A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
The lead vocalist in popular music is the member of a group or band whose voice is the most prominent in a performance where multiple voices may be heard. The lead singer either sets against the ensemble as the dominant sound. In vocal group performances, notably in soul and gospel music, early rock and roll, the lead singer takes the main vocal part, with a chorus provided by other band members as backing vocalists. In rock music, the lead singer or solo singer is the front man or front woman, who may play one or more instruments and is seen as the leader or spokesman of the band by the public; as an example in rock music, Freddie Mercury was the lead singer of Queen. In soul music, Smokey Robinson was the lead singer of The Miracles, it is uncertain when the term "lead vocals" was first used, but it may have emerged in the late 1930s, when rich vocal interplay with multiple voices where one or more voices may dominate began to impact on North American popular music, dominated by solo vocals.
The practice of using a lead singer in vocal groups, has a longer history: an early form is the "call and response" found in work songs and spirituals sung by African-American slaves. Songs of the late nineteenth century used a leading solo voice, followed by a choral response by other singers; as the style developed through early commercial recordings and performances in the early 20th century, the role of the lead vocalist became more established, although popular groups of the 1930s and 1940s such as the Ink Spots and the Mills Brothers used different lead singers on different songs rather than keeping the same lead singer throughout. By the 1950s, singers such as Sam Cooke and Clyde McPhatter took on more defined roles as lead singers, by the end of the decade credited group names changed to reflect the leading roles of the main vocalists, with examples such as Frankie Lymon & the Teenagers and Dion & the Belmonts. Academic David Horn has written:The influence of US rhythm and blues recordings may well be a crucial one in the assimilation of the format of lead singer plus backing group into the guitar-based British'beat' groups of the 1960s, in US groups such as The Beach Boys.
From these various points - including Motown - it went on to become a standard device in much rock and pop music. In some bands - most famously, The Beatles - the role of lead singer alternated, while in others - for example, Herman's Hermits - one lead singer dominated. There are as many styles of lead singer as there are styles and genres of music. However, the lead singer of a group or band is the main focus of audiences' attention; the lead vocalist of band is sometimes called the "front man" or "front woman," as the most visible performer in a group. While most bands have a singular lead singer, many others have dual lead singers, or other member of the band that sing lead on particular songs. While the lead singer defines the group's image and personality to the general public, this is not always the case. In modern rock music, the lead singer is but not always the band's leader and spokesperson. While lead singers or spokespersons for any musical ensembles can be called a front man, the term is used widely in rock music.
Since the position has an expanded role from simple lead vocalists, there have been cases in which the front man for a band is someone other than the lead vocalist. For example, while the lead vocalist for the band Fall Out Boy is guitarist Patrick Stump, the bassist and lyricist, Pete Wentz, is called the front man, both in the media and by the band members themselves, since he represents the band in most interviews and contributes most to the band's image in the popular media. Another example is Angus Young of AC/DC, the band's lead guitarist, co-leader with his brother Malcolm Young. In many bands, such as The Who, Led Zeppelin, Living Colour, The Stone Roses and Oasis, the lead guitarist may share spokesman responsibilities with the lead singer; this is derived from that guitarist's specific role as a co-songwriter, co-founder and/or co-vocalist. In some cases, there are two frontmen, such as Alice in Chains, with singer Layne Staley sharing vocal duties with guitarist Jerry Cantrell, or Underoath, with singers Spencer Chamberlain and Aaron Gillespie sharing vocal duties.
Another example is Blink-182, in which vocal duties are split between bassist Mark Hoppus and guitarist Tom DeLonge. Hoppus carries out most media either by himself or together with DeLonge, while the band's other member, drummer Travis Barker remains quiet. Linkin Park had two vocalists as well, Mike Shinoda and Chester Bennington, both considered as frontmen. Another example is the thrash metal band Metallica, in which James Hetfield and Lars Ulrich share the spokesperson duties for being both founders and the only members who have never left the band. List of lead vocalists
A duet is a musical composition for two performers in which the performers have equal importance to the piece a composition involving two singers or two pianists. It differs from a harmony, as the performers take turns performing a solo section rather than performing simultaneously. A piece performed by two pianists performing together on the same piano is a "piano duet" or "piano four hands". A piece for two pianists performing together on separate pianos is a "piano duo". "Duet" is used as a verb for the act of performing a musical duet, or colloquially as a noun to refer to the performers of a duet. A musical ensemble with more than two solo instruments or voices is called trio, quintet, septet, etc; when Mozart was young, he and his sister Marianne played a duet of his composition at a London concert in 1765. The four-hand, described as a duet, was in many of his compositions; the first published sonata or duet was in 1777. In Renaissance music, a duet intended as a teaching tool, to be performed by teacher and student, was called a bicinium.
Duets have always been a part of the structure of operas. Early 16th-century operas such as L'Orfeo and L'incoronazione di Poppea involve duets throughout the performance. In 17th-century Italy duets were used in comic scenes within serious operas. In Baroque France the duet was popular in tragedies, such as songs of confrontation; the love duet was characterized by singing in close harmonies of 3rds and 6ths, symbolizing unity after conflict. La clemenza di Tito by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart La Cenerentola by Gioachino Rossini The Puritans of Vincenzo Bellini Don Pasquale by Gaetano Donizetti La traviata by Giuseppe Verdi Aida of Giuseppe Verdi Mefistofele of Arrigo Boito Manon Lescaut by Giacomo Puccini Madama Butterfly by Giacomo Puccini L'amico Fritz by Pietro Mascagni Throughout the 20th century duets have been common in the popular music of the era; some songs were written to be heard as conversations, such as "Baby, It's Cold Outside". Others were performed around a theme, for example New York in "Empire State of Mind".
Duets are an improvisation between artists, such as "Under Pressure". David Bowie and Freddie Mercury composed the lyrics in a day by improvising together. "Baby, It's Cold Outside" - Ricardo Montalbán and Esther Williams, with roles reversed, Red Skelton and Betty Garrett, 1948 "Dream a Little Dream of Me" – Louis Armstrong and Ella Fitzgerald, 1950 "I Got You Babe" – Sonny & Cher, 1965 "Ain't No Mountain High Enough" – Marvin Gaye and Tammi Terrell, 1967 "Jackson" – Johnny Cash and June Carter, 1967 "Somethin' Stupid" – Frank Sinatra and Nancy Sinatra, 1967 "Waters of March" – Elis Regina and Antonio Carlos Jobim, 1972 "Don't Go Breaking My Heart" – Elton John and Kiki Dee, 1976 "You're The One That I Want" – John Travolta and Olivia Newton-John, 1978 "Endless Love" – Diana Ross and Lionel Richie, 1981 "Under Pressure" – Queen and David Bowie, 1981 "Up Where We Belong" – Joe Cocker and Jennifer Warnes, 1982 "Ebony and Ivory" – Paul McCartney and Stevie Wonder, 1982 "Islands in the Stream" – Kenny Rogers and Dolly Parton, 1983 "Don't Give Up" – Kate Bush and Peter Gabriel, 1985 "Always" - Atlantic Starr, 1987 " The Time of My Life" – Bill Medley and Jennifer Warnes, 1987 "One Sweet Day" – Mariah Carey and Boyz II Men, 1995 "Scream" – Michael Jackson and Janet Jackson, 1995 "It's Your Love" – Tim McGraw and Faith Hill, 1997 "Tell Him" – Barbra Streisand and Celine Dion, 1997 "I'm Your Angel" – R. Kelly and Celine Dion, 1998 "When You Believe" – Whitney Houston and Mariah Carey, 1998 "Where You Are" – Jessica Simpson and Nick Lachey, 2000 "I Belong to You" – Eros Ramazzotti and Anastacia, 2006 "Beautiful Liar" – Beyoncé and Shakira, 2007 "No Estamos Solos" – Eros Ramazzotti and Ricky Martin, 2007 "Ta Voix" – Jennifer Paige and Lââm, 2008 "Limpido" – Laura Pausini and Kylie Minogue, 2013 "Hurt You" – Toni Braxton and Babyface, 2014 "Bad Things" - Machine Gun Kelly and Camila Cabello, 2016 Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Duet". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; the dictionary definition of duet at Wiktionary
RPM was a Canadian music industry publication that featured song and album charts for Canada. The publication was founded by Walt Grealis in February 1964, supported through its existence by record label owner Stan Klees. RPM ceased publication in November 2000. RPM stood for "Records, Music"; the magazine was reported to have variations in its title over the years such as RPM Weekly and RPM Magazine. RPM maintained several format charts, including Top Singles, Adult Contemporary, Urban, Rock/Alternative and Country Tracks for country music. On 21 March 1966, RPM expanded its Top Singles chart from 40 positions to 100. On December 6, 1980 the main chart became a Top 50 chart and remained this way until August 4, 1984 whereupon it returned to being a Top 100 Singles chart. For the first several weeks of its existence, the magazine did not compile a national chart, but printed the current airplay lists of several major market Top 40 stations. A national chart was introduced beginning with the June 22, 1964 issue, with its first-ever national #1 single being "Chapel of Love" by The Dixie Cups.
Prior to the introduction of RPM's national chart, the CHUM Chart from Toronto radio station CHUM was considered the de facto national chart. The final #1 single in the magazine was "Music" by Madonna; the modern Juno Awards had their origins in an annual survey conducted by RPM since its founding year. Readers of the magazine were invited to mail in survey ballots to indicate their choices under various categories of people or companies; the RPM Awards poll was transformed into a formal awards ceremony, The Gold Leaf Awards in 1970. These became the Juno Awards in following years; the RPM Awards for 1964 were announced in the 28 December 1964 issue: Top male vocalist: Terry Black Top female singer: Shirley Matthews Most promising male vocalist: Jack London Most promising female vocalist: Linda Layne Top vocal instrumental group: The Esquires Top female vocal group: Girlfriends Top instrumental group: Wes Dakus & The Rebels Top folk group: The Courriers Top country male singer: Gary Buck Top country female singer: Pat Hervey Industry man of the year: Johnny Murphy of Cashbox Canada Top record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top Canadian Content record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top national record promoter: Paul White, Capitol Records of Canada Top regional record promoter: Ed Lawson, Quality Records Top album of the year: That Girl by Phyllis MarshallA column on page 6 of that issue noted that the actual vote winner for Top Canadian Content record company was disqualified due to a conflict of interest involving an employee of that company, working for RPM.
Therefore, runner-up Capitol Records was declared the category's winner. The Annual RPM Awards for 1965 were announced in the 17 January 1966 issue, with more country music categories than the previous year: Top male vocalist: Bobby Curtola Top female singer: Catherine McKinnon Most promising male vocalist: Barry Allen Most promising female vocalist: Debbie Lori Kaye Top vocal/instrumental group: The Guess Who Top female vocal group: Girlfriends Top instrumental group: Wes Dakus & The Rebels Top folk group: Malka and Joso Top folk singer: Gordon Lightfoot Best produced single: "My Girl Sloopy", Little Caesar and the Consuls Best produced album: Voice of an Angel by Catherine McKinnon Top country male singer: Gary Buck Top country female singer: Dianne Leigh Most promising country male singer: Angus Walker Most promising country female singer: Sharon Strong Top country instrumental vocal group: Rhythm Pals Top country instrumentalist: Roy Penney Top country radio personality: Al Fisher, CFGM Toronto Top Canadian disc jockey: Chuck Benson, CKYL Peace River Top record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top Canadian Content record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top national record promoter: Paul White, Capitol Records of Canada Top regional record promoter: Charlie Camilleri, Quality Records The winners were: Top male vocalist: Barry Allen Top female singer: Catherine McKinnon Most promising male vocalist: Jimmy Dybold Most promising female vocalist: Lynda Lane Top vocal/instrumental group: Staccatos Top female vocal group: Allan Sisters Top instrumental group: Wes Dakus & The Rebels Top folk group: 3's a Crowd Top folk singer: Gordon Lightfoot Best produced single: "Let's Run Away", Staccatos Top country male singer: Gary Buck Top country female singer: Dianne Leigh Most promising country male singer: Johnny Burke Most promising country female singer: Debbie Lori Kaye Top country instrumental vocal group: Mercey Brothers Top country instrumentalist: Roy Penney Top country radio personality: Ted Daigle Top country radio station: CFGM Top record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top Canadian Content record company: Red Leaf Records Top national record promoter: Paul White, Capitol Records of Canada Top regional record promoter: Al Nair Top Canadian music industry man of the year: Stan Klees List of number-one singles in Canada List of RPM number-one alternative rock singles List of RPM number-one country singles List of RPM number-one dance singles RPM archive charts RPM Library and Archives Canada: "The RPM Story" The Canadian Encyclopedia: RPM Charts archive from 1964 to 1999 on worldcharts.co.uk Megan Thow.
"Critical Miss". Ryerson Review of Journalism. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 15 September 2007
"Under Pressure" is a 1981 song by the British rock band Queen and British singer David Bowie. It was included on Queen's 1982 album Hot Space; the song reached number one on the UK Singles Chart, becoming Queen's second number-one hit in their home country and Bowie's third. The song peaked at No. 29 on the US Billboard Hot 100 in January 1982, would re-chart for one week at No. 45 in the US following Bowie's death in January 2016. It was number 31 on VH1's 100 Greatest Songs of the'80s, it was voted the second best collaboration of all time in a poll by Rolling Stone magazine. The song was played live at every Queen concert from 1981 until the end of Queen's touring career in 1986, it is recorded on the live albums Queen Rock Montreal and Live at Wembley'86. The song was included on some editions of Queen's first Greatest Hits compilations, such as the original 1981 Elektra release in the US, it is included on the band's compilation albums Greatest Hits II, Classic Queen, Absolute Greatest as well as Bowie compilations such as Best of Bowie, The Platinum Collection, Nothing Has Changed and Legacy.
Queen were not satisfied with the result. David Bowie had come to Mountain Studios to sing backing vocals on another Queen song, "Cool Cat", but his vocals were removed from the final song because he was not satisfied with his performance. Once he got there, they wrote the song; the final version, which became "Under Pressure", evolved from a jam session that Bowie had with the band at Queen's studio in Montreux, Switzerland. It was credited as being co-written by the five musicians; the scat singing that dominates much of the song is evidence of the jam-beginnings as improvisation. However, according to Queen bassist John Deacon, the song's primary musical songwriter was Freddie Mercury – though all contributed to the arrangement. Brian May recalled to Mojo magazine, in October 2008, that, "It was hard, because you had four precocious boys and David, precocious enough for all of us. David took over the song lyrically. Looking back, it's a great song but it should have been mixed differently. Freddie and David had a fierce battle over that.
It's a significant song because of David and its lyrical content." The earlier, embryonic version of the song without Bowie, "Feel Like", is available in bootleg form, was written by Queen drummer Roger Taylor. There has been some confusion about who had created the song's bassline. John Deacon said. In more recent interviews, Brian May and Roger Taylor credited the bass riff to Deacon. Bowie, on his website, said that the bassline was written before he became involved. Roger Taylor, in an interview for the BBC documentary Queen: the Days of Our Lives, stated that Deacon did indeed create the bassline, stating that all through the sessions in the studio he had been playing the riff over and over, he claims that when the band returned from dinner, amusingly, forgot the riff, but Taylor was still able to remember it. Brian May clarified matters in a 2016 Mirror Online article; the September 2005 edition of online music magazine Stylus singled out the bassline as the best in popular music history.
In November 2004, Stylus music critic Anthony Miccio commented that "Under Pressure" "is the best song of all time" and described it as Queen's "opus". In 2012, Slant Magazine listed "Under Pressure" as the 21st best single of the 1980s; the video for the song features neither David Bowie due to touring commitments. Taking the theme of pressure, director David Mallet edited together stock footage of traffic jams, commuter trains packed with passengers, riots, cars being crushed and various pieces of footage from silent films of the 1920s, most notably Sergei Eisenstein's influential Soviet film Battleship Potemkin, the silent Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde starring John Barrymore, F. W. Murnau's a masterpiece of the German Expressionist movement; the video explores the pressure-cooker mentality of a culture willing to wage war against political machines, at the same time love and have fun. Top of the Pops refused to show the video due to it containing footage of explosions in Northern Ireland, so a choreographed performance was instead shown.
In 2003, Slant Magazine ranked “Under Pressure” number 27 among the 100 greatest music videos of all time. Side one"Under Pressure" – 4:08Side two"Soul Brother" – 3:38 Side one"Under Pressure" – 4:08Side two"Soul Brother" – 3:38 "Under Pressure" – 4:08 "Soul Brother" – 3:40 "Body Language" – 4:33 Original producers: Queen David BowieMusicians on original version: Freddie Mercury – lead and backing vocals, Hammond organ, finger snaps Brian May – electric guitars, finger snaps Roger Taylor – drums, backing vocals, finger snaps John Deacon – bass guitar, finger snaps David Bowie – lead and backing vocals, handclaps, finger snaps Although much a joint project, only Queen incorporated the song into their live shows at the time. Bowie chose not to perform the song before an audience until the 1992 Freddie Mercury Tribute Concert, when he and Annie Lennox sang it as a duet. However, after Mercury's death and the Outside tour in 1995, Bowie performed the song at v
The Bösendorfer Model 290 Imperial or Imperial Bösendorfer is the largest model and flagship piano manufactured by Bösendorfer, at around 290 cm long, 176 cm wide, weighing 552 kg. It has an eight-octave range from C0 to C8. For 90 years it was the only concert grand piano in the world with 97 keys, until it was joined in 1990 by the instruments of Stuart & Sons of Australia. Music critic Melinda Bargreen has described the Imperial as the ne plus ultra of pianos, while pianist Garrick Ohlsson dubbed it the "Rolls-Royce of pianos". Bösendorfer built the first Imperial in 1909, following a suggestion by composer Ferruccio Busoni to build a model with an extended range. Busoni sought to extend the range to accommodate his transcription of Johann Sebastian Bach's organ works. In order to emulate the 32 foot registers available on some large organs, he needed the entire octave down to C0; the Bösendorfer Imperial features 97 keys: a full eight octaves. This is in contrast to the Bösendorfer 225, which has 92 keys.
The extra keys, which are all at the bass end of the keyboard, are colored black so that the pianist can tell them apart from the normal keys of an 88-key piano. They were covered with a removable panel to prevent a pianist from accidentally playing the extra notes. While the keys are used, the extra bass strings create additional harmonic resonance that contributes to an overall richer sound. Compositions have been written to utilize the extra keys. Pianist and University of Washington School of Music director Robin McCabe explains the challenge of adjusting to the extra keys: "One's'southern sight-lines,' so to speak, can be skewed because of the extra footage in the bass. Ending a piece such as Debussy's L'isle joyeuse, for example, with its nose-dive final gesture to the low A of the piano, becomes a bit more problematic when that A is not the lowest note on the piano!" " 290 has proved a bit of a temperamental star, sounding harsh and jarring in the hands of pianists who don't understand how to play it, marvelously refined in the hands of those who do".
Bösendorfer Imperial Concert Grand pianos, handcrafted in Austria, retail for between US$256,000 and $560,000 in the U. S. depending on finish and whether the Disklavier Enspire computer reproducing system is installed. In 1977, the price was reported to be $145,000 in current value. While the concert piano market is dominated by Steinway & Sons, which signs prominent artists to a performance agreement and urges them to refrain from playing any other piano brand, performers preferring the Bösendorfer Imperial will have that piano shipped with them while on tour. Wilhelm Backhaus Paul Badura-Skoda Victor Borge Carol Rosenberger Garrick Ohlsson Charlemagne Palestine Keith Jarrett Valentina Lisitsa András Schiff Wibi Soerjadi Tori Amos Cecil Taylor Oscar Peterson La Monte Young Frank Zappa Bösendorfer piano company official site of the Bösendorfer piano company BosendorferImperial.com site dedicated to the Imperial pianos, with complete audio files of songs, history, specs Bösendorfer model 290 Imperial Photos of a Bosendorfer Model 290 Imperial Grand Piano Extra Keys