by linking it to Roman times. Hoogduits came into use as a Dutch exonym for the German language, spoken in neighboring German states. However, 19th century Germany saw the rise of the categorisation of dialects, German dialectologists termed the German dialects spoken in the mountainous south of Germany as Hochdeutsch.
Subsequently, German dialects spoken in the north were designated as Niederdeutsch. The names for these dialects were calqued in the Dutch language area as the exonyms Nederduits and Hoogduits; as a result, Nederduits no longer served as a synonym for the Dutch language, Nederlands prevailed as sole Dutch endonym. It meant that Hoog had to be dropped in one of the two meanings of Hoogduits, leading to the narrowing down of Duits as Dutch exonym for the German language, Hoogduits as reference for southern German dialects. Old Dutch branched off more or less around the same time as Old English, Old High German, Old Frisian and Old Saxon did; the early form of Dutch was a set of Franconian dialects spoken by the Salian Franks in the fifth century, thus, it has developed through Middle Dutch to Modern Dutch over the course of 15 centuries. During that period, it forced Old Frisian back from the western c
Living organisms including humans are social when they live collectively in interacting populations, whether they are aware of it, whether the interaction is voluntary or involuntary. The word "Social" derives from the Latin word socii, it is derived from the Italian Socii states, historical allies of the Roman Republic. In the absence of agreement about its meaning, the term "social" is used in many different senses and regarded as a concept, referring among other things to: Attitudes, orientations, or behaviors which take the interests, intentions, or needs of other people into account has played some role in defining the idea or the principle. For instance terms like social realism, social justice, social constructivism, social psychology, social anarchism and social capital imply that there is some social process involved or considered, a process, not there in regular, "non-social" realism, constructivism, anarchism, or capital; the adjective "social" is used in politics, although its meaning in a context depends on, using it.
In left-wing circles it is used to imply a liberal characteristic, while in right-wing circles it is used to imply a conservative characteristic. This adjective is used much more by those on the political left than by those on the political right. For these reasons, those seeking to avoid association with the left-right political debates seek to label their work with phrases that do not include the word "social". An example is quasi-empiricism in mathematics, sometimes labelled social constructivism by those who see it as an unwarranted intrusion of social considerations in mathematical practice. In the view of Karl Marx, human beings are intrinsically and by definition social beings who, beyond being "gregarious creatures", cannot survive and meet their needs other than through social co-operation and association, their social characteristics are therefore to a large extent an objectively given fact, stamped on them from birth and affirmed by socialization processes. By contrast, the sociologist Max Weber for example defines human action as "social" if, by virtue of the subjective meanings attached to the action by individuals, it "takes account of the behavior of others, is thereby oriented in its course".
The term "socialism", used from the 1830s onwards in France and the United Kingdom, was directly related to what was called the social question. In essence, early socialists contended that the emergence of competitive market societies did not create "liberty and fraternity" for all citizens, requiring the intervention of politics and social reform to tackle social problems and grievances; the term "socialist" was used interchangeably with "co-operative", "mutualist", "associationist" and "collectivist" in reference to the organization of economic enterprise socialists advocated, in contrast to the private enterprise and corporate organizational structures inherent to capitalism. The modern concept of socialism evolved in response to the development of industrial capitalism; the "social" in modern "socialism" came to refer to the specific perspective and understanding socialists had of the development of material, economic forces and determinants of human behavior in society. It denoted the perspective that human behavior is determined by a person's immediate social environment, that modes of social organization were not supernatural or metaphysical constructs but products of the social system and social environment, which were in turn products of the level of technology/mode of production, were therefore changing.
Social and economic systems were thus not the product of innate human nature, but of the underlying form of economic organization and level of technology in a given society, implying that human social relations and incentive-structures would change as social relations and social organization changes in response to improvements in technology and evolving material forces. This perspective formed the bulk of the foundation for Karl Marx's materialist conception of history. In contemporary society, "social" refers to the redistributive policies of the government which aim to apply resources in the public interest, for example. Policy concerns include the problems of social exclusion and social cohesion. Here, "social" contrasts with "private" and to the distinction between the public and the private spheres, where ownership relations define access to resources and attention; the social domain is also contrasted with that of physical nature, but in sociobiology analogies are drawn between humans and other living species in order to explain social behavior in terms of biological factors.
The term "social" is added in various other academic sub-disciplines such as social geography, social psychology, social anthropology, social philosophy, social ontology, social statistics and social choice theory in mathematics. Social media Sociology Social network Social neuroscience Social psychology Social skills Social support Social undermining Social Work Dolwick, JS. 2009. The'Social' and Beyond: Introducing Actor Network Theory, article examining different meanings of the concept'social'