Flavor, flavour, or taste is the perceptual impression of food or other substances, is determined by the chemical senses of the gustatory and olfactory system. The "trigeminal senses", which detect chemical irritants in the mouth and throat, as well as temperature and texture, are important to the overall gestalt of flavor perception; the flavor of the food, as such, can be altered with natural or artificial flavorants which affect these senses. A "flavorant" is defined as a substance that gives another substance flavor, altering the characteristics of the solute, causing it to become sweet, tangy, etc. A flavor is a quality of something. Of the three chemical senses, smell is the main determinant of a food item's flavor. Five basic tastes – sweet, bitter and umami are universally recognized, although some cultures include pungency and oleogustus; the number of food smells is unbounded. This is exemplified in artificially flavored jellies, soft drinks and candies, while made of bases with a similar taste, have different flavors due to the use of different scents or fragrances.
The flavorings of commercially produced food products are created by flavorists. Although the terms flavoring and flavorant in common language denote the combined chemical sensations of taste and smell, the same terms are used in the fragrance and flavors industry to refer to edible chemicals and extracts that alter the flavor of food and food products through the sense of smell. Due to the high cost or unavailability of natural flavor extracts, most commercial flavorants are "nature-identical", which means that they are the chemical equivalent of natural flavors, but chemically synthesized rather than being extracted from source materials. Identification of components of natural foods, for example a raspberry, may be done using technology such as headspace techniques, so the flavorist can imitate the flavor by using a few of the same chemicals present. Flavorings are focused on altering the flavors of natural food product such as meats and vegetables, or creating flavor for food products that do not have the desired flavors such as candies and other snacks.
Most types of flavorings are focused on taste. Few commercial products exist to stimulate the trigeminal senses, since these are sharp and unpleasant flavors. Three principal types of flavorings are used in foods, under definitions agreed in the EU and Australia: Natural flavoring substances These flavoring substances are obtained from plant or animal raw materials, by physical, microbiological, or enzymatic processes, they can be either used in their natural state or processed for human consumption, but cannot contain any nature-identical or artificial flavoring substances. Nature-identical flavoring substances These are obtained by synthesis or isolated through chemical processes, which are chemically and organoleptically identical to flavoring substances present in products intended for human consumption, they cannot contain any artificial flavoring substances. Artificial flavoring substances These are not identified in a natural product intended for human consumption, whether or not the product is processed.
These are produced by fractional distillation and additional chemical manipulation of sourced chemicals, crude oil, or coal tar. Although they are chemically different, in sensory characteristics they are the same as natural ones. Most artificial flavors are specific and complex mixtures of singular occurring flavor compounds combined together to either imitate or enhance a natural flavor; these mixtures are formulated by flavorists to give a food product a unique flavor and to maintain flavor consistency between different product batches or after recipe changes. The list of known flavoring agents includes thousands of molecular compounds, the flavor chemist can mix these together to produce many of the common flavors. Many flavorants consist of esters, which are described as being "sweet" or "fruity"; the compounds used to produce artificial flavors are identical to those that occur naturally. It has been suggested that artificial flavors may be safer to consume than natural flavors due to the standards of purity and mixture consistency that are enforced either by the company or by law.
Natural flavors, in contrast, may contain impurities from their sources, while artificial flavors are more pure and are required to undergo more testing before being sold for consumption. Flavors from food products are the result of a combination of natural flavors, which set up the basic smell profile of a food product, while artificial flavors modify the smell to accent it. Unlike smelling, which occurs upon inhalation, the sensing of flavors in the mouth occurs in the exhalation phase of breathing and is perceived differently by an individual. In other words, the smell of food is different depending on whether one is smelling it before or after it has entered one's mouth. While salt and sugar can technically be considered flavorants that enhance salty and sweet tastes only compounds that enhance umami, as well as other secondary flavors, are considered and referred to as taste flavorants. Artificial sweeteners are technically flavorants. Umami or "savory" flavorants, more called taste or flavor enhancers, are based on amino acids and nucleotides.
Archipelago Learning was an American subscription-based, software-as-a-service provider of education studies used by over 14 million students in nearly 38,700 schools throughout the United States and the United Kingdom. Their comprehensive digital supplemental product suite uses technology to transform education, their goal is to make rigorous learning fun, engaging and affordable. The company's core business, Study Island, provides standards-based instruction, practice and other tools for students in Kindergarten through 12th grade. During the 2010-2011 school year, Study Island products were utilized by 11 million students in nearly 23,700 schools in 50 states and 3 Canadian provinces; these students answered over 3.6 billion practice questions. In April 2009, Archipelago Learning introduced Northstar Learning, which provides instruction, practice and test preparation for college and career subject areas through a web-based platform. In June 2010, Archipelago Learning acquired EducationCity, which provides an online K-6 educational program that includes instructional content and assessments in language arts and science.
At the end of 2010, EducationCity was being used by 9,200 schools in the U. K. and 6,000 in the U. S. In August 2010, Archipelago Learning entered an agreement with Blake Publishing and began distributing Reading Eggs in the U. S. and Canada. Reading Eggs is a comprehensive, online supplemental literacy program for students Pre-K to grade 2. In June 2011, Archipelago Learning purchased Alloy Multimedia. ESL ReadingSmart, is an online, standards-based program for English language learners targeted toward grades 4-12; the product offers individualized, content-based instruction to develop English language proficiency with emphasis on literacy and academic language development. Founded in 2000, the company is headquartered in Dallas, Texas and is a publicly held company with the largest shareholder being Providence Equity Partners, a media focused private equity firm; the company went public in November 2009 under the ticker. On 17 May 2012, Archipelago Learning was acquired by PLATO Learning in an all-cash deal valued at $291 million.
As a result, the stock was delisted. The company sells a suite of supplemental educational software products. Study Island is the company's most well-known website. Examples of its uses and functions in the educational setting are test prep and benchmarking. Study Island is broken into 2 subscriptions. Study Island for Home, for the home market, Study Island for Schools, for the educational market. Study Island was launched in the year 2000. EducationCity is a developer and publisher of online educational learning solutions with offices in Chicago, USA and Rutland, UK. Archipelago acquired EducationCity in June 2010. Reading Eggs is a comprehensive, online supplemental literacy program for students Pre-K to grade 2; the Reading Eggs program combines progressive learning activities, colorful animations, a built-in rewards program to motivate and engage children. There are products based with Reading Eggs that are Reading Eggspress and Mathseeds. ESL ReadingSmart, is an online, standards-based program for English language learners targeted toward grades 4-12.
The product offers individualized, content-based instruction to develop English language proficiency with emphasis on literacy and academic language development. Study Island was founded in May 2000 by Cam Chalmers and Dave Muzzo providing tools related to the Ohio Proficiency Test Program. By 2002, Study Island had expanded to four states, North Carolina, New York, Michigan and serviced 180 schools. Continuing its rapid growth plan, Study Island, which moved its offices to Dallas, Texas added six states in 2003 and expanded its coverage to 750 schools. In January 2007, Providence Equity Partners and MHT Partners together with co-founders Cameron Chalmers and David Muzzo completed a recapitalization of Study Island in which Archipelago Learning was created to acquire 100% of the outstanding shares of Study Island. In June 2008, the company acquired TeacherWeb and in August 2009 the company acquired a minority interest in Edline, a private educational technology company. In April 2009, the company launched Northstar Learning, marking its first entry into the postsecondary education market.
In October 2009, it launched in Canada. In November 2009, Archipelago Learning launched a $75 million initial public offering on the NASDAQ under the symbol "ARCL", it sold TeacherWeb in November 2009. In June 2010, it bought EducationCity expanding the company's school count and portfolio of products in the U. S. and providing an entry point into the U. K; that summer the company entered into a distribution agreement with Blake Publishing, in August 2010 began selling Reading Eggs in the U. S. and Canada. In June 2011, they acquired Alloy Multimedia, the publisher of ESL ReadingSmart, an English language learning program. On May 17, 2012, Archipelago Learning was purchased by PLATO Learning at the price of US$11.10 per share. Archipelago Learning Study Island Northstar Learning
Events from the year 1790 in France. Monarch: Louis XVI 4 February - Louis XVI declares to the National Assembly that he will maintain the constitutional laws. 4 March - France is divided into 83 départements, which cut across the former provinces, in an attempt to dislodge regional loyalties based on noble ownership of land. July - Louis XVI accepts a constitutional monarchy. 12 July - The Civil Constitution of the Clergy law is passed. 14 July - The Fête de la Fédération is held. 31 August - Nancy affair. 4 September - Résignation of Jacques Necker. 24 October - Tricolour adopted as the flag of France by the Constituent Assembly. 24 November - The Constituent Assembly passes a law requiring all Roman Catholic priests to swear an oath of acceptance of the new Constitution. 6 March - Jacques Arago 1 April - Auguste Couder 9 June - Abel-François Villemain 29 July - Nicolas Martin du Nord 7 August - Jean-Claude Colin 21 October - Alphonse de Lamartine 10 November - Jean René Constant Quoy 27 November - Alexandre Ferdinand Parseval-Deschenes 6 December - Jean-Baptiste Philibert Vaillant 20 December - Jean Joseph Vaudechamp 6 May - Jacques Antoine Hippolyte, Comte de Guibert 24 May - François-Henri Clicquot 3 July - Jean-Baptiste L. Romé de l'Isle 17 October - André Désilles