Flash (Jay Garrick)
Jay Garrick is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. He is the first superhero known as the Flash; the character was created by artist Harry Lampert. He first appeared in Flash Comics #1. After a bizarre laboratory accident, he acquired the ability to move at superhuman speed, chose to fight crime as a costumed vigilante, calling himself "the Flash". Jay Garrick has made numerous appearances in other media, including his live-action debut as a cameo in Smallville, played by Billy Mitchell, in The Flash, portrayed by John Wesley Shipp; the character of Jay Garrick was created by artist Harry Lampert. The character first appeared in the first issue of the anthology series Flash Comics in 1940, published by All-American Publications, he was soon featured in All-Star Comics as part of the Justice Society of America. In 1941, he got All-Flash. After World War II, superheroes declined in popularity, causing many of the Flash's comic book series to be canceled.
All-Flash was canceled in 1948 after 32 issues. Flash Comics was canceled in 1949 after 104 issues. All-Star Comics was canceled in 1951 after 57 issues. Garrick would not appear again for ten years, never got another solo series. In 1956, DC Comics reinvented the Flash character, giving him a new costume and background; this new Flash, named Barry Allen, was unrelated to Jay Garrick. In fact, Garrick had never existed. Barry Allen's first appearance shows him reading a copy of Flash Comics, lamenting that Garrick was "just a character some writer dreamed up". Readers welcomed the new Flash, but still had an interest in the old one. Jay Garrick made a guest appearance in Flash #123. In this issue, Garrick was treated as residing in a parallel universe, which allowed the character to exist without any continuity conflicts with Barry Allen, yet allowed him to make guest appearances in Silver Age books. Garrick only made guest appearances for most of the 70s. However, starting in 1976, Garrick became a regular character in the revived All-Star Comics, partaking in adventures with the Justice Society, in stories set in modern times.
In 1981, he and the Justice Society appeared in All-Star Squadron in stories set during World War II. In 1985, DC Comics merged all of its fictional characters into a single shared universe. Jay Garrick now shared the same world as the new Flash. DC wrote the character out of continuity in the one-shot Last Days of the Justice Society, but brought the character back in the 1990s due to fan interest. Unlike characters such as Batman or Superman, DC decided not to update Jay as a young hero, but portrayed him as a veteran of World War 2 with a magically-prolonged lifespan. Jay Garrick became a regular character in Justice Society of America. Jason Peter Garrick is a college student, prior to 1940, accidentally inhales hard water vapors after taking a smoke break in his laboratory where he had been working; as a result, he finds that he can run at superhuman speed and has fast reflexes. Retcons imply that the inhalation activated a latent metagene. After a brief career as a college football star, he dons a red shirt with a lightning bolt and a stylized metal helmet with wings.
He begins to fight crime as the Flash. The helmet belonged to Jay's father, who fought during World War I, he sometimes uses a type of shield, as seen in Infinite Crisis. He has used it to direct a beam of light at Eclipso. In The Flash: Rebirth, he used it to de-stabilize Reverse Flash. In the early stories, it seems to be known that Garrick is the Flash. Stories would show him as having his identity secret, that he is able to maintain it without the use of a mask by "vibrating" his features, making him hard to recognize or photograph; the effectiveness of this is debatable, as he blamed his girlfriend, deducing his true identity on his lack of a mask. Garrick made his identity as the Flash public to the world. During his career, he would find himself embroiled in semi-comic situations inadvertently initiated by Winky and Noddy, a trio of tramps known as the Three Dimwits, who tried their hand at one job after another, never successfully, his first case involves battling the Faultless Four, a group of blackmailers, who plot to steal an atomic bombarder and sell it.
It is revealed that a professor found the last container of heavy water vapors and used it to gain superspeed, becoming the Rival. He takes away Jay's speed after capturing him, making him super-slow, but Jay uses the gases again, allowing him to regain his superspeed and defeat the Rival. Like the Flashes who followed him, Garrick became a close friend of the Green Lantern of his time, Alan Scott, whom he met through the Justice Society of America; the Flash soon became one of the best-known of the Golden Age of superheroes. He served as its first chairman, he was based in New York City, but this was retconned to the fictional Keystone City. He returned several years later, he had a distinguished career as a crime-fighter during the 1940s. Garrick's early history was the subject of retcons. A story explaining the retirement of the JSA members, including the Flash, explained that, in 1951, the JSA was investigated by th
Bartholomew Henry Allen II is a fictional superhero in the DC Comics Universe. Allen first appeared as the superhero Impulse, a teenage sidekick of the superhero The Flash, before he became the second hero known as Kid Flash; the character first made a cameo appearance in The Flash #91 in 1994, while his first full appearance in issue #92, appeared as the lead character in Impulse and The Flash: The Fastest Man Alive. In the latter series, the character became the fourth hero to assume the identity of The Flash. Bart prominently features in the superhero team titles Young Justice and Teen Titans; as the Flash, Bart was a core character in 10 issues of Justice League of America. As first conceived by writers, Bart was born in the 30th century to Meloni Thawne and Don Allen, is part of a complex family tree of superheroes and supervillains, his father, Don, is one of the Tornado Twins and his paternal grandfather is Barry Allen, the second Flash. His paternal grandmother, Iris West Allen, is the adoptive aunt of the first Kid Flash, Wally West.
Additionally, Bart is the first cousin of a Legionnaire and daughter of Dawn Allen. On his mother's side, he is a descendant of supervillains Professor Zoom and Cobalt Blue as well as the half-brother of Owen Mercer, the second Captain Boomerang. In addition to these relatives, he had a supervillain clone known as Inertia. For most of his superhero career, Bart was the sidekick to the Wally West version of the Flash. After West's apparent death in the Infinite Crisis crossover event in 2006, Allen grew up and became the Flash, his tenure as the Flash was brief, he was killed off in issue 13 of his series, The Flash: The Fastest Man Alive. Allen was subsequently absent for nearly two years after his apparent death, but resurfaced—young again—as Kid Flash, in 2009's Final Crisis: Legion of 3 Worlds. After DC revised its continuity in 2011 as part of a company-wide relaunch of its most popular titles, Bart Allen became the alias of Bar Torr, a feared reactionary from the distant future, sent to the 21st century without his memories, attempting to forge an identity for himself as Kid Flash.
Outside of comics, Bart has been portrayed by Kyle Gallner in the live-action television series Smallville. Jason Marsden voiced Impulse/Kid Flash in the animated series Young Justice; as depicted in a Legion of Super-Heroes story, Barry Allen's children—the Tornado Twins—were arrested in A. D. 2995 by the government of Earth, which had fallen under the covert control of the Dominators. Following a one-day trial on trumped-up charges of treason, the Twins were executed. According to a Daily Planet news report, Don Allen is survived by his wife Carmen Johnson, his mother Iris West Allen, his two-year-old son: Barry Allen II, or Bart; this timeline was wiped out by the events of Zero Hour: Crisis in Time miniseries. However, a parallel set of events occurred on Earth-247, with the Tornado Twins and their families having traveled there from New Earth. Suffering from a hyper-accelerated metabolism, Bart Allen was aging at a faster rate than that of any other human being, thus causing him to appear the age of twelve when he was chronologically only two years old.
To prevent him from developing mental health problems, he was raised in a virtual reality machine which created a simulated world that kept pace with his own scale of time. When it became clear that this method was not helping, his grandmother, Iris Allen, took him back in time to the present where The Flash, Wally West, tricked Bart into a race around the world. By forcing Bart into an extreme burst of speed, Wally managed to shock his hyper metabolism back to normal; because he had spent the majority of his childhood in a simulated world, Bart had no concept of danger and was prone to leaping before he looked. The youth proved to be more trouble than Wally could handle, he was palmed off onto retired superhero speedster Max Mercury, who moved Bart to the fictitious Manchester, Alabama. Bart created the Impulse codename for himself, though a retcon in Impulse #50 has Batman codenaming him such as a warning, not a compliment. Bart joined the Titans early in his career before going on to become one of the founding members of the superhero team Young Justice.
For a time, Impulse became the owner of a spaceship granted to him by a rich sultan in appreciation for having helped save his castle. The team used this ship to reunite Doiby Dickles with his queen and restore the rightful rule of Myrg. Impulse stayed with Young Justice for an extensive period of time during which he developed the ability to make speed-force energy duplicates; this allowed him to be in multiple places at once. The newly acquired power proved useful until one of the duplicates was killed during the "Our Worlds at War" storyline when half the team was lost on Apokolips. Bart quit Young Justice temporarily as the death of his duplicate led him to come to terms with his own mortality. Following Max Mercury's disappearance, Bart was taken in by Jay Garrick, the first Flash, his wife Joan. After the breakup of Young Justice, Bart joined some of his former teammates in a new line-up of the Teen Titans. Shortly after Bart joined the Teen Titans, he was shot in the knee by Deathstroke and received a prosthetic one.
While recovering, Bart read every single book in the San Francisco Public Library and reinvented himself as the new Kid Flash. Once healed, the artificial knee did not affect his ability to run at speeds approaching that of light, but reminding him that he needs to think first rather than to act impulsively; when Robin reminded him that by becomi
Dwyane Tyrone Wade Jr. is an American former professional basketball player. Wade spent the majority of his 16-year career playing for the Miami Heat in the National Basketball Association. After a successful college basketball career with the Marquette Golden Eagles, Wade was drafted fifth overall in the 2003 NBA draft by the Heat. In his third season, Wade led the Heat to their first NBA Championship in franchise history and was named the 2006 NBA Finals MVP. At the 2008 Summer Olympics, Wade led the United States men's basketball team known as the "Redeem Team", in scoring, helped them capture the gold medal. In the 2008 -- 09 season, Wade earned his first NBA scoring title. With LeBron James and Chris Bosh, Wade helped guide Miami to four consecutive NBA Finals from 2011 to 2014, winning back-to-back championships in 2012 and 2013. After playing for the Chicago Bulls and the Cleveland Cavaliers, Wade was traded back to Miami in February 2018. A 13-time NBA All-Star, Wade is Miami's all-time leader in points, games and steals, shots made and shots taken.
Dwyane Wade was born on the South Side of Chicago, Illinois, to JoLinda and Dwyane Wade Sr, whose name's unusual spelling was decided by his own mother. In 1977, JoLinda, at the age of 18 had two children. Wade has described his upbringing in Chicago as being difficult. Wade stated that " mom was on drugs and family was in the gang environment, so it was a rough childhood." At a young age, Wade witnessed police raids and found dead bodies several times in a nearby garbage can. When he was only 4 months old, his parents separated – and would divorce. JoLinda was given custody of the two children, she moved to her mother's house with them; the family struggled financially, it was around that time when JoLinda started dealing drugs. His mom was addicted to several substances including cigarettes, alcohol and cocaine. JoLinda would get high with friends at her home in the presence of her children. In an interview with ESPN, Wade said "I've seen the needles laying around the house. I've seen my mother shoot up before.
I've seen a lot of things my mother didn't know I'd seen as a kid." At the age of 6, he recalls police – with guns drawn – raiding his home as they searched for his mother. When Wade turned 8 years old, his older sister, tricked him – by telling him they were going to the movies – into living with his father, a former Army sergeant, stepmother in a nearby neighborhood. Wade would still visit his mom. A year his father moved the family to Robbins, Illinois. After moving to Robbins, Wade did not see his mother for two years. During this time, JoLinda was able to access a free supply of drugs by volunteering to be a tester – i.e. someone who tests street drugs for impurities before the dealers try to sell them. JoLinda was hospitalized and nearly died after she mistakenly injected herself with LSD. In 1994, JoLinda was arrested for possession of crack cocaine with intent to sell and locked up in Cook County Jail. Wade, at the age of 10, reunited with his mom by talking with her at Cook County Jail through a glass panel over a telephone.
JoLinda served 23 months in prison for her crimes, but while serving her second sentence in 1997, she failed to report to prison while on work release. Wade turned to sports basketball and football, to avoid the temptations of participating in drug and gang-related activities. Wade's mom and dad would take him to the park to play basketball, he cites one of his older sisters, Tragil, as the individual most responsible for his childhood upbringing and for steering him in the proper direction. As a child growing up in the Chicago area, Wade idolized Chicago Bulls star Michael Jordan, has said he patterns his game after him. Wade attended Harold L. Richards High School in Oak Lawn. Wade found success as a wide receiver on the football team, but he needed to work hard to earn playing time on the varsity basketball team during his junior year. While he did not acquire much playing time during his second year, his stepbrother, Demetris McDaniel, was the star of the team. Wade grew four inches in the summer before his junior year and saw an increase in playing time, averaging 20.7 points and 7.6 rebounds per game.
The following year, Wade averaged 27.0 points and 11.0 rebounds per game while leading his team to a 24–5 record. It advanced to the title game of the Class AA Eisenhower Sectional. During this season he steals in a season. Wade has stated that his high school coach, Jack Fitzgerald, was one of the most positive influences in his life during this time. Wade was recruited by only three college basketball teams due to academic problems. During most of Wade's time at Marquette, his mother was either eluding the law or serving time in jail for selling crack cocaine. On October 14, 2001, JoLinda declared that she would change her life and get clean while attending a service at a Chicago church. Wade a sophomore at Marquette, went home for Christmas to be with his mom, who he believed was clean and sober for the first time in his life. However, JoLinda admitted to him that she was going back to prison. Wade told ESPN, "I was hurt because I felt like I was just getting my mom back, now she had to leave again."
On January 2, 2002, his mother went back to prison to serve her 14-month sentence. She says she has been clean since 2003. Wade chose to play college basketball for Tom Crean at Marquette University in Wisconsin. During Wade's freshman year at Marquette, he was ineligible to play with the men's team as he had fallen short of academic stan
Flash (video game player)
Lee Young-ho is a South Korean StarCraft: Brood War and StarCraft II player who played Terran for the Korean pro-gaming team KT Rolster under the alias By. FlaSh or Flash, he made his debut as a StarCraft: Brood War player in 2007 and retired on December 19, 2015. Lee began playing StarCraft II competitively in 2011, until his retirement in December 2015, he subsequently returned to playing Starcraft: Brood War, started his personal broadcast in February 2016 on the AfreecaTV personal broadcasting platform. Since returning to Brood War, Lee has won first place in Seasons 2, 3, 4 of the Afreeca Starleague; as of 2018, he is still broadcasting personal broadcasts. Lee joined KT Rolster in 2007 at the age of 14, he established himself as a top player, carrying KT in the Proleague team competition and achieving fourth place in the 2007 Daum OnGameNet Starleague. The following year, he won the Bacchus OnGameNet Starleague, becoming the youngest player to win a premier Korean tournament - a record still unbroken.
His career arose to new heights in the 2009-10 season, when he reached the finals of seven premier tournaments - every one held that season - and won five. Three of those victories were against Lee Jae-dong, a famous rival of Lee Young-ho and the second-best player of the time; these achievements have cemented him as one of the greatest players of all time. When he first emerged as a professional gamer, Lee received criticism for his use of gimmicky "rush" strategies. However, he soon developed a versatile and well-rounded play style which revolved around strong mechanics, defensive play, exemplary late-game army control. Choi Yeon-sung has praised Lee's strategic depth, saying that "there aren't many players who set strategic moves, in the case of, I think he's looking about 10 games ahead." Lee is famous for coming back in games where he was at insurmountable disadvantages by playing defensive and exploiting small mistakes in his opponents' play to regain the advantage. Lee Young-ho set numerous records in StarCraft: Brood War professional competition.
He has both the highest career win-lose ratio and highest peak ELO of any player, at 71.74% and 2443 respectively. He has won six OnGameNet Starleague and MBCGame StarCraft League tournaments, won four of those in twelve months, he has won the most number of games in the Proleague competition and has done so with the highest win-lose ratio of any player. Lee Young-ho announced his retirement on December 1, 2015, he subsequently returned playing Starcraft: Brood War, started his personal broadcast in February 2016 in Afreeca. Lee would go on to win the Afreeca Season 2 Starleague that year. In 2017, Lee won first place. In 2017, Lee won the' Golden Trophy' for three straight seasons in ASL alone. At the Olympic Stadium in Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul on Friday, Lee defeated Cho Il-jang at 3:1 in the final match of KT GiGA Internet Afreeca Star League season 4, he won the championship three times in a row. Lee won a substantial amount of money by achieving a milestone that he failed to make during his career as a professional gamer.
Lee Young-ho hit the 100 million won accumulated in ASL alone. In 2018, in the quarterfinals of the "Olleh TV Afreeca TV Star League Season 6", Lee was defeated by Jang Yoon-chul. Jang Yoon-chul once won against Lee Young-ho, "the final weapon", by 3:2. 2007 Daum OnGameNet Starleague - 4th place 2008 GomTV Star Invitational - winner 2008 Bacchus OnGameNet Starleague - winner 2008 Averatec-Intel Classic Season 1 - runner-up 2008 Arena MBCGame StarCraft League - 3rd place 2009 Averatec-Intel Classic Season 3 - winner 2009 EVER OnGameNet Starleague - winner 2009 NATE MBCGame StarCraft League - runner-up 2010 Korean Air OnGameNet Starleague - runner-up 2010 Hana Daetoo MBCGame StarCraft League - winner 2010 Bigfile MBCGame StarCraft League - winner 2010 Korean Air 2 OnGameNet Starleague - winner 2010 World Cyber Games Korea - runner-up 2010 World Cyber Games - winner 2011 ABC Mart MBCGame StarCraft League - winner 2013 MLG Spring Championship - runner Up 2014 IEM Season IX - Toronto - winner 2014 HomeStory Cup X - runner up 2016 Afreeca Starleague Season 2 - winner 2017 Afreeca Starleague Season 3 - winner 2017 Afreeca Starleague Season 4 - winner 2018 Afreeca Starleague Season 6 - runner up Shinhan Bank Proleague 2008: 5th Shinhan Bank Proleague 08-09: 7th Shinhan Bank Proleague 09-10: 1st Shinhan Bank Proleague 10-11: 1st SK Planet Proleague 11-12 Season 1: 2nd 2014 SK Telecom Proleague: 1st 2007: Rookie of the Year 2007: Best Player - Terran 2008: Best Player - Terran 2009: Best Player - Terran 2010: Player of the Year 2011: Player of the Year 2014: Proleague Finals MVP Records as of February 7, 2013.
Records as of June 23, 2015. Most consecutive wins against Terran: 22 consecutive wins 2009.05.10 - vs Skyhigh 2009.05.13 - vs Notice 2009.05.23 - vs Fantasy 2009.06.06 - vs Leta 2009.06.09 - vs Mvp 2009.06.15 - vs Iris 2009.06.20 - vs go.go 2009.06.20 - vs Canata 2009.06.24 - vs Classic 2009.06.30 - vs Firebathero 2009.10.10 - vs Seiya 2009.10.20 - vs Firebathero 2009.10.28 - vs Hiya 2009.11.09 - vs Fantasy 2009.11.21 - vs Ruby 2009.11.24 - vs Mind 2009.12.01 - vs Cuteangel 2009.12.09 - vs Hiya 2009.12.14 - vs Sea 2009.12.19 - vs Adamas
American Gladiators is an American competition television program that aired weekly in syndication from September 1989 to May 1996. The series matched a cast of amateur athletes against each other, as well as against the show's own gladiators, in contests of strength and agility; the concept was created in 1982 by Johnny C. Ferraro and Dan Carr. Carr gathered the Gladiators and hosted the show, Ferraro financed and produced the original competition at Erie Tech High School in Erie, Pennsylvania so Ferraro could have the event on film as to shop the new creation. In 1983 Ferraro financed and packaged the American Gladiators as a movie project. In 1984 Carr sold his interest in a literary purchase to Flor-Jon Films. Ferraro had been the main driving force behind the American Gladiators brand since 1982. In 1987, Flor-Jon Films licensed the unscripted rights to The Samuel Goldwyn Company. Ferraro is the sole creator of the 1994 kids' version of the series, Gladiators 2000. Flor-Jon Films and the Samuel Goldwyn Co in 1993 granted a license to Chariot Entertainment in an effort to launch a live American Gladiators show on the Las Vegas Strip, but the president of Chariot became mired in a securities fraud prosecution, through no fault of Flor-Jon Films or The Samuel Goldwyn Co, the live show went unrealized.
Episodes from the original series were played on ESPN Classic from 2007 to 2009. Several episodes are available for download on Apple's iTunes Service. MGM Television, the successor company to the Samuel Goldwyn Company, during the 2007-08 Writers Guild of America Strike, sold to NBC a prime-time revival, closer to the British version than the American, with hosts Hulk Hogan and Lalia Ali, Van Earl Wright the play-by-play voice; that version lasted two seasons. In August 2018, MGM Television, with Ferraro and actors Seth Rogen and Evan Goldberg, announced plans to bring American Gladiators back again for the 2019-20 season, the 30th anniversary of the franchise's television debut. American Gladiators featured two men and two women, in most episodes; the players went through a series of seven physical challenges with the goal to become the season's overall winner, referred to as the Grand Champion. This was determined by a season-long tournament, whose format went through various changes during its run.
The first tournament was conducted to find one male champion and one female champion for the season. The winners would return as Gladiators to compete in subsequent tournaments. Twenty contenders in each half-season tournament were chosen from a nationwide contestant pool based on tests of strength and agility, with several alternates chosen in case a contender could not continue due to injury. Five preliminary round matchups were played with the winners automatically advancing to the quarterfinal round, along with the three highest scoring losers. Any alternates from that point on came from the previous round's losers. Once the quarterfinals began, the tournament became a single elimination affair until the champions were crowned, with $10,000 cash awarded to them. Losing contenders were awarded $2,500 for advancing as far as the semifinals, while the losing finalists were given $5,000; the first season was intended to consist of only the tournament, which lasted a total of thirteen weeks. Due to the popularity of those episodes, the producers of American Gladiators began work on a second series of episodes to fill the rest of the season.
With a new format, four new Gladiators, the addition of a new event along with the revamping of the rest of the events, the second tournament launched with a total of twenty-two men and women competing. The two extra spots were given to the winners of the first tournament, who faced off against the winners of the second tournament for more cash and prizes in the first Grand Championship final; the show's second season used the same format as the previous half-season. In seasons three and four, the field competitors increased to 48 and the tournament format was adjusted. Six preliminary round matches were played and the winners of those matches automatically advanced to the quarterfinals; the winners of the three quarterfinal matches advanced to the semifinals, along with the highest scoring non-winner. The semifinals and finals went on as before with the winners of the half-season tournaments meeting in the Grand Championship. For season five, the tournament format was revamped again. Eight competitors on each side played four preliminary round matches, following that each of the eight was seeded based on their performance.
From there, the tournaments were conducted in single elimination format, thus eliminating the need for wild cards. In seasons six and seven, a single tournament was spread out over the season and a rule in place on the British Gladiators was adopted; this time contenders were not only competing to win, with $2,500 given to all preliminary winners regardless, but to have the highest overall winning score as well. Once all the preliminary rounds were completed the four highest scoring winners advanced to the semifinal round, with the winners playing for $25,000 in the Grand Championship. During the first half of the first season, the show's set resembled that of an ancient Roman gladiatorial arena, with the stands raised high above the ground. For the second half, the show's set was changed into a modern indoor sports arena style. An onscreen clock was added in the second half of the season, which allowed viewers to see how much time a contender had left to complete an event; the hooded figures that officiated the games were replaced by veteran NFL referee Bob McElwee.
Starting in Season 2, former Pacific-10 football refere
North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan county and largest ceremonial county in England. It is located in the region of Yorkshire and the Humber but in the region of North East England; the estimated population of North Yorkshire was 602,300 in mid 2016. Created by the Local Government Act 1972, it covers an area of 8,654 square kilometres, making it the largest county in England; the majority of the Yorkshire Dales and the North York Moors lie within North Yorkshire's boundaries, around 40% of the county is covered by National Parks. The largest towns are Middlesbrough, York and Scarborough; the area under the control of the county council, or shire county, is divided into a number of local government districts: Craven, Harrogate, Ryedale and Selby. The Department for Communities and Local Government considered reorganising North Yorkshire County Council's administrative structure by abolishing the seven district councils and the county council to create a North Yorkshire unitary authority; the changes were planned to be implemented no than 1 April 2009.
This was rejected on 25 July 2007 so District Council structure will remain. The largest settlement in the administrative county is the second largest is Scarborough. Within the ceremonial county, the largest is the Middlesbrough built-up area. York is the most populous district in the ceremonial county. York and Redcar and Cleveland are unitary authority boroughs which form part of the ceremonial county for various functions such as the Lord Lieutenant of North Yorkshire, but do not come under county council control. Uniquely for a district in England, Stockton-on-Tees is split between North Yorkshire and County Durham for this purpose. Middlesbrough, Stockton-on-Tees, Redcar and Cleveland boroughs form part of the North East England region; the ceremonial county area, including the unitary authorities, borders East Riding of Yorkshire to the east/south east, South Yorkshire to the south, West Yorkshire to the west/south west, Lancashire to the west, Cumbria to the north west and County Durham to the north, with the North Sea to the east.
The geology of North Yorkshire is reflected in its landscape. Within the county are the North York Moors and most of the Yorkshire Dales. Between the North York Moors in the east and the Pennine Hills in the west lie the Vales of Mowbray and York; the Tees Lowlands lie to the north of the North York Moors and the Vale of Pickering lies to the south. Its eastern border is the North sea coast; the highest point is Whernside, on the Cumbrian border, at 736 metres. The two major rivers in the county are the River Ure; the Swale and the Ure form the River Ouse which flows into the Humber Estuary. The River Tees forms part of the border between North Yorkshire and County Durham and flows from upper Teesdale through Middlesbrough and Stockton and to the coast. North Yorkshire contains a small section of green belt in the south of the county, just north of Ilkley and Otley along the North and West Yorkshire borders, it extends to the east to cover small communities such as Huby, Kirkby Overblow, Follifoot before covering the gap between the towns of Harrogate and Knaresborough, helping to keep those towns separate.
The belt meets with the Yorkshire Dales National Park at its southernmost extent, forms a border with the Nidderdale AONB. It extends into the western area of Selby district, reaching as far as Balne; the belt was first drawn up from the 1950s. The city of York has an independent surrounding belt area affording protections to several outlying settlements such as Haxby and Dunnington, it too extends into the surrounding districts. North Yorkshire was formed on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972, covers most of the lands of the historic North Riding, as well as the northern half of the West Riding, the northern and eastern fringes of the East Riding of Yorkshire and the former county borough of York. York became a unitary authority independent of North Yorkshire on 1 April 1996, at the same time Middlesbrough and Cleveland and areas of Stockton-on-Tees south of the river became part of North Yorkshire for ceremonial purposes, having been part of Cleveland from 1974 to 1996.
The non-metropolitan county of North Yorkshire is administered by North Yorkshire County Council, a cabinet-style council. The full council of 72 elects a council leader, who in turn appoints up to 9 more councillors to form the executive cabinet; the cabinet is responsible for making decisions in the non-metropolitan county. The county council have their offices in the County Hall in Northallerton. Certain areas within the ceremonial county are administered independently of the county council and have their own unitary authority councils: the City of York Council and Cleveland Borough Council, Middlesbrough Borough Council, Stockton-on-Tees Borough Council; the county has above average house prices. Unemployment is below average for the UK and claimants of Job Seekers Allowance is very low compared to the rest of the UK at 2.7%. Agriculture is an important industry, as are power generation; the county has prosperous high technology and tourism sectors. Tourism is a significant contribut
Lancashire is a ceremonial county in North West England. The administrative centre is Preston; the county has an area of 1,189 square miles. People from Lancashire are known as Lancastrians; the history of Lancashire begins with its founding in the 12th century. In the Domesday Book of 1086, some of its lands were treated as part of Yorkshire; the land that lay between the Ribble and Mersey, Inter Ripam et Mersam, was included in the returns for Cheshire. When its boundaries were established, it bordered Cumberland, Westmorland and Cheshire. Lancashire emerged as a major industrial region during the Industrial Revolution. Liverpool and Manchester grew into its largest cities, with economies built around the docks and the cotton mills respectively; these cities dominated the birth of modern industrial capitalism. The county contained the collieries of the Lancashire Coalfield. By the 1830s 85% of all cotton manufactured worldwide was processed in Lancashire. Accrington, Bolton, Bury, Colne, Manchester, Oldham, Preston and Wigan were major cotton mill towns during this time.
Blackpool was a centre for tourism for the inhabitants of Lancashire's mill towns during wakes week. The historic county was subject to a significant boundary reform in 1974 which created the current ceremonial county and removed Liverpool and Manchester, most of their surrounding conurbations to form the metropolitan and ceremonial counties of Merseyside and Greater Manchester; the detached northern part of Lancashire in the Lake District, including the Furness Peninsula and Cartmel, was merged with Cumberland and Westmorland to form Cumbria. Lancashire lost 709 square miles of land to other counties, about two fifths of its original area, although it did gain some land from the West Riding of Yorkshire. Today the ceremonial county borders Cumbria to the north, Greater Manchester and Merseyside to the south, North and West Yorkshire to the east; the county palatine boundaries remain the same as those of the pre-1974 county with Lancaster serving as the county town, the Duke of Lancaster exercising sovereignty rights, including the appointment of lords lieutenant in Greater Manchester and Merseyside..
The county was established in 1182 than many other counties. During Roman times the area was part of the Brigantes tribal area in the military zone of Roman Britain; the towns of Manchester, Ribchester, Burrow and Castleshaw grew around Roman forts. In the centuries after the Roman withdrawal in 410AD the northern parts of the county formed part of the Brythonic kingdom of Rheged, a successor entity to the Brigantes tribe. During the mid-8th century, the area was incorporated into the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria, which became a part of England in the 10th century. In the Domesday Book, land between the Ribble and Mersey were known as "Inter Ripam et Mersam" and included in the returns for Cheshire. Although some historians consider this to mean south Lancashire was part of Cheshire, it is by no means certain, it is claimed that the territory to the north formed part of the West Riding of Yorkshire. It bordered on Cumberland, Westmorland and Cheshire; the county was divided into hundreds, Blackburn, Lonsdale and West Derby.
Lonsdale was further partitioned into Lonsdale North, the detached part north of the sands of Morecambe Bay including Furness and Cartmel, Lonsdale South. Lancashire is smaller than its historical extent following a major reform of local government. In 1889, the administrative county of Lancashire was created, covering the historic county except for the county boroughs such as Blackburn, Barrow-in-Furness, Wigan and Manchester; the area served by the Lord-Lieutenant covered the entirety of the administrative county and the county boroughs, was expanded whenever boroughs annexed areas in neighbouring counties such as Wythenshawe in Manchester south of the River Mersey and in Cheshire, southern Warrington. It did not cover the western part of Todmorden, where the ancient border between Lancashire and Yorkshire passes through the middle of the town. During the 20th century, the county became urbanised the southern part. To the existing county boroughs of Barrow-in-Furness, Bolton, Burnley, Liverpool, Oldham, Rochdale, Salford, St. Helens and Wigan were added Warrington and Southport.
The county boroughs had many boundary extensions. The borders around the Manchester area were complicated, with narrow protrusions of the administrative county between the county boroughs – Lees urban district formed a detached part of the administrative county, between Oldham county borough and the West Riding of Yorkshire. By the census of 1971, the population of Lancashire and its county boroughs had reached 5,129,416, making it the most populous geographic county in the UK; the administrative county was the most populous of its type outside London, with a population of 2,280,359 in 1961. On 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, the administrative county was abolished, as were the county boroughs; the urbanised southern part became part of two metropolitan counties and Greater Manchester. The new county of Cumbria incorporates the Furness exclave; the boroughs of Liverpool, Knowsley, St. Helens and Sefton were included in Merseyside. In Greater Manchester the successor boroughs were