United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Barnardsville, North Carolina
Barnardsville is an unincorporated community in Buncombe County, North Carolina, United States. Located on Ivy Creek, the settlement is part of the Asheville Metropolitan Statistical Area. Barnard's Inn was established at the settlement by Hester Barnard in the early 1800s. A post office was established in 1875. Barnardsville incorporated in 1959, established its own police force and fire department; the town dissolved its incorporation in 1965 for financial reasons. Located at the settlement is an elementary school, a restaurant, a post office, many churches, the Big Ivy Community Center, where Mountain Heritage Day is celebrated on the first Saturday of October. Access to the scenic Blue Ridge Parkway is available through Barnardsville
Buncombe County, North Carolina
Buncombe County is a county located in the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 238,318, its county seat is Asheville. Buncombe County is part of NC Metropolitan Statistical Area. Buncombe County was organized in the home of Col. William Davidson, a cousin of William Lee Davidson and the county's first state senator; the county was formed in 1791 from parts of Rutherford County. It was named for Edward Buncombe, a colonel in the American Revolutionary War, captured at the Battle of Germantown; the large county extended to the Tennessee line. Many of the settlers were Baptists, in 1807 the pastors of six churches including the revivalist Sion Blythe formed the French Broad Association of Baptist churches in the area. In 1808 the western part of Buncombe County became Haywood County. In 1833 parts of Burke County and Buncombe County were combined to form Yancey County, in 1838 the southern part of what was left of Buncombe County became Henderson County. In 1851 parts of Buncombe County and Yancey County were combined to form Madison County.
In 1925 the Broad River township of McDowell County was transferred to Buncombe County. In 1820, a U. S. Congressman, whose district included Buncombe County, unintentionally contributed a word to the English language. In the Sixteenth Congress, after lengthy debate on the Missouri Compromise, members of the House called for an immediate vote on that important question. Instead, Felix Walker rose to address his colleagues, insisting that his constituents expected him to make a speech "for Buncombe." It was remarked that Walker's untimely and irrelevant oration was not just for Buncombe—it "was Buncombe." Thus, afterwards spelled bunkum and shortened to bunk, became a term for empty, nonsensical talk. This, in turn, is the etymology of the verb debunk. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 660 square miles, of which 657 square miles is land and 3.5 square miles is water. The French Broad River enters the county at its border with Henderson County to the south and flows north into Madison County.
The source of the Swannanoa River, which joins the French Broad River in Asheville, is in northeast Buncombe County near Mount Mitchell. A milestone was achieved in 2003 when Interstate 26 was extended from Mars Hill to Johnson City, completing a 20-year, half-billion dollar construction project through the Blue Ridge Mountains. Blue Ridge Parkway Pisgah National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 206,330 people, 85,776 households, 55,668 families residing in the county; the population density was 314 people per square mile. There were 93,973 housing units at an average density of 143 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 89.06% White, 7.48% Black or African American, 0.39% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.15% from other races, 1.23% from two or more races. 2.78% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 85,776 households out of which 27.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.50% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.10% were non-families.
Of all households 28.90% were made up of individuals and 10.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.86. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.90% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 29.30% from 25 to 44, 24.80% from 45 to 64, 15.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 92.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,666, the median income for a family was $45,011. Males had a median income of $30,705 versus $23,870 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,384. About 7.80% of families and 11.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.30% of those under age 18 and 9.80% of those age 65 or over. Buncombe County is a member of the Land-of-Sky Regional Council of governments. Buncombe County has a council/manager form of government.
The 2014 election voted in the current commissioners: Brownie Newman, Mike Fryar, Ellen Frost, Joe Belcher, Miranda DeBruhl, Holly Jones, chair David Gantt. The county manager is Wanda Greene; the North Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention operates the Swannanoa Valley Youth Development Center in Swannanoa for delinquent boys, including those without sufficient English fluency. It opened in 1961. In the North Carolina Senate, Terry Van Duyn and Chuck Edwards both represent parts of Buncombe County. Van Duyn represents most of the city of Asheville. Edwards represents a small portion of the southern part of Asheville. In the North Carolina House of Representatives, Susan Fisher, John Ager, Brian Turner all represent parts of the county. All three of them represent parts of the city. Buncombe had long been a bellwether county in presidential elections having voted for the winning candidate in every election from 1928 to 2012, except for that of 1960. Since 2008, the county has trended toward the Democratic Party.
It swung from a 0.6 point win for George W. Bush to a 14-point win for Barack Obama, has gone Democratic by double-digit margins at every election since then; this includes 2016, when it voted for Hillary Clinton despite Donald Trump's upset in winning the electoral college but
Black Mountain, North Carolina
Black Mountain is a town in Buncombe County, North Carolina, United States. The population was 7,848 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Asheville Metropolitan Statistical Area. The town is named for the old train stop at the Black Mountain Depot and is located at the southern end of the Black Mountain range of the Blue Ridge Mountains in the Southern Appalachians. Black Mountain in its present form was incorporated in 1893; the first recorded inhabitants of the area were the Cherokee. A road was built through the area in 1850 and a railroad followed in 1879; the Black Mountain College Historic District, Black Mountain Downtown Historic District, Blue Ridge Assembly Historic District, Dougherty Heights Historic District, Rafael Guastavino, Sr. Estate, Monte Vista Hotel, South Montreat Road Historic District, Thomas Chapel A. M. E. Zion Church are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the downtown area has many eclectic shops, attracting seasonal tourism, a main staple of the local economy.
There are many quaint bed and breakfasts. The town is near several Christian retreat areas including Ridgecrest and Montreat Conference Center. Black Mountain College was located within the town limits, but the Black Mountain College Museum and Arts Center, dedicated to the experimental educational institution's history, is now located in downtown Asheville. Black Mountain is the site of the Swannanoa Valley Museum; the Black Mountain Center for the Arts is located down the street from the museum. In 2002 the community raised 1.2 million dollars to buy the old Town Hall and convert it into the Art Center. Black Mountain News is a weekly newspaper covering the Swannanoa Valley area. Black Mountain is located in eastern Buncombe County at 35°37′9″N 82°19′32″W; the town of Montreat borders Black Mountain to the north, the unincorporated community of Swannanoa is on the west border. U. S. Route 70 is the main road through the center of town. Interstate 40 passes just to the south of downtown, with access from exits 64 and 65.
Via I-40 it is 15 miles west to Asheville and 41 miles east to Morganton. The Swannanoa River flows from east to west through the town, rising just 3 miles to the east at Swannanoa Gap on the crest of the Appalachians; the Swannanoa River flows west to the French Broad River, part of the Tennessee River basin that flows to the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River, while Swannanoa Creek east of the gap is part of the Catawba River-Santee River system, reaching the Atlantic Ocean north of Charleston, South Carolina. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town of Black Mountain has a total area of 6.7 square miles, of which 0.015 square miles, or 0.23%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,511 people, 3,340 households, 2,027 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,165.7 people per square mile. There were 3,703 housing units at an average density of 574.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 90.84% White, 6.27% African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.87% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.45% from other races, 1.22% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.81% of the population. There were 3,340 households out of which 22.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.2% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.3% were non-families. 34.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.75. In the town, the population was spread out with 19.1% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 25.7% from 25 to 44, 26.1% from 45 to 64, 22.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $35,541, the median income for a family was $43,373. Males had a median income of $28,604 versus $22,476 for females; the per capita income for the town was $20,509. About 7.6% of families and 10.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.2% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over.
Black Mountain features in the 1994 Patricia Cornwell novel The Body Farm. Black Mountain is featured in the 2009 novel One Second After and 2015 sequel One Year After by William R. Forstchen, a town resident. Many local institutions and residents appear in the novel. Black Mountain figures in The Longest Ride by Nicholas Sparks, a book that mentions the former college and visual arts community. Black Mountain is the site of the Three Billboards featured in the 2017 film, Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, with one billboard exposed in April 2016, with the other two covered up; the North Carolina Department of Public Safety operates the Swannanoa Correctional Center for Women. It opened on July 7, 2008, taking women at the Black Mountain Correctional Center for Women. Black Mountain College Montreat College Lake Eden Arts Festival Literary Patricia Cornwell William R. Forstchen Nicholas SparksMusic McDibbs, music venue Roberta Flack, singer Floating Action The Jellyrox The Morris Brothers, country music group David Wilcox, singer-songwriter Artimus Pyle, drummer Lynyrd SkynyrdArchitecture Rafael GuastavinoAthletes and sporting figures Brad Daugherty, NBA All-Star, ESPN [commentator, NASCAR team owner Brad Johnson, NFL quarterback who led the Buccaneers to their Super Bow
French Broad River
The French Broad River flows 218 miles from near the town of Rosman in Transylvania County, North Carolina, into the state of Tennessee. Its confluence with the Holston River at Knoxville is the beginning of the Tennessee River; the river flows through the counties of Transylvania, Buncombe and Madison in North Carolina, Cocke, Jefferson and Knox in Tennessee, drains large portions of the Pisgah National Forest and the Cherokee National Forest. The headwaters of the French Broad River are near the town of Rosman in Transylvania County, North Carolina, just northwest of the Eastern Continental Divide near the northwest border of South Carolina, they spill from a 50-foot waterfall called Courthouse Falls at the terminus of Courthouse Creek near Balsam Grove. The waterfall feeds into a creek that becomes the North Fork, which joins the West Fork west of Rosman. South of Rosman, the stream is joined by the Middle Fork and East Fork to form the French Broad River. From there it flows northeast through the Appalachian Mountains into Henderson, Buncombe counties.
In Buncombe County, the river flows through the city of Asheville, where it receives the water of the Swannanoa River. Downstream of Asheville, the river proceeds north through Madison County, where it flows through its county seat, Marshall. After passing through the mountain resort of Hot Springs in the Bald Mountains, the river enters Cocke County, Tennessee. In Cocke County, the river passes through the community of Del Rio, receives the waters of both the Pigeon River and the Nolichucky River northwest of Cocke's county seat, Newport; the river enters the slack waters of Douglas Lake, created by the Tennessee Valley Authority's Douglas Dam in Sevier County 32 miles upstream from the river's mouth. Near Sevierville, at Kodak, the French Broad River receives the flow of the Little Pigeon River, which drains much of the Tennessee section of the Great Smoky Mountains. After flowing through a wide gap in Bays Mountain, it enters Knox County, it joins the Holston River to form the Tennessee at a place known as "Forks of the River" at the eastern edge of Knoxville.
North Fork West Fork East Fork Middle Fork Pigeon River Nolichucky River Mills River Davidson River Swannanoa River Little River The French Broad River is believed to be one of the oldest in the world based on dating of rocks. Jeff Wilcox of UNC-Asheville described it as "a meandering river, which form in flat landscapes." He said this meant the river predated the Appalachian Mountains and was lifted up as the mountains formed eroding the rocks it passed through. The French Broad River was named by European settlers centuries ago because it was one of the two broad rivers in western North Carolina; the one which flowed into land claimed by France at that time was named the "French Broad River", whereas the other, which stayed in land claimed by England – the Colony of North Carolina – was named the "English Broad River".. The Indigenous Americans of this area, the Cherokee Indians, called it different names: Poelico, Agiqua in the mountains, Tahkeeosteh from Asheville down and Zillicoah above Asheville.
The French called borrowing one of the Cherokee names. Douglas Dam, built on the lower French Broad by the Tennessee Valley Authority during the 1940s, is one of the larger TVA developments on a tributary of the Tennessee River. In 1987, the North Carolina General Assembly established the French Broad River State Trail as a blueway which follows the river for 67 miles; the paddle trail is a part of North Carolina State Trails Program, a section of the NC Division of Parks and Recreation. A system of launch point locations was created along the river for the trail; the portion of the French Broad River in Tennessee was designated a state scenic river by the Tennessee Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. 33 miles of the river in Cocke County, starting at the North Carolina border and extending downstream to the place where it flows into Douglas Lake, are designated as a Class III, Partially Developed River. The following is a partial list of crossings of the French Broad from Brevard to the confluence with the Tennessee River.
Transylvania and Henderson counties Patton Bridge Crab Creek Road Blantyre Road Etowah School Road in Etowah McLean Bridge in Etowah Johnson Bridge Fannings Bridge Butler Bridge Kings Bridge Boylston Highway at the Asheville Regional Airport Buncombe County/Asheville Glenn Bridge Long Shoals Road in Skyland Blue Ridge Parkway Interstate 26 Interstate 40 at the Biltmore Estate Carrier Bridge in Asheville Haywood Road in Asheville Smith Bridge in Asheville Bowen Bridge Douglas Lake to Knoxville Interstate 40 and Swann Bridge over Douglas Lake James D. Hoskins Bridge in Dandridge Douglas Dam Road TN 66 at Sevierville Several golf cart path bridges over the Cain Islands Doctor JH Gammondale Bridg
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th