Edmund Spenser was an English poet best known for The Faerie Queene, an epic poem and fantastical allegory celebrating the Tudor dynasty and Elizabeth I. He is recognized as one of the premier craftsmen of nascent Modern English verse, is considered one of the greatest poets in the English language, though now known for his anti-Irish bigotry. Edmund Spenser was born in East Smithfield, around the year 1552, though there is still some ambiguity as to the exact date of his birth, his parenthood is obscure, but he was the son of John Spenser, a journeyman clothmaker. As a young boy, he was educated in London at the Merchant Taylors' School and matriculated as a sizar at Pembroke College, Cambridge. While at Cambridge he became a friend of Gabriel Harvey and consulted him, despite their differing views on poetry. In 1578, he became for a short time secretary to Bishop of Rochester. In 1579, he published The Shepheardes Calender and around the same time married his first wife, Machabyas Childe, they had two children and Katherine.
In July 1580, Spenser went to Ireland in service of the newly appointed Lord Deputy, Arthur Grey, 14th Baron Grey de Wilton. Spenser served under Lord Gray with Walter Raleigh at the Siege of Smerwick massacre; when Lord Grey was recalled to England, Spenser stayed on in Ireland, having acquired other official posts and lands in the Munster Plantation. Raleigh acquired other nearby Munster estates confiscated in the Second Desmond Rebellion; some time between 1587 and 1589, Spenser acquired his main estate at Kilcolman, near Doneraile in North Cork. He bought a second holding to the south, at Rennie, on a rock overlooking the river Blackwater in North Cork, its ruins are still visible today. A short distance away grew a tree, locally known as "Spenser's Oak" until it was destroyed in a lightning strike in the 1960s. Local legend has it. In 1590, Spenser brought out the first three books of his most famous work, The Faerie Queene, having travelled to London to publish and promote the work, with the assistance of Raleigh.
He was successful enough to obtain a life pension of £50 a year from the Queen. He hoped to secure a place at court through his poetry, but his next significant publication boldly antagonised the queen's principal secretary, Lord Burghley, through its inclusion of the satirical Mother Hubberd's Tale, he returned to Ireland. In 1591, Spenser published a translation in verse of Joachim Du Bellay's sonnets, Les Antiquités de Rome, published in 1558. Spenser's version, Ruines of Rome: by Bellay, may have been influenced by Latin poems on the same subject, written by Jean or Janis Vitalis and published in 1576. By 1594, Spenser's first wife had died, in that year he married Elizabeth Boyle, much younger than him, originated from Northamptonshire his native county, he addressed to her the sonnet sequence Amoretti. The marriage itself was celebrated in Epithalamion, they had a son named Peregrine. In 1596, Spenser wrote; this piece, in the form of a dialogue, circulated in manuscript, remaining unpublished until the mid-seventeenth century.
It is probable that it was kept out of print during the author's lifetime because of its inflammatory content. The pamphlet argued that Ireland would never be "pacified" by the English until its indigenous language and customs had been destroyed, if necessary by violence. In 1598, during the Nine Years' War, Spenser was driven from his home by the native Irish forces of Aodh Ó Néill, his castle at Kilcolman was burned, Ben Jonson, who may have had private information, asserted that one of his infant children died in the blaze. In the year after being driven from his home, 1599, Spenser travelled to London, where he died at the age of forty-six – "for want of bread", according to Ben Jonson – one of Jonson's more doubtful statements, since Spenser had a payment to him authorised by the government and was due his pension, his coffin was carried to his grave in Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey by other poets, who threw many pens and pieces of poetry into his grave with many tears. His second wife remarried twice.
His sister Sarah, who had accompanied him to Ireland, married into the Travers family, her descendants were prominent landowners in Cork for centuries. Thomas Fuller, in Worthies of England, included a story where the Queen told her treasurer, William Cecil, to pay Spenser one hundred pounds for his poetry; the treasurer, objected that the sum was too much. She said, "Then give him what is reason". Without receiving his payment in due time, Spenser gave the Queen this quatrain on one of her progresses: She ordered the treasurer pay Spenser the original £100; this story seems to have attached itself to Spenser from Thomas Churchyard, who had difficulty in getting payment of his pension, the only other pension Elizabeth awarded to a poet. Spenser seems to have had no difficulty in receiving payment when it was due as the pension was being collected for him by his publisher, Ponsonby; the Shepheardes Calender is Edmund Spenser's first major work, which appeared in 1579. It emulates Virgil's Eclogues of the first century BCE and the Eclogues of Mantuan by Baptista Mantuanus, a late medieval, early renaissance poet.
An eclogue is a short pastoral poem, in the form of a dialogue or soliloquy. Although all the months together form an entire year, each month stands alone as a separate poem. Editions of the late 16th and early 17th centuries include woodcuts for each month/poem, thereby have a slight similarity to an emblem book which combines a number of
Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino
Lorenzo di Piero de' Medici was the ruler of Florence from 1516 until his death in 1519. He was Duke of Urbino during the same period, his daughter Catherine de' Medici became Queen Consort of France, while his illegitimate son, Alessandro de' Medici, became the first Duke of Florence. Lorenzo was born in Florence on 12 September 1492, a son of Piero di Lorenzo de' Medici and Alfonsina Orsini, his paternal grandparents were Clarice Orsini. His maternal grandparents were Count of Tagliacozzo and Catherine San Severino. In 1465, Lorenzo was sent to Milan to represent the Medici family at the marriage of Alfonso of Aragon and Ippolita Sforza, his father Piero sent him in 1466 to Rome and Naples as an ambassador to Pope Paul II and Ferdinand I, king of Naples. In 1510, while the Medici family were living near Rome, a black servant in their household - identified in documents as Simonetta da Collevecchio - gave birth to a son, Alessandro de' Medici, whom Lorenzo recognized as his illegitimate son. In 1531, Alessandro de' Medici became Florence's first hereditary monarch.
Lorenzo II became lord of Florence in August 1513, after his uncle, Giuliano de' Medici, handed over control of its government. Ambitious by nature, Lorenzo II lacked patience with Florence's republican system of government, thus in 1516, convinced his uncle, Pope Leo X to make him Duke of Urbino at the age of 24. So began a conflict with the city's theretofore duke, Francesco Maria I della Rovere. During the protracted War of Urbino, Delle Rovere recaptured the city, only to have Medici – commanding a 10,000-man Papal army – in turn, retake the city. During battle, Lorenzo was wounded. In September 1517, he regained the Urbino via treaty. In 1521 the duchy reverted to the Della Rovere family. On 13 June 1518, Lorenzo married daughter of the Count of Auvergne; the marriage produced a daughter, born in 1519. Catherine de' Medici went on to become Queen of France, via a marriage to the future King Henry II of France, arranged by the second Medici Pope, Pope Clement VII. Only 21 days after Catherine de' Medici's birth, Lorenzo II died, "worn out by disease and excess."
Thus his daughter Catherine was raised by the Medici Popes, Leo X and Clement VII, their surrogates. Lorenzo II's tomb is in the Medici Chapel of Florence's Church of San Lorenzo, adorned by Michelangelo's sculpture Pensieroso, representing the Duke, its companion piece sculpted by Michelangelo, represents Lorenzo II's uncle Giuliano di Lorenzo de' Medici. In sharing the same name with his illustrious ancestor, Lorenzo the Magnificent, the Duke's tomb is mistaken for that of his grandfather. Famously, Niccolò Machiavelli dedicated his political treatise The Prince to Lorenzo to inform him of tactics to use in unifying Italy. House of Medici Medici Chapel Cavallo, Sandra. Domestic Institutional Interiors in Early Modern Europe. Routledge. Fletcher, Catherine; the Black Prince of Florence: The Spectacular Life and Treacherous World of Alessandro de' Medici. Oxford University Press. Stapleford, Richard, ed.. Lorenzo De' Medici at Home: The Inventory of the Palazzo Medici in 1492; the Pennsylvania State University Press.
The Medici Family Line - The Glorious 1400s
The Faerie Queene
The Faerie Queene is an English epic poem by Edmund Spenser. Books I–III were first published in 1590, republished in 1596 together with books IV–VI; the Faerie Queene is notable for its form: it is one of the longest poems in the English language as well as the work in which Spenser invented the verse form known as the Spenserian stanza. On a literal level, the poem follows several knights as a means to examine different virtues, though the text is an allegorical work, it can be read on several levels of allegory, including as praise of Queen Elizabeth I. In Spenser's "Letter of the Authors", he states that the entire epic poem is "cloudily enwrapped in Allegorical devises", the aim of publishing The Faerie Queene was to "fashion a gentleman or noble person in virtuous and gentle discipline". Spenser presented the first three books of The Faerie Queene to Elizabeth I in 1589 sponsored by Sir Walter Raleigh; the poem was a clear effort to gain court favor and as a reward Elizabeth granted Spenser a pension for life amounting to £50 a year, though there is no further evidence that Elizabeth I read any of the poem.
This royal patronage elevated the poem to a level of success. Book I is centred on the virtue of holiness, he and his lady Una travel together as he fights the dragon Errour separate as the wizard Archimago tricks the Redcrosse Knight in a dream to think that Una is unchaste. After he leaves, the Redcrosse Knight meets Duessa. Duessa leads the Redcrosse Knight to captivity by the giant Orgoglio. Meanwhile, Una overcomes peril, meets Arthur, finds the Redcrosse Knight and rescues him from his capture, from Duessa, from Despair. Una and Arthur help the Redcrosse Knight recover in the House of Holiness, with the House's ruler Caelia and her three daughters joining them, he returns Una to her parents' castle and rescues them from a dragon, the two are betrothed after resisting Archimago one last time. Book II is centred on the virtue of Temperance as embodied in Sir Guyon, tempted by the fleeing Archimago into nearly attacking the Redcrosse Knight. Guyon discovers a woman killing herself out of grief for having her lover tempted and bewitched by the witch Acrasia and killed.
Guyon swears a vow to protect their child. Guyon on his quest starts and stops fighting several evil, rash, or tricked knights and meets Arthur, they come to Acrasia's Island and the Bower of Bliss, where Guyon resists temptations to violence and lust. Guyon captures Acrasia in a net, destroys the Bower, rescues those imprisoned there. Book III is centred on the virtue of Chastity as embodied in a lady knight. Resting after the events of Book II, Guyon and Arthur meet Britomart, who wins a joust with Guyon, they separate as Arthur and Guyon leave to rescue Florimell, while Britomart rescues the Redcrosse Knight. Britomart reveals to the Redcrosse Knight that she is pursuing Sir Artegall because she is destined to marry him; the Redcrosse Knight defends Artegall and they meet Merlin, who explains more Britomart's destiny to found the English monarchy. Britomart fights Sir Marinell. Arthur looks for Florimell, joined by Sir Satyrane and Britomart, they witness and resist sexual temptation. Britomart meets Sir Scudamore, looking for his captured lady Amoret.
Britomart alone is able to rescue Amoret from the wizard Busirane. When they emerge from the castle Scudamore is gone. Book IV, despite its title "The Legend of Cambell and Telamond or Of Friendship", Cambell's companion in Book IV is named Triamond, the plot does not center on their friendship; the book is a continuation of events begun in Book III. First, Scudamore is convinced by the hag Ate that Britomart has run off with Amoret and becomes jealous. A three-day tournament is held by Satyrane, where Britomart beats Arthegal. Scudamore and Arthegal unite against Britomart, but when her helmet comes off in battle Arthegal falls in love with her, he surrenders, removes his helmet, Britomart recognizes him as the man in the enchanted mirror. Arthegal must first leave and complete his quest. Scudamore, upon discovering Britomart's gender, realizes his mistake and asks after his lady, but by this time Britomart has lost Amoret, she and Scudamore embark together on a search for her; the reader is imprisoned in his cave.
One day Amoret darts out past the savage and is rescued from him by Belphoebe. Arthur appears, offering his service as a knight to the lost woman, she accepts, after a couple of trials on the way and Amoret happen across Scudamore and Britomart. The two lovers are reunited. Wrapping up a different plotline from Book III, the recovered Marinel discovers Florimell suffering in Proteus' dungeon, he becomes sick with love and pity. He confesses his feelings to his mother, she pleads with Neptune to have the girl released, which the god grants. Book V is centred on the virtue of Justice. Book VI is centred on the virtue of Courtesy. Acrasia, seductress of knights. Guyon destroys her Bower of Bliss at the end of Book 2. Similar characters in other epics: Circe, Alcina
Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus, known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam, was a Dutch Christian humanist, the greatest scholar of the northern Renaissance. Trained as a Catholic priest, Erasmus was an important figure in classical scholarship who wrote in a pure Latin style. Among humanists he enjoyed the sobriquet "Prince of the Humanists", has been called "the crowning glory of the Christian humanists". Using humanist techniques for working on texts, he prepared important new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament, which raised questions that would be influential in the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation, he wrote On Free Will, In Praise of Folly, Handbook of a Christian Knight, On Civility in Children, Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style, Julius Exclusus, many other works. Erasmus lived against the backdrop of the growing European religious Reformation, but while he was critical of the abuses within the Catholic Church and called for reform, he kept his distance from Luther, Henry VIII and John Calvin and continued to recognise the authority of the pope, emphasizing a middle way with a deep respect for traditional faith and grace, rejecting Luther's emphasis on faith alone.
Erasmus remained a member of the Roman Catholic Church all his life, remaining committed to reforming the church and its clerics' abuses from within. He held to the Catholic doctrine of free will, which some Reformers rejected in favor of the doctrine of predestination, his middle road approach disappointed, angered, scholars in both camps. Erasmus died in Basel in 1536 while preparing to return to Brabant, was buried in Basel Minster, the former cathedral of the city. A bronze statue of Erasmus was erected in 1622 in his city of birth, replacing an earlier work in stone. Desiderius Erasmus is reported to have been born in Rotterdam on 28 October in the late 1460s, he was named after Saint Erasmus of Formiae, whom Erasmus's father Gerard favored. A 17th-century legend has it that Erasmus was first named Geert Geerts. A well-known wooden picture indicates: Goudæ conceptus, Roterodami natus. According to an article by historian Renier Snooy, Erasmus was born in Gouda; the exact year of his birth is controversial, but most agree it was in 1466.
Evidence confirming the year of Erasmus' birth in 1466 can be found in his own words: fifteen out of twenty-three statements he made about his age indicate 1466. He was christened "Erasmus" after the saint of that name. Although associated with Rotterdam, he lived there for only four years, never to return. Information on his family and early life comes from vague references in his writings, his parents were not married. His father, was a Catholic priest and curate in Gouda. Little is known of his mother, although her known name was Margaretha Rogerius and she was the daughter of a doctor from Zevenbergen, she may have been Gerard's housekeeper. Although he was born out of wedlock, Erasmus was cared for by his parents until their early deaths from the plague in 1483; this solidified his view of his origin as a stain, cast a pall over his youth. Erasmus was given the highest education available to a young man of his day, in a series of monastic or semi-monastic schools. At the age of nine, he and his older brother Peter were sent to one of the best Latin schools in the Netherlands, located at Deventer and owned by the chapter clergy of the Lebuïnuskerk, though some earlier biographies assert it was a school run by the Brethren of the Common Life.
During his stay there the curriculum was renewed by the principal of Alexander Hegius. For the first time Greek was taught at a lower level than a university in Europe, this is where he began learning it, he gleaned there the importance of a personal relationship with God but eschewed the harsh rules and strict methods of the religious brothers and educators. His education there ended when plague struck the city about 1483, his mother, who had moved to provide a home for her sons, died from the infection. Most in 1487, poverty forced Erasmus into the consecrated life as a canon regular of St. Augustine at the canonry of Stein, in South Holland, he took vows there in late 1488, was ordained to the Catholic priesthood at about the age of 25, in 1492. It is said that he never seemed to have worked as a priest for a longer time, certain abuses in religious orders were among the chief objects of his calls to reform the Church from within. While at Stein, Erasmus fell in love with a fellow canon, Servatius Rogerus, wrote a series of passionate letters in which he called Rogerus "half my soul".
He wrote, "I have wooed you both unhappily and relentlessly". This correspondence contrasts with the detached and much more restrained attitude he showed in his life. While tutoring in Paris, he was dismissed by the guardian of Thomas Grey; some have taken this as evidence of an illicit affair. No personal denunciation was made of Erasmus during his lifetime, he took pains in life to distance these earlier episodes by condemning sodomy in his works, praising sexual desire in marriage between men and women. Soon after his priestly ordination, he got his chance to leave the canonry when offered the post of secretary to the Bishop of Cambrai, Henry of Bergen, on account of his great skill in Latin and his reputation as a man of letters. To allow him to accept that post, he was given a temporary dispensation from his religious vows on the grounds of
The Brooklyn Museum is an art museum located in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. At 560,000 square feet, the museum is New York City's third largest in physical size and holds an art collection with 1.5 million works. Located near the Prospect Heights, Crown Heights and Park Slope neighborhoods of Brooklyn and founded in 1895, the Beaux-Arts building, designed by McKim and White, was planned to be the largest art museum in the world; the museum struggled to maintain its building and collection, only to be revitalized in the late 20th century, thanks to major renovations. Significant areas of the collection include antiquities their collection of Egyptian antiquities spanning over 3,000 years. European, African and Japanese art make for notable antiquities collections as well. American art is represented, starting at the Colonial period. Artists represented in the collection include Mark Rothko, Edward Hopper, Norman Rockwell, Winslow Homer, Edgar Degas, Georgia O'Keeffe, Max Weber; the museum has a "Memorial Sculpture Garden" which features salvaged architectural elements from throughout New York City.
The roots of the Brooklyn Museum extend back to the 1823 founding by Augustus Graham of the Brooklyn Apprentices' Library in Brooklyn Heights. The Library moved into the Brooklyn Lyceum building on Washington Street in 1841. Two years the institutions merged to form the Brooklyn Institute, which offered exhibitions of painting and sculpture and lectures on diverse subjects. In 1890, under its director Franklin Hooper, Institute leaders reorganized as the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences and began planning the Brooklyn Museum; the museum remained a subdivision of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, along with the Brooklyn Academy of Music, the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, the Brooklyn Children's Museum until the 1970s when all became independent. Opened in 1897, the Brooklyn Museum building is a steel frame structure encased in classical masonry, designed by the famous architectural firm of McKim and White and built by the Carlin Construction Company; the initial design for the Brooklyn Museum was four times as large as the actualized version.
Daniel Chester French, the noted sculptor of the Lincoln Memorial, was the principal designer of the pediment sculptures and the monolithic 12.5-foot figures along the cornice. The figures were carved by the Piccirilli Brothers. French designed the two allegorical figures Brooklyn and Manhattan flanking the museum's entrance, created in 1916 for the Brooklyn approach to the Manhattan Bridge, relocated to the museum in 1963. By 1920, the New York City Subway reached the museum with a subway station; the Brooklyn Institute's director Franklin Hooper was the museum's first director, succeeded by William Henry Fox who served from 1914 to 1934. He was followed by Philip Newell Youtz, Laurance Page Roberts, Isabel Spaulding Roberts, Charles Nagel, Jr. and Edgar Craig Schenck. Thomas S. Buechner became the museum's director in 1960, making him one of the youngest directors in the country. Buechner oversaw a major transformation in the way the museum displayed art and brought some one thousand works that had languished in the museum's archives and put them on display.
Buechner played a pivotal role in rescuing the Daniel Chester French sculptures from destruction due to an expansion project at the Manhattan Bridge in the 1960s. Duncan F. Cameron held the post from 1971 to 1973, with Michael Botwinick succeeding him and Linda S. Ferber acting director for part of 1983 until Robert T. Buck became director in 1983 and served until 1996; the Brooklyn Museum changed its name to Brooklyn Museum of Art in 1997, shortly before the start of Arnold L. Lehman's term as director. On March 12, 2004, the museum announced. In April 2004, the museum opened the James Polshek-designed entrance pavilion on the Eastern Parkway façade. In September 2014, Lehman announced that he was planning to retire around June 2015. In May 2015, Creative Time president and artistic director Anne Pasternak was named the museum's next director; the Brooklyn Museum, along with numerous other New York institutions, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the American Museum of Natural History, the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, is part of the Cultural Institutions Group.
Member institutions occupy land or buildings owned by the City of New York and derive part of their yearly funding from the City. The Brooklyn Museum supplements its earned income with funding from Federal and State governments, as well as with donations by individuals and organizations. In 1999, the museum hosted the Charles Saatchi exhibition Sensation, resulting in a court battle over New York City's municipal funding of institutions exhibiting controversial art decided in favor of the museum on First Amendment grounds. In 2005, the museum was among 406 New York City arts and social service institutions to receive part of a $20 million grant from the Carnegie Corporation, made possible through a donation by New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg. Major benefactors include Frank Lusk Babbott; the museum is the site of the annual Brooklyn Artists Ball which has included celebrity hosts such as Sarah Jessica Parker and Liv Tyler. The Brooklyn Museum exhibits collections that seek to embody the rich artistic heritage of world cultures.
The museum is well known for its expansive collections of E
The Prince is a 16th-century political treatise by the Italian diplomat and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli. From his correspondence, a version appears to have been distributed in 1513, using a Latin title, De Principatibus. However, the printed version was not published five years after Machiavelli's death; this was carried out with the permission of the Medici pope Clement VII, but "long before in fact since the first appearance of The Prince in manuscript, controversy had swirled about his writings". Although The Prince was written as if it were a traditional work in the mirrors for princes style, it is agreed that it was innovative; this is because it was written in the vernacular Italian rather than Latin, a practice that had become popular since the publication of Dante's Divine Comedy and other works of Renaissance literature. The Prince is sometimes claimed to be one of the first works of modern philosophy modern political philosophy, in which the "effectual" truth is taken to be more important than any abstract ideal.
It is notable for being in direct conflict with the dominant Catholic and scholastic doctrines of the time those concerning politics and ethics. Although it is short, the treatise is the most remembered of Machiavelli's works and the one most responsible for bringing the word "Machiavellian" into usage as a pejorative, it contributed to the modern negative connotations of the words "politics" and "politician" in western countries. In terms of subject matter it overlaps with the much longer Discourses on Livy, written a few years later. In its use of near-contemporary Italians as examples of people who perpetrated criminal deeds for politics, another lesser-known work by Machiavelli which The Prince has been compared to is the Life of Castruccio Castracani; the descriptions within The Prince have the general theme of accepting that the aims of princes – such as glory and survival – can justify the use of immoral means to achieve those ends: He who neglects what is done for what ought to be done, sooner effects his ruin than his preservation.
Each part of The Prince has been extensively commented on over centuries. The work has a recognizable structure, for the most part indicated by the author himself, it can be summarized as follows: Machiavelli prefaces his work with an introductory letter to Lorenzo de' Medici, the recipient of his work. The Prince starts by describing the subject matter. In the first sentence, Machiavelli uses the word "state" in order to cover, in neutral terms, "all forms of organization of supreme political power, whether republican or princely." The way in which the word state came to acquire this modern type of meaning during the Renaissance has been the subject of much academic debate, with this sentence and similar ones in the works of Machiavelli being considered important. Machiavelli says that The Prince would be about princedoms, mentioning that he has written about republics elsewhere, but in fact he mixes discussion of republics into this work in many places treating republics as a type of princedom and one with many strengths.
More and less traditionally, he distinguishes new princedoms from hereditary established princedoms. He deals with hereditary princedoms in Chapter 2, saying that they are much easier to rule. For such a prince, "unless extraordinary vices cause him to be hated, it is reasonable to expect that his subjects will be well disposed towards him". Gilbert, comparing this claim to traditional presentations of advice for princes, wrote that the novelty in chapters 1 and 2 is the "deliberate purpose of dealing with a new ruler who will need to establish himself in defiance of custom"; these types of works were addressed only to hereditary princes. He thinks Machiavelli may have been influenced by Tacitus as well as his own experience, but finds no clear predecessor to substantiate this claim; this categorization of regime types is "un-Aristotelian" and simpler than the traditional one found for example in Aristotle's Politics, which divides regimes into those ruled by a single monarch, an oligarchy, or by the people, in a democracy.
Machiavelli ignores the classical distinctions between the good and corrupt forms, for example between monarchy and tyranny. Xenophon, on the other hand, made the same distinction between types of rulers in the beginning of his Education of Cyrus where he says that, concerning the knowledge of how to rule human beings, Cyrus the Great, his exemplary prince, was different "from all other kings, both those who have inherited their thrones from their fathers and those who have gained their crowns by their own efforts". Machiavelli divides the subject of new states into "mixed" cases and purely new states. New princedoms are either new, or they are “mixed”, meaning that they are new parts of an older state belonging to that prince. Machiavelli generalizes that there were several virtuous Roman ways to hold a newly acquired province, using a republic as an example of how new princes can act: to install one's princedom in the new acquisition, or to install colonies of one's people there, better.
To indulge the lesser powers of the area without increasing their power. To put down the powerful people. Not to allow a foreign power to gain reputation. More Machiavelli emphasizes that one should have regard not only for present problems but for the future ones. One should not “enjoy the benefit of time” but rather the benefi