Sailor tattoos refer to a type of tattoo traditionally favored by sailors and the traditions that accompany these tattoos. "Old school" tattoos were common among sailors, depicting images like swallows on either side of the chest, girls in sailor hats, pairs of dice. Sailor Jerry's work typified this style of tattooing during the early-mid twentieth century. After falling out of style for several decades, these stylized tattoos are regaining popularity again among young people, both sailors and non-sailors, they are favored among tattoo artists themselves. This returning trend is seen in the increasing popularity of traditional Sailor Jerry designs, nautical tattoos and clothing printed with stylized sailor tattoo images, it is believed that tattooing on European sailors originated with Captain James Cook's crew after he arrived in the Pacific. Sailor tattoos became one of the attributes that identified a sailor. Many other cultures had long used tattoos for identification or aesthetics, such as the Japanese and Pacific Islanders, but the connection with a seafaring lifestyle in European culture developed into its own unique style of tattooing.
Western European sailors took up the practice of religious designs readily: Sailors, at the constant mercy of the elements feel the need for religious images on their bodies to appease the angry powers that caused storms and drowning far from home. Tattoos with sailors can be traced back as far as the 1700s when Captain James Cook came across the Maori of the South Pacific, his crew decided to get tattoos as "souvenirs" of their visit. After that the connection between sailors and tattoos increased. A focus on the regulation of tattoos did not begin until the early 1900s when the United States government declared that anyone with an "obscene" tattoo would not be allowed in the Navy. With the declaration many young men took advantage of the easy way out of serving, thus creating a boom in tattoos of nude women. However, if they decided to join the navy they had to have a tattoo artist "dress" the woman. Norman Collins, better known as Sailor Jerry, was a prolific tattoo artist for sailors. During the Second World War in Honolulu, the red-light district was ablaze with sailors and soldiers about to ship off, in the center of this was Collins.
His skill and prolific work helped make tattoos an art form in America rather than a permanent souvenir for drunken sailors. The popularity of his tattoos resulted in publicity that nearly ruined Collins. Government scrutiny made him temporarily quit tattooing in the 1950s, after nearly 20 years of doing it. Collins despised tattoo artists who he felt sought the spotlight, like Lyle Tuttle of San Francisco, because they drew broader government attention to the tattooing business. Bottles of booze Snakes Wildcats The “aloha” monkey Birds of prey Swallows Motor heads and pistons Nautical stars Weapons, such as guns, knives Dice Sailing cultures tend to be rich in traditions. Over time, tattoos became one of the more popular traditions among mariners. Since their introduction, tattoos became a graphic language and a way for sailors to express themselves through body art, as well as a means of visually identifying with a broader social group; the purpose of sailor tattoos was to record important events or experiences such travels, naval hierarchy, status, and/or any other significant event in life.
Examples of popular symbols in the sailor tattooing are: Anchor: Refers to a sailor who has achieved the rank of Boatswain or Chief, though indicated sailing across the Atlantic. Dragon: Refers to a sailor that has served in Asia. Rigged Ship: Represents traversal of Cape Horn. Golden Dragon: Means. Harpoon: Refers to a member of the fishing fleet. Hula Girl: Reflects being stationed in Hawaii or sailing there. Rope around the wrist/"Hold Fast" across the knuckles: Represents a sailor, or was a deckhand. Swallow: Initially obtained when first setting to sea, now traditionally received for each increment of 5,000 miles sailed. Chicken and Pig: Usually tattooed on each foot to protect the sailor from drowning in a shipwreck; this is from chicken and pigs said to survive wrecks because their wooden shipping containers kept them afloat. Sailor tattoos are a visual way to preserve the culture of the sailors' superstitions. Throughout history sailors were a superstitious group and believed that certain symbols and talismans would help them in when facing certain events in life.
They thought. For example, the images of a pig and a hen were considered wards against drowning. Another example is the North Star. Tattoos developed in the underclass of mariner culture; the tattoos became associated with the criminals and gangs who dwelt in these same districts. Sailor tattoos differentiated from these terrestrial tattoos as sailors continued to design new mariner motifs of their own, creating a distinct tattooing culture among sailors. By the 19th century, about 90% of all United States Navy sailors had tattoos. In 2016 the US Navy issued new, more liberal policies on sailor tattoos, allowing Sailors to have tattoos below the knee and on the forearms and hands, as well as allowing tattoos up to one inch by one inch on the neck including behind the ear
A facial tattoo is a tattoo located on the bearer's face or head. Taboo unacceptable, considered extreme in body art, this style and placement of tattoo has become more popular in recent years; this is due to its acceptance in criminality, the continuing acceptance of tattoos overall in society, the emergence of hip-hop culture popularizing styles such as the teardrop tattoo. Artists such as Lil Wayne, Soulja Boy, Gucci Mane and, in recent years, XXXTentacion, Lil Peep, 21 Savage, Post Malone, 6ix9ine contribute to its acceptance in popular culture. In Ancient Rome, slaves who fled or attempted escape from their masters would be branded on their foreheads or tattooed against their will; these tattoos portrayed the crimes committed and were a punishment because of the inability to cover up a tattoo on the forehead. As the Roman world entered late antiquity, extreme Christian sects began to use former-slave forehead tattoos as religious symbols and signs of strength. Religious facial and head tattoos were not unacceptable within these circles though in the greater Roman mainstream there was still an association between face tattoos and former slavery.
In 315/316 CE, an edict outlawed facial branding/tattooing for slaves. Medieval pilgrims would get tattoos whilst visiting the Holy Land, including the occasional face tattoo. Crusaders may have got facial tattoos as permanent proof of their participation in the Crusades, although this is unknown. Presently, face tattoos are considered unacceptable and "outrageous" and will prohibit the tattooed person from finding employment and results in discrimination in many cases. Most tattoo artists will attempt to dissuade clients from getting a facial tattoo or may outright refuse to do a facial tattoo. Due to how taboo tattoos were they are associated with criminality. Many gangs and criminal organizations mark members with tattoos, including visible areas such as the face and neck. Members may get excessive facial tattoos as a form of intimidation; this started in California in the 1980s before becoming widespread. A 2013 study published in Psychology, Public Policy, Law concluded that face tattoos lead to bias in the jury and more frequent convictions.
Many ex-convicts have facial tattoos, due to prison tattooing, the culture of prison tattoos includes the indoctrination of people within the prison populace into gangs, which require tattoos to show aggression. These tattoos include teardrop tattoos indicating that the bearer has either taken a life or lost someone close to them. In the mid 2000s, the trend of getting a facial tattoo emerged among celebrities, starting with Mike Tyson's large tribal tattoo in 2003 and the ascension of rap music from the underground to the mainstream; this allowed artists with a criminal background and face tattoos to become well known, including Birdman, Lil Wayne and The Game. Lil Wayne's excessive tattooing of his face created a minor trend that he helped pioneer inspiring rappers like Gucci Mane and then-chart topper Soulja Boy to get facial tattoos; the influence of artists like Lil Wayne getting face tattoos wasn't realized until the mid-2010s with the resurgence of trap music and the "SoundCloud rap" scene.
Artists such as Lil Uzi Vert, Travis Scott, 21 Savage and Migos all have facial tattoos and emerged between 2014 and 2016, soon entering the mainstream and the Billboard Hot 100. The facial tattoos are used by these artists as motivation to limit attaining meaningful employment, leading them to focus on their music career. This, alongside with the entrance of hip-hop culture and black culture into the mainstream has led to face tattoos increasing in popularity. Though discrimination remains in the fashion world for models who have facial tattoos models with face tattoos of the brand they're modeling for, such as having a Chanel logo under your eye, is becoming acceptable
Irezumi are traditional Japanese tattoos. Irezumi is the Japanese word for tattoo, Japanese tattooing has had its own distinct style created over centuries. Irezumi is done by hand, using wooden metal needles attached via silk thread; this method requires special ink called Nara ink. It is a painful and time consuming process, done by a limited number of specialists; the tattoo artist is called a Brother, has one or more apprentices working for him for a long period of time. They become a part of the horishis tattoo family. Irezumi was associated with firemen, who wore them as a form of spiritual protection, they were admired figures of roguish sex-appeal, which inspired imitation. At the beginning of the Meiji period the Japanese government outlawed tattoos, Irezumi took on connotations of criminality. Many yakuza and other criminals now avoid tattoos for this reason. In Japanese, "irezumi" means "inserting ink" and it can be written in several ways, most as 入れ墨. Synonyms include bunshin and gei.
Each of these synonyms can be read as "irezumi", a gikun reading of these kanji. Tattoos are sometimes called horimono. Tattooing for spiritual and decorative purposes in Japan is thought to extend back to at least the Jōmon or paleolithic period; some scholars have suggested that the distinctive cord-marked patterns observed on the faces and bodies of figures dated to that period represent tattoos, but this claim is by no means unanimously accepted. There are similarities, between such markings and the tattoo traditions observed in other contemporaneous cultures. In the following Yayoi period tattoo designs remarked upon by Chinese visitors; such designs were thought to have spiritual significance as well as functioning as a status symbol. But there's evidence to the contrary, According to Kojiki, there was no tattoo tradition on the ancient Japanese mainland and people with tattoo traditions were recognized as aliens, and there is a record in Nihon shoki. Starting in the Kofun period tattoos began to assume negative connotations.
Instead of being used for ritual or status purposes, tattooed marks began to be placed on criminals as a punishment. The Ainu people, an indigenous people of Japan, are known to have used tattoos for decorative and social purposes. There is no known relation to the development of irezumi; until the Edo period, the role of tattoos in Japanese society fluctuated. Tattooed marks were still used as punishment, but minor fads for decorative tattoos, some featuring designs that would be completed only when lovers' hands were joined came and went, it was in the Edo period however, that Japanese decorative tattooing began to develop into the advanced art form it is known as today. The impetus for the development of the art were the development of the art of woodblock printing and the release of the popular Chinese novel Suikoden, a tale of rebel courage and manly bravery illustrated with lavish woodblock prints showing men in heroic scenes, their bodies decorated with dragons and other mythical beasts, ferocious tigers and religious images.
The novel was an immediate success, demand for the type of tattoos seen in its illustrations was simultaneous. Woodblock artists began tattooing, they used many of the same tools for imprinting designs in human flesh as they did to create their woodblock prints, including chisels, gouges and, most unique ink known as Nara ink, or Nara black, the ink that famously turns blue-green under the skin. There is academic debate over; some scholars say. Others claim that wealthy merchants, barred by law from flaunting their wealth, wore expensive irezumi under their clothes, it is known for certain that irezumi became associated with firemen, dashing figures of bravery and roguish sex-appeal, who wore them as a form of spiritual protection. At the beginning of the Meiji period the Japanese government, wanting to protect its image and make a good impression on the West and to avoid ridicule, outlawed tattoos, irezumi took on connotations of criminality. Fascinated foreigners went to Japan seeking the skills of tattoo artists, traditional tattooing continued underground.
Tattooing has retained its image of criminality. For many years, traditional Japanese tattoos were associated with the yakuza, Japan's notorious mafia, many businesses in Japan still ban customers with tattoos. Although tattoos have gained popularity among the youth of Japan due to Western influence, there is still a stigma on them among the general consensus. Unlike the US finding a tattoo shop in Japan may prove difficult, with tattoo shops placed in areas that are tourist or US military friendly. According to Kunihiro Shimada, the president of the Japan Tattoo Institute, “Today, thanks to years of government suppression, there are 300 tattoo artists in Japan. There are current political repercussions for tattoos in Japan. In 2012, the mayor of Osaka, Toru Hashimoto, started a campaign to rid companies of their employees with tattoos. According to an article written about Hashimoto “He is on a mission to force workers in his government to admit to any tattoos in obvious places. If they have them, they should remove them—or find work elsewhere.”
Hashimoto’s beliefs wer
Industrial design is a process of design applied to products that are to be manufactured through techniques of mass production. Its key characteristic is that design is separated from manufacture: the creative act of determining and defining a product's form and features takes place in advance of the physical act of making a product, which consists purely of repeated automated, replication; this distinguishes industrial design from craft-based design, where the form of the product is determined by the product's creator at the time of its creation. All manufactured products are the result of a design process, but the nature of this process can take many forms: it can be conducted by an individual or a large team; the role of an industrial designer is to create and execute design solutions for problems of form, usability, physical ergonomics, brand development and sales. For several millennia before the onset of industrialisation, technical expertise, manufacturing were done by individuals craftsmen, who determined the form of a product at the point of its creation, according to their own manual skill, the requirements of their clients, experience accumulated through their own experimentation, knowledge passed on to them through training or apprenticeship.
The division of labour that underlies the practice of industrial design did have precedents in the pre-industrial era. The growth of trade in the medieval period led to the emergence of large workshops in cities such as Florence, Venice and Bruges, where groups of more specialized craftsmen made objects with common forms through the repetitive duplication of models which defined by their shared training and technique. Competitive pressures in the early 16th century led to the emergence in Italy and Germany of pattern books: collections of engravings illustrating decorative forms and motifs which could be applied to a wide range of products, whose creation took place in advance of their application; the use of drawing to specify how something was to be constructed was first developed by architects and shipwrights during the Italian Renaissance. In the 17th century, the growth of artistic patronage in centralized monarchical states such as France led to large government-operated manufacturing operations epitomised by the Gobelins Manufactory, opened in Paris in 1667 by Louis XIV.
Here teams of hundreds of craftsmen, including specialist artists and engravers, produced sumptuously decorated products ranging from tapestries and furniture to metalwork and coaches, all under the creative supervision of the King's leading artist Charles Le Brun. This pattern of large-scale royal patronage was repeated in the court porcelain factories of the early 18th century, such as the Meissen porcelain workshops established in 1709 by the Grand Duke of Saxony, where patterns from a range of sources, including court goldsmiths and engravers, were used as models for the vessels and figurines for which it became famous; as long as reproduction remained craft-based, the form and artistic quality of the product remained in the hands of the individual craftsman, tended to decline as the scale of production increased. The emergence of industrial design is linked to the growth of industrialisation and mechanisation that began with the industrial revolution in Great Britain in the mid 18th century.
The rise of industrial manufacture changed the way objects were made, urbanisation changed patterns of consumption, the growth of empires broadened tastes and diversified markets, the emergence of a wider middle class created demand for fashionable styles from a much larger and more heterogeneous population. The first use of the term "industrial design" is attributed to the industrial designer Joseph Claude Sinel in 1919, but the discipline predates 1919 by at least a decade. Christopher Dresser is considered among the first independent industrial designers. Industrial design's origins lie in the industrialization of consumer products. For instance the Deutscher Werkbund, founded in 1907 and a precursor to the Bauhaus, was a state-sponsored effort to integrate traditional crafts and industrial mass-production techniques, to put Germany on a competitive footing with Great Britain and the United States; the earliest use of the term may have been in The Art Union, A monthly Journal of the Fine Arts, 1839.
Dyce's report to the Board of Trade on foreign schools of Design for Manufactures. Mr Dyces official visit to France and Bavaria for the purpose of examining the state of schools of design in those countries will be fresh in the recollection of our readers, his report on this subject was ordered to be printed some few months since, on the motion of Mr Hume. The school of St Peter, at Lyons was founded about 1750 for the instruction of draftsmen employed in preparing patterns for the silk manufacture, it has been much more successful than the Paris school and having been disorganized by the revolution, was restored by Napoleon and differently constituted, being erected into an Academy of Fine Art: to which the study of design for silk manufacture was attached as a subordinate branch. It appears that all the students who entered the school commence as if they were intended for artists in the higher sense of the word and are not expected to decide as to whether they will devote themselves to the Fine Arts or to Industrial Design, until they have completed their exercises in drawing and p
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, academic and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies; the Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web, electronic mail and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet"; the origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s; the funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, the merger of many networks.
The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was used by academia since the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into every aspect of modern life. Most traditional communication media, including telephony, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, video streaming websites. Newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators; the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or sell goods and services online.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders; when the term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, the word is a proper noun that should be written with an initial capital letter.
In common use and the media, it is erroneously not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as an adjective; the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. As early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, meaning interconnected or interwoven; the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are used interchangeably in everyday speech. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.
The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the early 1960s in the work of Paul Baran and Donald Davies. Packet-switched networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, the Merit Network, CYCLADES, Telenet were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s; the ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, the NLS system at SRI International by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969; the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of
History of tattooing
Tattooing has been practiced across the globe since at least Neolithic times, as evidenced by mummified preserved skin, ancient art and the archaeological record. Both ancient art and archaeological finds of possible tattoo tools suggest tattooing was practiced by the Upper Paleolithic period in Europe. However, direct evidence for tattooing on mummified human skin extends only to the 4th millennium BC; the oldest discovery of tattooed human skin to date is found on the body of Ötzi the Iceman, dating to between 3370 and 3100 BC. Other tattooed mummies have been recovered from at least 49 archaeological sites, including locations in Greenland, Siberia, western China, Sudan, the Philippines and the Andes; these include Amunet, Priestess of the Goddess Hathor from ancient Egypt, multiple mummies from Siberia including the Pazyryk culture of Russia and from several cultures throughout Pre-Columbian South America. Cemeteries throughout the Tarim Basin including the sites of Qäwrighul, Shengjindian and Qizilchoqa have revealed several tattooed mummies with Western Asian/Indo-European physical traits and cultural materials.
These date from between 2100 and 550 BC. In ancient China, tattoos were considered a barbaric practice, were referred to in literature depicting bandits and folk heroes; as late as the Qing Dynasty, it was common practice to tattoo characters such as 囚 on convicted criminals' faces. Although rare during most periods of Chinese history, slaves were sometimes marked to display ownership. However, tattoos seem to have remained a part of southern culture. Marco Polo wrote of Quanzhou, "Many come hither from Upper India to have their bodies painted with the needle in the way we have elsewhere described, there being many adepts at this craft in the city". At least three of the main characters – Lu Zhishen, Shi Jin, Yan Ching – in the classic novel Water Margin are described as having tattoos covering nearly all of their bodies. Wu Song was sentenced to a facial tattoo describing his crime after killing Xi Menqing to avenge his brother. In addition, Chinese legend claimed the mother of Yue Fei tattooed the words "Repay the Country with Pure Loyalty" down her son's back before he left to join the army..
The earliest possible evidence for tattooing in Europe appears on ancient art from the Upper Paleolithic period as incised designs on the bodies of humanoid figurines. The Löwenmensch figurine from the Aurignacian culture dates to 40,000 years ago and features a series of parallel lines on its left shoulder; the ivory Venus of Hohle Fels, which dates to between 35,000 and 40,000 years ago exhibits incised lines down both arms, as well as across the torso and chest. The oldest and most famous direct proof of ancient European tattooing appears on the body of Ötzi the Iceman, found in the Ötz valley in the Alps and dates from the late 4th millennium BC. Studies have revealed that Ötzi had 61 carbon-ink tattoos consisting of 19 groups of lines simple dots and lines on his lower spine, left wrist, behind his right knee and on his ankles, it has been argued that these tattoos were a form of healing because of their placement, though other explanations are plausible. Pre-Christian Germanic and other central and northern European tribes were heavily tattooed, according to surviving accounts, but it may have been normal paint.
The Picts may have been tattooed with war-inspired black or dark blue woad designs. Julius Caesar described these tattoos in Book V of his Gallic Wars; these may have been painted markings rather than tattoos. Ahmad ibn Fadlan wrote of his encounter with the Scandinavian Rus' tribe in the early 10th century, describing them as tattooed from "fingernails to neck" with dark blue "tree patterns" and other "figures." However, this may have been paint, since the word used can mean both tattoo and painting. During the gradual process of Christianization in Europe, tattoos were considered remaining elements of paganism and legally prohibited; the significance of tattooing was long open to Eurocentric interpretations. In the mid-19th century, Baron Haussmann, while arguing against painting the interior of Parisian churches, said the practice "reminds me of the tattoos used in place of clothes by barbarous peoples to conceal their nakedness". Greek written records of tattooing date back to at least the 5th-century BCE.
The ancient Greeks and Romans used tattooing to penalize slaves and prisoners of war. While known, decorative tattooing was looked down upon and religious tattooing was practiced in Egypt and Syria. According to Robert Graves in his book The Greek Myths, tattooing was common amongst certain religious groups in the ancient Mediterranean world, which may have contributed to the prohibition of tattooing in Leviticus; the Romans of Late Antiquity tattooed soldiers and arms manufacturers, a practice that continued into the ninth century. The Greek verb stizein, meaning "to prick," was used for tattooing, its derivative stigma was the common term for tattoo marks in both Latin. During the Byzantine period, the verb kentein replaced stizein, a variety of new Latin terms replaced stigmata including signa "signs," characteres "stamps," and cicatrices "scars." British and other pilgrims to the Holy Lands throughout the 17th century were tattooed to commemorate their voyages, including William Lithgow in 1612.
In 1691, William Dampier brought to London a native of the western part of New Guinea who had a tattooed body and became known as t
UV tattoos or blacklight tattoos are tattoos made with dyes that fluoresce visibly under an ultraviolet light, not unlike fluorescein or rhodamine. Depending upon the ink chosen a UV tattoo can be nearly invisible when illuminated only by light within the visible spectrum. Therefore, they have found popularity with people seeking a subtler tattoo. UV tattoos are popular in the raver subculture for their distinctive appearance. Although UV tattoos are sometimes considered invisible in normal light, scarring produced by the tattoo machine in the application process will remain, therefore still show. Smaller tattoos will be easier to recognize as tattoos, while larger tattoos are more to be recognized as a scar at first glance. A UV tattoo becomes visible under blacklight, when it fluoresces in colors ranging from white to purple, depending upon the ink chosen. Colored inks are available, where the ink is visible in normal light and the ink will glow vividly under UV light. Due to the mixing of visible and UV pigments the resulting color is not as vibrant in either lighting situation as a dedicated ink.
Damage to the compounds in tattoo ink cause the color of the resulting tattoo to change over time. For UV tattoos this may mean the tattoo becomes more visible under visible light or may not glow in black lighting. Blue UV inks are known to yellow or turn brown with sun exposure. No tattoo inks have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration because the FDA "has not traditionally regulated tattoo inks or the pigments used in them". Claims made that UV tattoo ink is "FDA Approved" when used for tattooing humans appear to be fraudulent; this is confused by the fact some UV tattoo inks have been approved by the FDA for food-related purposes such as marking food animals like fish and pigs. Other territories produce standards for tattooing inks but do not keep publicly available lists of products which pass certifications; this makes it difficult for tattooists and their clients to judge the safety of any particular ink, a problem that extends to all inks. Some people have reactions to ingredients in tattoo ink to phosphor based tattoo ink ranging from minor itching to dermatitis.
Although many people who have received UV tattoos have had physical effects on the skin, any ink could cause a reaction. Any tattoo can produce irritation as a result of not protecting the tattoo from intense sunlight within 3 months of receiving the tattoo or by using irritants such as scented cremes or lotions on the tattoo area. UV inks do not blend during application. Additionally their consistency is thinner. Only experienced tattooists should apply UV tattoos, should have a blacklight available to help check their work if tattooing with an ink intended to be invisible under normal lighting conditions. Due to these complications UV inking takes longer than. UV tattoo ink's fluorescence will be dulled. Therefore, for vibrant high impact tattoos normal ink is used, allowed to heal, highlighted with UV inks. Photochromatic tattoos that react to UV light to change the colour of the pigment itself instead of exhibiting fluorescence have been patented. Phosphorescent tattoo