click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Flavin group

Flavin is the common name for a group of organic compounds based on pteridine, formed by the tricyclic heterocycle isoalloxazine. The biochemical source is the vitamin riboflavin; the flavin moiety is attached with an adenosine diphosphate to form flavin adenine dinucleotide, and, in other circumstances, is found as flavin mononucleotide, a phosphorylated form of riboflavin. It is in one or the other of these forms that flavin is present as a prosthetic group in flavoproteins; the flavin group is capable of undergoing oxidation-reduction reactions, can accept either one electron in a two-step process or two electrons at once. Reduction is made with the addition of hydrogen atoms to specific nitrogen atoms on the isoalloxazine ring system: In aqueous solution, flavins are yellow-coloured when oxidized, taking a red colour in the semi-reduced anionic state or blue in the neutral state, colourless when reduced; the oxidized and reduced forms are in fast equilibrium with the semiquinone form, shifted against the formation of the radical: Flox + FlredH2 ⇌ FlH•where Flox is the oxidized flavin, FlredH2 the reduced flavin and FlH• the semiquinone form.

In the form of FADH2, it is one of the cofactors that can transfer electrons to the electron transfer chain. Both free and protein-bound flavins are photoreducible, that is, able to be reduced by light, in a mechanism mediated by several organic compounds, such as some amino acids, carboxylic acids and amines; this property of flavins is exploited by various light-sensitive proteins. For example, the LOV domain, found in many species of plant and bacteria, undergoes a reversible, light-dependent structural change which involves the formation of a bond between a cysteine residue in its peptide sequence and a bound FMN. Flavin adenine dinucleotide is a group bound to many enzymes including ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, monoamine oxidase, D-amino acid oxidase, glucose oxidase, xanthine oxidase, acyl CoA dehydrogenase. FADH and FADH2 are reduced forms of FAD. FADH2 is produced as a prosthetic group in succinate dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in the citric acid cycle. In oxidative phosphorylation, two molecules of FADH2 yield 1.5 ATP each, or three ATP combined.

Flavin mononucleotide is a prosthetic group found in, among other proteins, NADH dehydrogenase, E.coli nitroreductase and old yellow enzyme. Pteridine Pterin Deazaflavin

Berembed Weir

Berembed Weir is a heritage-listed reservoir on the Murrumbidgee River at Matong, City of Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by Ernest de Burgh and built from 1909 to 1910 by the New South Wales Department of Public Works, it is known as Berembed Diversion Weir. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. Berembed Diversion Weir is the main weir built under the Barren Jack and Murrumbidgee Canals Construction Act 1906, it was to divert water from the Murrumbidgee River into the Main Canal via an offtake regulator. The Weir was designed and its construction supervised by the Rivers Water Supply & Drainage Branch of the New South Wales Department of Public Works in 1909-10. Berembed is an Aboriginal name for "a heap of rocks", it was where the low hills near the river stood well above the flood levels and a wide granite bar extended under the river bed and banks. The Principal Chief Engineer, L. A. B. Wade, decided that this was a good combination for the siting of a diversion weir to divert water down the main supply canal.

The Diversion Weir comprised a weir proper with 55 collapsible Chanoine wooden wickets, a lock chamber capable of taking barges or steamers up to 100 ft. long, a sluiceway. An off-take regulator was built at right angle to the weir at the head of the Main Canal. In 1976-7, the weir was refurbished and the wooden wickets were replaced with fixed concrete which extends across the southern two-thirds of the river's width. In 1977, the Berembed Picnic Grounds was opened by the Hon. Lin Gordon MLA, Minister for Water Resources; the staff cottage was destroyed by fire in 2012. The Weir is founded on a solid granite bar extending across the river, it is 82.3m between abutments, is divided into a sluiceway 12.19m wide, a lock chamber 12.19m wide, a concrete weir 50.29m wide. The sluiceway and lock chamber area each controlled at their upstream ends by single iron-framed sluice gates of the "Stoney" pattern manufactured by Ransomes & Rapier of Ipswich, England; the total lift of the gates is 10.67m. The original lock-gates at the downstream end of the lock chamber have been removed.

The off-take regulator has 10 gates. The gates were of tallow-wood and were each in 3 leaves; these gates and the lifting gear were constructed at the Government Fitzroy Dock in Sydney. The gates have since been replaced; the site contains other early structures such as staff cottage, timber pilings, wicket memorial, rare native flora and fauna. Berembed Division Weir is an integral and important part of the ambitious scheme launched under the Barren Jack and Murrimbidgee Canals Act 1906, it is an important structure in the control and diversion of water flow into the Main Canal to the Murrimbidgee Irrigation Area and surrounding districts. Berembed Weir was listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. Austral Archaeology. Berembed weir canal bridge no. 1: statement of heritage impact and exemption notification. Heritage Group: State Projects. Land & Water Conservation Section 170 Register; this Wikipedia article was based on Berembed Weir and Site, entry number 00957 in the New South Wales State Heritage Register published by the State of New South Wales and Office of Environment and Heritage 2018 under CC-BY 4.0 licence, accessed on 2 June 2018

5-HTTLPR

5-HTTLPR is a degenerate repeat polymorphic region in SLC6A4, the gene that codes for the serotonin transporter. Since the polymorphism was identified in the middle of the 1990s, it has been extensively investigated, e.g. in connection with neuropsychiatric disorders. A 2006 scientific article stated that "over 300 behavioral, psychiatric and other medical genetics papers" had analyzed the polymorphism. While discussed as an example of gene-environment interaction, this contention is contested; the polymorphism occurs in the promoter region of the gene. Researchers report it with two variations in humans: A short and a long, but it can be subdivided further; the short - and long - alleles have been thought to be related to stress and psychiatric disorders. In connection with the region are two single nucleotide polymorphisms: rs25531 and rs25532. One study published in 2000 found 14 allelic variants in a group of around 200 Japanese and Europeans; the difference between 16-A and 16-D is the rs25531 SNP.

It is the difference between 14-A and 14-D. Some studies have found that long allele results in higher serotonin transporter mRNA transcription in human cell lines; the higher level may be due to the A-allele of rs25531, such that subjects with the long-rs25531 allelic combination have higher levels while long-rs25531 carriers have levels more similar to short-allele carriers. Newer studies examining the effects of genotype may compare the LA/LA genotype against all other genotypes; the allele frequency of this polymorphism seems to vary across populations, with a higher frequency of the long allele in Europe and lower frequency in Asia. It is argued that the population variation in the allele frequency is more due to neutral evolutionary processes than natural selection; the 5-HTTLPR has been thought to predispose individuals to affective disorders such as anxiety and depression. There have been some studies that test whether this association is due to the effects of variation in 5-HTTLPR on the reactivity of the human amygdala.

In order to test this, researchers gathered a group of subjects and administered a harm avoidance subset of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire as an initial mood and personality assessment. Subjects had their DNA isolated and analyzed in order to be genotyped. Next, the amygdala was engaged by having the subject match fearful facial expressions during an fMRI scan; the results of the study showed that there was bilateral activity in the amygdala for every subject when processing the fearful images, as expected. However, the activity in the right amygdala was much higher for subjects with the s-allele, which shows that the 5-HTTLPR has an effect on amygdala activity, it is important to note that there did not seem to be the same effect on the left amygdala. In the 1990s it has been speculated that the polymorphism might be related to affective disorders, an initial study found such a link. However, another large European study found no such link. A decade two studies found that 5-HTT polymorphism influences depressive responses to life stress.

However, a 2017 meta-analysis found no such association. Earlier, two 2009 meta-analyses found no overall GxE effect, while a 2011 meta-analysis, demonstrated a positive result. In turn, the 2011 meta-analysis has been criticized as being overly inclusive, for deeming a study supportive of the GxE interaction, in the opposite direction, because of substantial evidence of publication bias and data mining in the literature; this criticism points out that if the original finding were real, not the result of publication bias, we would expect that those replication studies which are closest in design to the original are the most to replicate—instead we find the opposite. This suggests that authors may be data dredging for measures and analytic strategies which yield the results they want. With the results from one study the polymorphism was thought to be related to treatment response so that long-allele patients respond better to antidepressants. Another antidepressant treatment response study did, rather point to the rs25531 SNP, a large study by the group of investigators found a "lack of association between response to an SSRI and variation at the SLC6A4 locus".

One study could find a treatment response effect for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to drug-resistant depression with long/long homozygotes benefitting more than short-allele carriers. The researchers found a similar effect for the Val66Met polymorphism in the BDNF gene. There has been speculation that the 5-HTTLPR gene is associated with sleep quality. Primary insomnia is one of the most common sleep disorders and is defined as having trouble falling or staying asleep, enough to cause distress in one's life. Serotonin has been associated with the regulation of sleep for a long time now; the 5-HT transporter is the main regulator of serotonin and serotonergic energy and is therefore targeted by many antidepressants. There have been several family and twin studies that suggest that insomnia is genetically influenced. Many of these studies have found that there is a genetic and environment dual-factor that influences insomnia, it has been hypothesized that the short 5-HTTLPR genotype is related to poor sleep quality and, therefore primary insomnia.

It is important to note that research studies have found that this variation does

1973–74 Philadelphia 76ers season

The 1973–74 NBA season was the 76ers 25th season in the NBA and 11th season in Philadelphia. The team improved from a league history worst 9 wins to 25 wins, thanks to a fruitful 1973 NBA Draft which yielded overall #1 pick Doug Collins. Eventual 76er mainstays George McGinnis and Caldwell Jones were selected by the team, but both would opt for the ABA. Fred Carter was the teams leading scorer who averaged over 20 points a game, Doug Collins was a rookie on this squad, the Number one overall draft choice from Illinois State in the 1973 draft; this table only displays picks through the second round. Z – clinched division title y – clinched division title x – clinched playoff spot

1946 in Luxembourg

The following lists events that happened during 1946 in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. 17 April – Luxembourg signs a convention with France and Belgium to place the Luxembourg railway network in the hands of the Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Luxembourgeois, in which France and Belgium each take a 24.5% stake. 29 April – The Mayor of Luxembourg City, Gaston Diderich, dies in office and is succeeded by Émile Hamilius. 14 May – Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Luxembourgeois is founded. 13 June – Charles Marx dies in a car crash. He was replaced in the government by Dominique Urbany eight days later. 14 July – Former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill visits Luxembourg for two days. 29 August – In a cabinet reshuffle, the independent Guillaume Konsbruck is replaced by the CSV's Lambert Schaus. 28 November – Former Prime Minister Pierre Prüm is sentenced to four years in prison for collaboration with Nazi Germany. 2 January – Fernand Diederich, politician 6 January – Victor Gillen, member of the Council of State 17 January – Jean-Jacques Kasel, jurist 18 January – Guy Lenz, soldier 22 February – Marc Fischbach, politician 6 April – Mario Hirsch, journalist 7 April – Léon Krier, architect 4 December – Pierre Even, composer 29 April – Gaston Diderich, politician 13 June – Charles Marx, politician 24 October – Hubert Loutsch and former Prime Minister Thewes, Guy.

Les gouvernements du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg depuis 1848. Luxembourg City: Service Information et Presse. ISBN 978-2-87999-156-6. Retrieved 12 December 2009

List of comic-based television episodes directed by women

The following is a list of female directors who have directed, or are in the process of directing, a television episode based on comics. The episodes may be live action, anime, or a combination thereof. List of comic-based films directed by women List of television series based on Marvel Comics publications Marvel Television Marvel Animation Spider-Man in television X-Men in television List of television series based on DC Comics publications DC animated universe Arrowverse List of unproduced DC Comics projects List of television series and films based on Dark Horse Comics publications List of unproduced Dark Horse Comics projects List of television series and films based on Harvey Comics publications List of television series and films based on Archie Comics publications List of television series and films based on Image Comics publications List of unproduced Image Comics projects List of TV series based on French-language comics List of television series based on comic strips Movies and Television Episodes Based on Comics Directed by Women on IMDb