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Flatulence is defined in the medical literature as "flatus expelled through the anus" or the "quality or state of being flatulent", defined in turn as "marked by or affected with gases generated in the intestine or stomach. The root of these words is from the Latin flatus – "a blowing, a breaking wind". Flatus is the medical word for gas generated in the stomach or bowels. Despite these standard definitions, a proportion of intestinal gas may be swallowed environmental air, hence flatus is not generated in the stomach or bowels; the scientific study of this area of medicine is termed flatology. Flatus is pressurized by muscles in the intestines, it is normal to pass flatus, though volume and frequency vary among individuals. It is normal for intestinal gas to have a feculent odor, which may be intense; the noise associated with flatulence is ameliorated by the anus and buttocks. Both the sound and the smell are sources of annoyance or comedy. There are five general symptoms related to intestinal gas: pain and abdominal distension, excessive flatus volume, excessive flatus smell and gas incontinence.

Furthermore, eructation is sometimes included under the topic of flatulence. When excessive or malodorous, flatus can be a sign of a health disorder, such as irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease or lactose intolerance. Non-medical definitions of the term include "the uncomfortable condition of having gas in the stomach and bowels", or "a state of excessive gas in the alimentary canal"; these definitions highlight that many people consider "bloating", abdominal distension or increased volume of intestinal gas, to be synonymous with the term flatulence. Colloquially, flatulence may be referred to as "farting", "trumping", "tooting", "passing gas", "breaking wind" or "gas" or "wind". Derived terms include vaginal flatulence, otherwise known as a queef. Speaking, there are four different types of complaints that relate to intestinal gas, which may present individually or in combination. Patients may complain of bloating as abdominal distension and pain from "trapped wind". In the past, functional bowel disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome that produced symptoms of bloating were attributed to increased production of intestinal gas.

However, three significant pieces of evidence refute this theory. First, in normal subjects very high rates of gas infusion into the small intestine is tolerated without complaints of pain or bloating and harmlessly passed as flatus per rectum. Secondly, studies aiming to quantify the total volume of gas produced by patients with irritable bowel syndrome have failed to demonstrate increased volumes compared to healthy subjects; the proportion of hydrogen produced may be increased in some patients with irritable bowel syndrome, but this does not affect the total volume. Thirdly, the volume of flatus produced by patients with irritable bowel syndrome who have pain and abdominal distension would be tolerated in normal subjects without any complaints of pain. Patients who complain of bloating can be shown to have objective increases in abdominal girth increased throughout the day and resolving during sleep; the increase in girth combined with the fact that the total volume of flatus is not increased led to studies aiming to image the distribution of intestinal gas in patients with bloating.

They found that gas was not distributed in these patients: there was segmental gas pooling and focal distension. In conclusion, abdominal distension and bloating symptoms are the result of abnormal intestinal gas dynamics rather than increased flatus production; as mentioned above, the normal range of volumes of flatus in normal individuals varies hugely. All intestinal gas is either swallowed environmental air, present intrinsically in foods and beverages, or the result of gut fermentation. Swallowing small amounts of air occurs while drinking; this is normal. Excessive swallowing of environmental air is called aerophagia, has been shown in a few case reports to be responsible for increased flatus volume; this is, considered a rare cause of increased flatus volume. Gases contained in food and beverages are emitted through eructation, e.g. carbonated beverages. Endogenously produced intestinal gases make up 74 percent of flatus in normal subjects; the volume of gas produced is dependent upon the composition of the intestinal microbiota, very resistant to change, but is very different in different individuals.

Some patients are predisposed to increased endogenous gas production by virtue of their gut microbiota composition. The greatest concentration of gut bacteria is in the colon, while the small intestine is nearly sterile. Fermentation occurs; therefore more than the composition of the microbiota, diet is the primary factor that dictates the volume of flatus produced. Diets that aim to reduce the amount of undigested fermentable food residues arriving in the colon have been shown to reduce the volume of flatus produced. Again, increased volume of intestinal gas will not cause pain in normal subjects. Abnormal intestinal gas dynamics will create pain and bloating, regardless of whether there is high or low total flatus volume. Although flatus possesses physiologica

Geoffrey Dawson

George Geoffrey Dawson was editor of The Times from 1912 to 1919 and again from 1923 until 1941. His original last name was Robinson, but he changed it in 1917, he married Hon. Margaret Cecilia Lawley, daughter of Arthur Lawley, 6th Baron Wenlock in 1919. Dawson was born 25 October 1874, in Skipton-in-Craven, the eldest child of George Robinson, a banker, his wife Mary, he attended Magdalen College, Oxford. His academic career was distinguished. In 1898 he was elected a fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, a position he held for the rest of his life, he chose a career in civil service. After a year at the Post Office, he was transferred to the Colonial Office and in 1901 he was selected as assistant private secretary to Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain; the same year Dawson obtained a similar position with Lord Milner, high commissioner in South Africa. As Milner's assistant, Dawson participated in the establishment of British administration in South Africa in the aftermath of the Boer War.

While there, he became a member of "Milner's kindergarten", a circle of young administrators and civil servants whose membership included Leo Amery, Bob Brand, Philip Kerr, Richard Feetham, John Buchan and Lionel Curtis. United by a common aspiration for Imperial Federation, all became prominent in the "round table of Empire Loyalists". Milner wanted to ensure the support of the local newspapers after his return to England, he persuaded the owners of the Johannesburg Star to appoint Dawson as the paper's editor. Dawson parlayed this post into a position as the Johannesburg correspondent of The Times. Dawson was unhappy, with the way that Northcliffe used the paper as an instrument to further his own personal political agenda and broke with him, stepping down as editor in February 1919. Dawson returned to the post in 1923 after Lord Northcliffe's death, when the paper's ownership had passed to John Jacob Astor V. Bob Brand had become the Astors' brother-in-law, it is thought that he introduced Dawson to the Astors' circle at Cliveden, the so-called Cliveden set presided over by Nancy Astor.

In his second stint as editor, Dawson began to use the paper in the same manner as Lord Northcliffe had once done, to promote his own agenda. He became a leader of a group of journalists that sought to influence national policy by private correspondence with leading statesmen. Dawson was close to both Stanley Neville Chamberlain, he was a prominent proponent and supporter of appeasement policies, after Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany. He was a member of the Anglo-German Fellowship. Candid news despatches from Berlin by Norman Ebbut that warned of warmongering were rewritten in London to support the appeasement policy. Dawson explained to Lord Lothian on 23 May 1937: "I should like to get going with the Germans. I cannot understand why they should be so much annoyed with The Times at this moment. I spend my nights in taking out anything which I think will hurt their susceptibilities and in dropping little things which are intended to soothe them". In March 1939, The Times reversed course and called for war preparations.

Dawson was a lifelong friend and dining companion of Edward Wood Lord Halifax, Foreign Secretary in the period 1938–1940. He promoted the policies of the Baldwin/Chamberlain governments of the period 1936–1940. Dawson died 7 November 1944 in London, he was succeeded as editor by Robert Barrington-Ward. "The Prospects of a United South Africa". The Empire and the century. London: John Murray. 1905. Pp. 521–538. Fleming, N. C. "The Press and Historical Time: The Times and Indian self-government, c. 1911–47." Media History 16.2: 183-198. McDonough, Frank. "The Times, Norman Ebbut and the Nazis, 1927-37." Journal of Contemporary History 27#3: 407-424. Martel, Gordon, ed; the Times and Appeasement: The Journals of A L Kennedy, 1932-1939. The Office of the Times; the History of The Times: The 150th Anniversary and Beyond 1912-1948, passim. Riggs, Bruce Timothy. "Geoffrey Dawson, editor of "The Times", his contribution to the appeasement movement" online, bibliography pp 229-33. Wrench, John Evelyn. Geoffrey Dawson and our times.

Hutchinson. "Archival material relating to Geoffrey Dawson". UK National Archives. Catalogue of the papers of Geoffrey Dawson at the Bodleian Library, Oxford

Abu Dhabi Police Band

The Police Band of the Abu Dhabi Police General Headquarters known internationally as the Abu Dhabi Police Brass Band is the official musical unit of the Abu Dhabi Police in the United Arab Emirates. It serves as a military band of the UAE Armed Forces; the band serves with the deep emphasis in the importance of motivating police officers and the public, with some of its pieces encompassing marching, traditional and British genres. In 1963, Brigadier General Ishaq Suleiman, a sergeant in a Jordanian Army Band, while on tour in London met with the niece of an official aide to the Shakhbut bin Sultan Al Nahyan, who wished to create a police band the city, she invited Suleiman to the UAE to lead the band, giving him a ticket to Abu Dhabi so he could have the opportunity to consult with the Emir. He began recruiting members for the band from foreign countries such as Pakistan due to the common sentiment at the time by Emiratis about playing music, of which they considered shameful, he created a 60-member band, made up of 30 bagpipes and 30 brass instruments.

The band performed military marches, but time went by, Suleiman started teaching them famous symphonies by Beethoven, Mozart. Suleiman, who left the band in 1980 and retired in 1991, designed the current ranking insignia worn band, as well as the police department; the 173-member band, who has received its training and experience from the Abu Dhabi Police College since 2004, has performed at venues all over the world, including at the coronation of Sayyid Qaboos bin Said al Said in 1970, the Spasskaya Tower Military Music Festival and Tattoo in 2013, the Berlin Military Music Festival in 2014. Music of the United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi Police United Arab Emirates Armed Forces "Спасская башня - 2013". Оркестр полиции Абу-Даби The Abu Dhabi Police Band in 2015


Iroquois-class homeodomain protein IRX-3 known as Iroquois homeobox protein 3, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IRX3 gene. IRX3 is a member of the Iroquois homeobox gene family and plays a role in an early step of neural development. Members of this family appear to play multiple roles during pattern formation of vertebrate embryos. IRX3 contributes to pattern formation in the spinal cord where it translates a morphogen gradient into transcriptional events, is directly regulated by NKX2-2. Obesity-associated noncoding sequences within FTO interact with the promoter of IRX3 and FTO in human and zebrafish. Obesity-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms are related to the expression of IRX3 in the human brain. A direct connection between the expression of IRX3 and body mass and composition was shown through the decrease in body weight of 25-30% in IRX3-deficient mice; this suggests. Manipulation of IRX3 and IRX5 pathways has been shown to decrease obesity markers in human cell cultures.

Genetic variants of FTO and IRX3 genes are in high linkage disequilibrium and are associated with obesity risk. This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, in the public domain

Nanette Wenger

Nanette Kass Wenger in New York City to parents who had emigrated from Russia to the United States and settled in New York. She is an American clinical cardiologist and professor emerita at Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, GA. In 1951 she graduated summa cum laude from Hunter College in New York, she received her doctor of medicine degree from Harvard Medical School in 1954 as one of their first female graduates, began her post-graduate work at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York where she became the first woman to be chief resident in the cardiology department. After her residency, she moved to Emory University where she started as an instructor and was named full professor of medicine in 1971. Wenger has been a leader in the cardiology field as she has authored and co-authored more than 1,300 scientific and review articles and book chapters. Over the course of her career, Wenger became one of the first doctors to focus on heart disease in women, since this disease was thought to affect men.

In 1993 Wenger co-wrote a landmark review article that demonstrated that cardiovascular disease does affect women since, at the time, women were more than men to die from the disease. She helped write the 2007 Guidelines for Preventing Cardiovascular Disease in Women, she has devoted the rest of her career to understand how heart disease coronary artery disease, affects women as well as advocating for the need to disaggregate study results and report gender-specific analyses from clinical trials. Wenger was editor of the American Journal of Geriatric Cardiology for 15 years and was a founder of the Society of Geriatric Cardiology, now the Council on the Cardiac Care of Older Adults at the American College of Cardiology. She's married to a gastroenterologist. In 1979, she founded the Atlanta Women’s Network, which continues to promote and enhance the success of professional women; some of the awards/honors Dr. Wenger has acquired include: 1993: Received the American Medical Women's Association's Woman in Science President's Award.

1998: Received the American Heart Association's Physician of the Year. 1999: Received the distinguished Achievement Award from the Scientific Councils of the American Heart Association. 1999: Received the Women in Cardiology Mentoring Award from the American Heart Association. 2000: Received the Elizabeth Blackwell Medal 2000: Received the James D. Bruce Memorial Award from the American College of Physicians. 2002: Received the Distinguished Fellow Award of the Society of Geriatric Cardiology. 2004: Received the Gold Heart Award, the highest award of the American Heart Association. 2009: Received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the American College of Cardiology. 2013: Received the Inaugural Distinguished Mentor Award of the American College of Cardiology. 2015: The American College of Cardiology Inaugural Bernadine Healy Leadership in Women's Cardiovascular Disease Award

My Baby (Pretenders song)

"My Baby" is a song written by Chrissie Hynde, released on the Pretenders 1986 album Get Close. It was released as a single in the U. S. achieving modest success on the Billboard Hot 100, peaking at #64. It achieved far greater success on the Mainstream Rock chart, spending two weeks at #1, following up on "Don't Get Me Wrong," an earlier single from Get Close which reached #1 on the Mainstream Rock chart."My Baby" is a love song to Hynde's baby daughter. Vic Garbarini of Musician magazine suggested that the song is about the baby within Hynde herself, in the sense of "something being born" into a "new life. Allmusic critic Matthew Greenwald describes the acoustic guitar melody that begins the song as sounding like an Irish folk song, he describes the rest of the melody as having a "folk-rock groove," applying a two-chord pattern that he describes as "ingenious." He describes the lyrics as Hynde expressing her "near-overflowing affection in her literate, conversational style."SPIN Magazine described the song as "gorgeous," and described Hynde's lead vocal as possessing "the goofy tenderness of someone, too smart to walk around showing baby pictures, but, too giddy to resist."

Elizabeth Wurtzel wrote in New York Magazine that, like "Don't Get Me Wrong," "My Baby" "could have sounded gushy," but instead became a representation of "a life lived hard that at least approximated some precarious version of settledness." Ira Robbins and Delvin Neugebauer of Trouser Press described "My Baby" as a "sentimental love song", one of the few worthy songs on Get Close."My Baby" was included on the Pretenders' 1987 compilation album The Singles. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics