In a reciprocating engine, the crankpins, known as crank journals are the journals of the big end bearings, at the ends of the connecting rods opposite to the pistons. If the engine has a crankshaft, the crankpins are the journals of the bearings of the crankshaft. In a beam engine, the single crankpin is mounted on the flywheel, In a steam locomotive, big end bearings are commonly bushings or plain bearings, but less commonly may be roller bearings. In a multi-cylinder engine, a crankpin can serve one or many cylinders, for example, In a straight or flat engine, in a V engine, each crankpin usually serves two cylinders, one in each cylinder bank. In a radial engine, each serves a entire row of cylinders. There are three common configurations of big end bearing, If a crankpin serves only one cylinder, the big end is a simple design. This design is the cheapest to produce, and is used in, If a crankpin serves more than one cylinder, the corresponding cylinders may have an offset, to simplify the design of the big end bearing.
This design is used in, Most V engines, If more than one cylinder is served by a single crankpin but there is no offset, some or all of the connecting rods must be forked at the big end. Any extra weight added to the big end itself carries a penalty of adding vibration, as the number of cylinders grows, the effect of the offset on balance becomes less important, and forked connecting rods become less common. They are mainly used in, Single-row radial engines, some V-twin engines, notably including motorcycle engines. Connecting rod Crankshaft Crankshaft deep rolling
Cisitalia Grand Prix
The Cisitalia Grand Prix is a single-seater car for the postwar 1. 5-litre supercharged Grand Prix class, built by Italian sports car manufacturer Cisitalia and introduced in 1949. It was designed on behalf of Cisitalia by Porsche between 1946–47, and is known by its Porsche project number, Typ 360. An extremely advanced design, it proved too complex to build for the small Italian firm—leading to a lengthy development, between Cisitalias 1949 liquidation and the fact that supercharged engines were banned for the 1952 Formula One season, the car never raced. The car was commissioned by Piero Dusio in 1946, Dusio paid a large sum of money up front, part of which was used to free Ferdinand Porsche from the French prison in which he was being held effectively for ransom. Dusio gave Porsche only 16 months to complete the car proved too short a time to sort out the advanced design. A fully enclosed streamlined body for fast circuits was planned giving over 200 mph, bench tests showed about 385 bhp at 10,500 rpm.
The chassis was of chromoly tubing and featured four wheel drive with a sequential gear-shift. Suspension was trailing arm in front De Dion tube in the rear, porsches experience with the pre-war Auto Union Grand Prix cars showed through in the layout and design of the Cisitalia to the extent that it has been referred to as the E Type. By the time the prototype was finished Dusio was out of cash. The car languished in development until 1951, at one point being shipped off to Argentina to try to persuade president Juan Perón to invest in the company, the car is currently on display in the Porsche Museum in Stuttgart. 8W The rear-engined revolution, Horses pushing the cart Cisitalia Museum
The Porsche 917 is a race car that gave Porsche its first overall wins at the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1970 and 1971. The highest official speed ever clocked for a 917 at Le Mans is 362 km/h or 224.4 mph, there are at least eleven variants of the 917. The original version had a removable long tail/medium tail with rear wing flaps. The changes were adopted into a new version of the 917, called the Kurzheck, or short-tail. The 917K, and the special Le Mans long-tail version, dominated the 1970 and 1971 World Sportscar Championships. In 1971, a variant of the 917K appeared with an upswept tail and vertical fins. The fins kept the clean downforce inducing air on the top of the tail and allowed the angle of the deck to be reduced, the result was a more attractive looking car that maintained down force for less drag and higher top speed. By this time the original 4. 5-litre engine, which had produced around 520 bhp in 1969, had been enlarged through 4. 9-litres to 5-litres, the 917K models were generally used for the shorter road courses such as Sebring, Brands Hatch and Spa-Francorchamps.
The big prize for Porsche however, was Le Mans, for the French circuits long, high speed straights, the factory developed special long tail bodywork that was designed for minimum drag and thus highest maximum speed. On the cars debut in 1969, these models proved to be nearly uncontrollable as there was so little down force. In fact, they generated aerodynamic lift at the highest speeds, for 1970, an improved version was raced by the factory and for 1971, after very significant development in the wind tunnel, the definitive 917L was raced by both factory and JW. These cars were so stable that the drivers could take their hands off the wheel at speeds which reached 246 mph. In 1971 Jo Siffert raced an open-top 917PA Spyder in the 1971 CanAm series, there is the Pink Pig aerodynamic research version, and the turbocharged 917/10 and 917/30 CanAm Spyders. Porsche 917s raced in the European Interseries in various configurations, in the 1973 Can-Am series, the turbocharged version Porsche 917/30 developed 1,100 bhp.
The 917 is one of the most iconic racing cars of all time, largely for its high speeds and high power outputs. 2009 marked the 40th anniversary of the 917, and Porsche held a celebration at the Goodwood Festival of Speed. This capacity reduction would serve to entice manufacturers who were already building three-litre Formula One engines into endurance racing and this targeted existing cars like the aging Ford GT40 Mk. I and the newer Lola T70 coupe. With Ferrari absent in 1968, mainly Porsche 908s and Ford P68s were entered there, as a result, old 2. 2-litre Porsche 907s often won that category, with John Wyers 4. 7-litre Ford GT40 Mk. I taking wins at faster tracks
Panhard is a French manufacturer of light tactical and military vehicles. Its current incarnation, now owned by Renault Trucks Defense, was formed by the acquisition of Panhard by Auverland in 2005, Panhard had been under Citroën ownership, PSA after the 1974 takeover of Citroën by Peugeot, for 40 years. The combined company now uses the Panhard name, this was decided based on studies indicating that the Panhard name had better brand recognition worldwide than the Auverland name, Panhard once built innovative civilian cars but ceased production of those in 1968. Many of its military products however end up on the market via third sources. Panhard built railbuses between the wars, Panhard was originally called Panhard et Levassor, and was established as a car manufacturing concern by René Panhard and Émile Levassor in 1887. Panhard et Levassor sold their first automobile in 1890, based on a Daimler engine license, Levassor obtained his licence from Paris lawyer Edouard Sarazin, a friend and representative of Gottlieb Daimlers interests in France.
Following Sarazins 1887 death, Daimler commissioned Sarazins widow Louise to carry on her late husbands agency, the Panhard et Levassor license was finalised by Louise, who married Levassor in 1890. Daimler and Levassor became fast friends, and shared improvements with one another and these first vehicles set many modern standards, but each was a one-off design. They used a pedal to operate a chain-driven gearbox. The vehicle featured a front-mounted radiator, an 1895 Panhard et Levassor is credited with the first modern transmission. For the 1894 Paris–Rouen Rally, Alfred Vacheron equipped his 4 horsepower with a steering wheel and this was to become the standard layout for automobiles for most of the next century. The same year, Panhard et Levassor shared their Daimler engine license with bicycle maker Armand Peugeot, in 1895,1,205 cc Panhard et Levassors finished first and second in the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris race, one piloted solo by Levassor, for 48¾hr. However during the 1896 Paris–Marseille–Paris race, Levassor was fatally injured due to a crash while trying to avoid hitting a dog, arthur Krebs succeeded Levassor as General Manager in 1897, and held the job until 1916.
He turned the Panhard et Levassor Company into one of the largest and most profitable manufacturer of automobiles before World War I, Panhards won numerous races from 1895 to 1903. Panhard et Levassor developed the Panhard rod, which used in many other types of automobiles as well. From 1910 Panhard worked to develop engines without conventional valves, using under license the sleeve valve technology that had been patented by the American Charles Yale Knight. Between 1910 and 1924 the Panhard & Levassor catalogue listed plenty of models with conventional valve engines, following various detailed improvements to the sleeve valve technology by Panhards own engineering department, from 1924 till 1940 all Panhard cars used sleeve valve engines. Under the presidency of Raymond Poincaré, which ran from 1913 till 1920, the military were keen on the sleeve valve engined Panhard 20HP
The Ferrari 158 was a racecar made by Ferrari in 1964 as a successor to the V6-powered Ferrari 156 F1 that had dominated in 1961 but become outdated by 1962. As with the British competition, it had a V8 engine, john Surtees won his only Formula One Drivers World Championship in it. This was done as a protest concerning arguments between Ferrari and the Italian Racing Authorities regarding the homologation of a new mid-engined Ferrari race car, similar to Honda with their RA271, Ferrari raced a flat-twelve-powered car, designated Ferrari 1512 or Ferrari 512 F1. In 1964 and 1965, both the V8 and V12 were used. The 196556.0 mm ×50.4 mm 1,489.63 cc V12 engine developed 220 bhp @12,000 rpm compared to the 210 bhp @11,000 rpm of the 196567.0 mm ×52.8 mm 1,489.24 cc V8 engine
Alfa Romeo Tipo 33
The Alfa Romeo Tipo 33 was a sports racing prototype raced by the Alfa Romeo factory-backed team between 1967 and 1977. These cars took part for Sport Cars World Championship, Nordic Challenge Cup, Interserie, a small number of road going cars were derived from it in 1967, called Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale. With the 33TT12 Alfa Romeo won the 1975 World Championship for Makes, Alfa Romeo started development of the Tipo 33 in the early 1960s, with the first car being built in 1965. It was sent to Autodelta to be completed and for changes to be made. It used an Alfa Romeo TZ2 straight-4 engine, but Autodelta produced its 2.0 litre V8 soon after, the 2000 cc Tipo 33 mid-engined prototype debuted on 12 March 1967 at the Belgian hillclimbing event at Fléron, with Teodoro Zeccoli winning. The first version was named as “periscope” because it had very characteristic air inlet and it was powered by a 1995 cc 90° V8 of 270 hp, with a large-diameter tube frame. The original T33 proved unreliable and uncompetitive in the 1967 World Sportscar Championship season, its best result a 5th at the Nürburgring 1000, co-driven by Zeccoli, in 1968, Alfas subsidiary, created an evolution model called 33/2.
A road version, dubbed Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale, was introduced, win was repeated at the Targa Florio, where Nanni Galli and Ignazio Giunti took second place overall, followed by teammates Lucien Bianchi and Mario Casoni. Galli and Giunti won the class at the Nürburgring 1000 km, however, in most races, the Alfa drivers were outclassed by their Porsche rivals which used bigger engines. In 1968, the car was used mainly by privateers, winning its class in the 1000km Monza, Targa Florio, at the end of season Alfa Romeo had finished third in the 1968 International Championship for Makes. A total of 28 cars were built during 1968, allowing the 33/2 to be homologated as a Group 4 Sports Car for 1969, the Alfa Romeo 33/3 made its debut in 1969 at the 12 Hours of Sebring. The engine was enlarged to 2998 cc with 400 hp, which put the 33/3 in the class as the Porsche 908. The chassis was now a monocoque, the new car did poorly at Sebring and Alfa did not take part in Le Mans after Lucien Bianchis death in a practice session.
The car took a couple of wins in smaller competitions but overall the 1969 season was not a successful one, in 1970, an Alfa T 33/3 was one of the actors of Steve McQueens movie Le Mans, released in 1971. In 1971 the Alfa Romeo racing effort was finally successful, rolf Stommelen and Nanni Galli won their class at the 1000km Buenos Aires, before taking another class win at Sebring. De Adamich and Pescarolo won outright at the 1000km Brands Hatch and they took a class win at Monza and another one at Spa. At the Targa Florio and Hezemans won outright, followed by teammates De Adamich and Vaccarella won their class at Zeltweg, and De Adamich and Ronnie Peterson won overall at Watkins Glen. Alfa Romeo finished the second place in the championship
Endurance racing (motorsport)
Endurance racing is a form of motorsport racing which is meant to test the durability of equipment and endurance of participants. Teams of multiple drivers attempt to cover a distance in a single event. Endurance races can be run either to cover a set distance in laps as quickly as possible, one of the more common lengths of endurance races has been running for 1,000 kilometres, or roughly six hours. Longer races can run for 1,000 miles,12 hours, teams can consist of anywhere from two to four drivers per event, which is dependent on the drivers endurance abilities, length of the race, or even the rules for each event. Coppa Florio was an Italian car race started in 1900, and renamed in 1905 when Vincenzo Florio offered the initial 50000 Lira, the Brescia race visited the route Brescia-Cremona-Mantova-Brescia. In 1908, the race used the Circuito di Bologna, Bologna-Castelfranco Emilia-SantAgata Bolognese-San Giovanni in Persiceto-Bologna, since 1914 most of the Coppa Florio was co-organized with the Targa Florio near Palermo, running four or five laps,108 km each.
The Mille Miglia was an endurance race which took place in Italy 24 times from 1927 to 1957. The worlds first organized 24-hour automobile race event was held on a 1-mile oval track at Driving Park, beginning on the afternoon of July 3, four cars from Frayer-Miller, Pope-Toledo and White Steamer raced for a $500 silver trophy. The winning Pope-Toledo car covered 828.5 miles, a protest was filed by the Frayer-Miller and Peerless teams, alleging the Pope-Toledo was not owned by the driver, instead sent from the factory with an engine built for racing. The first 24-hour race to place at a dedicated motorsport venue was at Brooklands. This incurred the wrath of local residents and would lead to the Double Twelve race and this format meant the race took place for 12 hours each between 8am to 8pm and between it, the cars were locked up overnight to prevent maintenance work from being performed on them. The 2001 Dakar Rally saw competitors cover a distance of 10,739 kilometres with a time of 70 hours over 20 days with three classes of cars and trucks.
The 1992 Paris–Cape Town Rally covered a distance of 12,427 km, the 1994 edition saw competitors return to Paris, for a distance of 13,379 km. The Expedition Trophy, first held in 2005, runs from Murmansk to Vladivostok, the 1908 New York to Paris Race covered a distance of over 16,000 km, taking 169 days from February 12 to July 30. The various endurance formats were appealing to manufacturers, not only as alternatives to the expense of Grand Prix racing, in automobile endurance racing, three events have come to form a Triple Crown. They are considered three of the most challenging endurance races over the decades, the Rolex 24 at Daytona,12 Hours of Sebring, hans Herrmann was the first in 1970 to win the three races, and Timo Bernhard the most recent. No driver has won the three events in the year, Hurley Haywood and Al Holbert have won the three races at least twice each. Bold on year indicate at which race the driver achieved his Triple Crown, the FIA World Endurance Championship is an international sports car racing series organized by both the Automobile Club de lOuest and the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile
The Porsche 908 was a racing car from Porsche, introduced in 1968 to continue the Porsche 906/Porsche 910/Porsche 907 series of models designed under Ferdinand Piech. The previous Porsche 907 only had a 2200 cc flat-8 engine with 270 hp, the new 3-litre flat-8 engine produced initially 257 kW at 8400 rpm, as well as some teething problems. The 908 originally was a closed coupe to provide low drag at fast tracks, but from 1969 on was mainly raced as the 908/2, a lighter open spyder. A more compact 908/3 was introduced in 1970 to complement the heavy Porsche 917 on twisty tracks that favored nimble cars, like Targa Florio and Nürburgring. Sold off to privateers for 1972, various 908s were entered until the early 1980s, the 908 is not to be confused with another sportscar of the same number, the Peugeot 908. Despite winning the 1000km Nürburgring, the 908 was anything but convincing in 1968, the older and smaller 2200 cc 907 had started the season with dominating wins and delivered better results than Porsches first serious attempt in the prototype category.
This risky investment should take about a year, the 196824 Hours of Le Mans were postponed from June to the end of September due to political unrest in France, setting the stage for a showdown between the 908s and the GT40s. The Porsche 908 LH Long Tails were the fastest in qualifying and the stages of the race. Troubles with the alternator caused delays and even disqualifications as the new Porsche team leaders had misinterpreted the repair rules, once again, a V8-powered Ford won, and a 907 Long Tail came in second in front of the sole surviving standard 908. In addition, Ford won the 1968 International Championship for Makes, for 1969, the Group 6 prototype rules were changed, and Porsche lowered the weight of the Porsche 908/02 Spyder by 100 kg, removing the roof and the long tails. Aluminium tube frames were used, with air pressure gauges to check them, the 196924 Hours of Daytona were a disaster for Porsche, as all three 908/02 failed, and a Lola T70 won. At the 12 Hours of Sebring, a Ford GT40 defeated a trio of factory-entered 908/2s, at that time, the more powerful Porsche 917 was introduced in Geneva, and it seemed that the career of the 908 would be over.
But with the car having arrived, the 908 started to succeed. The next race was the BOAC500 at Brands Hatch, where the 908 was finally successful, on the other hand, the prestigious 24 hours of Le Mans was again won by a Ford GT40 in 1969, as the 917s had gearbox troubles after leading for many hours. A908 challenged for the win, as Hans Herrmann came in as a very close 2nd behind Jacky Ickx. Herrmanns 908 low drag coupé was fast on the straights, but near the end the brake pads wore down. The team gambled on not changing the pads, which allowed Ickx to pass under braking, despite the more powerful 917 improving towards the end of 1969, the career of the 908 would continue. On rather twisty and slow tracks like Nürburgring and Targa Florio, so rather than trying to make one size fit all, Porsche built dedicated cars for each type of racing track
Armored car (military)
A military armored car is a lightweight wheeled armored fighting vehicle, historically employed for reconnaissance, internal security, armed escort, and other subordinate battlefield tasks. With the gradual decline of mounted cavalry, armored cars were developed for carrying out duties formerly assigned to horsemen, following the invention of the tank, the armored car remained popular due to its comparatively simplified maintenance and low production cost. It found favor with several colonial armies as a weapon for use in underdeveloped regions. During World War II, most armored cars were engineered for reconnaissance and passive observation, some equipped with heavier armament could even substitute for tracked combat vehicles in favorable conditions—such as pursuit or flanking maneuvers during the North African Campaign. The Motor Scout was designed and built by British inventor F. R. Simms in 1898 and it was the first armed petrol engine-powered vehicle ever built. The vehicle was a De Dion-Bouton quadricycle with a mounted Maxim machine gun on the front bar, an iron shield in front of the car protected the driver.
However, these were not armored cars as the term is understood today and they were also, by virtue of their small capacity engines, less efficient than the cavalry and horse-drawn guns that they were intended to complement. At the beginning of the 20th century, the first military armored vehicles were manufactured, by adding armor and weapons to existing vehicles. The vehicle had Vickers armour 6 mm thick and was powered by a four-cylinder 3. 3-litre 16-hp Cannstatt Daimler engine, the armament, consisting of two Maxim guns, was carried in two turrets with 360° traverse. Simms Motor War Car was presented at the Crystal Palace, another early armored car of the period was the French Charron, Girardot et Voigt 1902, presented at the Salon de lAutomobile et du cycle in Brussels, on 8 March 1902. The vehicle was equipped with a Hotchkiss machine gun, and with 7 mm armour for the gunner, one of the first operational armoured cars with four wheel drive and fully enclosed rotating turret, was the Austro-Daimler Panzerwagen built by Austro-Daimler in 1904.
It was armoured with 3-3.5 mm thick curved plates over the body and had a 4mm thick dome-shaped rotating turret that housed one or two machine-guns and it had a 4-cylinder 35 hp 4.4 litre engine giving it average cross country performance. Of note, both the driver and co-driver had adjustable seats enabling them to them to see out of the roof of the drive compartment as needed. The Italians used armored cars during the Italo-Turkish War, a great variety of armored cars appeared on both sides during World War I and these were used in various ways. Generally, the cars were used by more or less independent car commanders. However, sometimes they were used in units up to squadron size. The cars were armed with light machine guns, but larger units usually employed a few cars with heavier guns. As air power became a factor, armored cars offered a platform for antiaircraft guns
The Wankel engine is a type of internal combustion engine using an eccentric rotary design to convert pressure into rotating motion. The engine is referred to as a rotary engine, although this name applies to other completely different designs. All parts rotate moving in one direction, as opposed to the reciprocating piston engine which has pistons violently changing direction. The design was conceived by German engineer Felix Wankel, Wankel received his first patent for the engine in 1929. He began development in the early 1950s at NSU, and completed a prototype in 1957. NSU subsequently licensed the design to companies around the world, who have continually added improvements, the engines produced are of spark ignition, with compression ignition engines only in research projects. The Wankel engine has the advantages of compact design and low weight over the most commonly used internal combustion engine employing reciprocating pistons, the point of power to weight has been reached of under one pound weight per horsepower output.
In 1951, NSU Motorenwerke AG in Germany began development of the engine, the first, the DKM motor, was developed by Felix Wankel. The second, the KKM motor, developed by Hanns Dieter Paschke, was adopted as the basis of the modern Wankel engine, so the Wankel engine design used today was not designed by Felix Wankel, and the Paschke engine could be a more apt title. The basis of the DKM type of motor was that both the rotor and the housing spun around on separate axes, the DKM motor reached higher revolutions per minute and was more naturally balanced. However, the engine needed to be stripped to change the spark plugs, the KKM engine was simpler, having a fixed housing. The first working prototype, DKM54, produced 21 hp and ran on February 1,1957, at the NSU research and development department Versuchsabteilung TX. The KKM57 was constructed by NSU engineer Hanns Dieter Paschke in 1957 without the knowledge of Felix Wankel, in 1960, NSU, the firm that employed the two inventors, and the US firm Curtiss-Wright, signed a joint agreement.
Curtiss-Wright recruited Max Bentele to head their design team, many manufacturers signed license agreements for development, attracted by the smoothness, quiet running, and reliability emanating from the uncomplicated design. Amongst them were Alfa Romeo, American Motors, Ford, General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, Porsche, Rolls-Royce, Suzuki, in the United States in 1959, under license from NSU, Curtiss-Wright pioneered improvements in the basic engine design. In Britain, in the 1960s, Rolls Royces Motor Car Division pioneered a two-stage diesel version of the Wankel engine, Citroën did much research, producing the M35, GS Birotor and RE-2 Helicopter using engines produced by Comotor, a joint venture of Citroën and NSU. General Motors seemed to have concluded the Wankel engine was more expensive to build than an equivalent reciprocating engine. General Motors claimed to have solved the fuel issue
A supercharger is an air compressor that increases the pressure or density of air supplied to an internal combustion engine. This gives each intake cycle of the more oxygen, letting it burn more fuel and do more work. Power for the supercharger can be provided mechanically by means of a belt, shaft, when power is provided by a turbine powered by exhaust gas, a supercharger is known as a turbosupercharger – typically referred to simply as a turbocharger or just turbo. Common usage restricts the term supercharger to mechanically driven units, in 1848 or 1849 G. Jones of Birmingham, England brought out a Roots-style compressor. The worlds first functional, actually tested engine supercharger was made by Dugald Clerk, gottlieb Daimler received a German patent for supercharging an internal combustion engine in 1885. Louis Renault patented a centrifugal supercharger in France in 1902, an early supercharged race car was built by Lee Chadwick of Pottstown, Pennsylvania in 1908 which reportedly reached a speed of 100 mph.
The worlds first series-produced cars with superchargers were Mercedes 6/25/40 hp, both models were introduced in 1921 and had Roots superchargers. They were distinguished as Kompressor models, the origin of the Mercedes-Benz badging which continues today, on March 24,1878 Heinrich Krigar of Germany obtained patent #4121, patenting the first ever screw-type compressor. Later that same year on August 16 he obtained patent #7116 after modifying and improving his original designs and his designs show a two-lobe rotor assembly with each rotor having the same shape as the other. Although the design resembled the Roots style compressor, the screws were clearly shown with 180 degrees of twist along their length, the technology of the time was not sufficient to produce such a unit, and Heinrich made no further progress with the screw compressor. Nearly half a century later, in 1935, Alf Lysholm and he patented the method for machining the compressor rotors. There are two types of superchargers defined according to the method of gas transfer, positive displacement.
Positive displacement blowers and compressors deliver an almost constant level of pressure increase at all engine speeds, dynamic compressors do not deliver pressure at low speeds, above a threshold speed, pressure increases with engine speed. Positive-displacement pumps deliver a nearly fixed volume of air per revolution at all speeds, Roots superchargers are external compression only. External compression refers to pumps that transfer air at ambient pressure into the engine, if the engine is running under boost conditions, the pressure in the intake manifold is higher than that coming from the supercharger. That causes a backflow from the engine into the supercharger until the two reach equilibrium and it is the backflow that actually compresses the incoming gas. This is an inefficient process and the factor in the lack of efficiency of Roots superchargers when used at high boost levels. The lower the boost level the smaller is this loss, and Roots blowers are very efficient at moving air at low pressure differentials, all the other types have some degree of internal compression
By using split crankpins or ignoring minor vibrations, any V angle is possible. The 180° configuration is referred to as a flat-twelve engine or a boxer although it is in reality a 180° V since the pistons can. This is not important in a car if all-out performance is the only goal. Since cost and fuel economy are usually important even in luxury and racing cars and it is often used in marine engines where great power is required, and the hull width is limited, but a longer vessel allows faster hull speed. In twin-propeller boats, two V12 engines can be enough to sit side-by-side, while three V12 engines are sometimes used in high-speed three-propeller configurations. Large, fast cruise ships can have six or more V12 engines, after World War II, the compact, more powerful, and vibration-free turboprop and turbojet engines replaced the V12 in aircraft applications. The first V-type engine was built in 1889 by Daimler, to a design by Wilhelm Maybach, by 1903 V8 engines were being produced for motor boat racing by the Société Antoinette to designs by Léon Levavasseur, building on experience gained with in-line four-cylinder engines.
In 1904, the Putney Motor Works completed a new V12 marine racing engine—the first V12 engine produced for any purpose, a single camshaft mounted in the central V operated the valves directly. As in many engines, the camshaft could be slid longitudinally to engage a second set of cams. Starting is by pumping a charge into each cylinder and switching on the trembler coils, a sliding camshaft gave direct reversing. The camshaft has fluted webs and main bearings in graduated thickness from the largest at the flywheel end, displacing 1,120 cu in, the engine weighed 950 pounds and developed 150 bhp. Little is known of the achievements in the 40-foot hull for which it was intended. One V12 Dörwald marine engine was still running in a Hong Kong junk in the late-1960s. Two more V12s appeared in the 1909-1910 motor boat racing season, the Lamb Boat & Engine Company of Clinton, Iowa built a 1,559 cu in engine for the companys 32-foot Lamb IV. It weighed in at 2,114 pounds, no weight is known for the massive 3,464 cu in F-head engine built by the Orleans Motor Company.
Output is quoted as nearly 400 bhp, by 1914, when Panhard built two 2,356 cu in engines with four-valve cylinder heads the V12 was well established in motor boat racing. In October 1913, Louis Coatalen, chief engineer of the Sunbeam Motor Car Company entered a V12 powered car in the Brooklands short, the engine displaced 9 L, with bore and stroke of 80 x 150 mm. An aluminum crankcase carried two blocks of three cylinders each along each side, with a 60 degree included angle, the cylinders were of iron, with integral cylinder heads with L-shaped combustion chambers